Smiley teacher handbook


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Smiley teacher handbook

  1. 1. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.’ The ICT Potential Social Mindedness YourTown Brief Introduction to The Dimensions Game logic and Instructions SMILEY FrameworkInstructions for theRevolutionThe main focus of this section is to address thepotential of the game-based learning process proposedby the SMILEY project The BackgroundToday’s trainers and trainees are from totally separate worlds. The biggestunderlying dynamic in training and learning today is the rapid and unexpected Sir Ken Robinsonconfrontation of a corps of trainers and teachers raised in a pre-digital Changing Educationgeneration and educated in the styles of the Paradigmspast, with a body of learners raised in thedigital world of Ipod, MTV, Facebook, Every country on earth atTwitter, MySpace, streaming movies and the moment is reformingsocial videogames. Considering this, theevolution of the educational systems passes public education. Therethrough the re-inventing of tools for are two reasons for it…learning even thanks to the intensive use of Watch the Full VideoICT in education. This process is possibleonly if it is based upon a definition of“engaged learning” in the perspective of both trainers and trainees.Engaged learning is grounded in recent notions of active learning, wherelearners take responsibility for their own learning. Learners actively developlearning strategies and formulate new ideas and understanding in conversationsand work with others. Active engagement is defined as engaging in the learningprocess, constructing knowledge from experience, meaning interpretation and If you are ihaving interactions with peers and teachers. Congruent to constructivist not prepared to be wrong, you’llnotions of learning, knowledge evolves as a meaning construction and never come up with anythinginterpretation process where people negotiate with one another relating to original Ken Robinsontheir multiple perceptions of reality.
  2. 2. 21 Engaged Learning and Situated Cognition are two of the main concepts that constitute the background of SMILEY. What do these terms mean? Engaged or meaningful learning can be traced back learning processes and outcomes;(b) interactivity; to the related concept of situated cognition. (c) ability to address cognitive as well as affective Situated cognition places learning within a learning issues; and, perhaps most importantly, (d) participatory framework and not just in an motivation for learning. The combined weight of the individual mind. factors mentioned above has resulted in widespread public interest in games as learning tools. Learning often happens in a social setting, community and context. From this perspective, The on going research activity involving both game human learning is best understood as a process of designing, theoretical modelling and learning dialogue, appropriation and socialisation. assessment represents the clue that today’s “Net Generation,” or “digital natives,” have become Another implication of situated cognition is that if disengaged with traditional models of education. we view knowledge and thinking as inherently situated in social and physical contexts, much of They require multiple streams of information, what is learned is implicit. By immersing students in prefer inductive reasoning, want frequent and quick activities and authentic problem tasks characterised interactions with content, and have exceptional by rich conceptual meanings and encouraging them visual literacy skills — characteristics that are all to explore and discover, teachers help students matched well with Digital Game Based Learning. acquire the skills and dispositions necessary to participate in disciplinary discourse, which could be In YourTown (the SMILEY game) the player will be called knowledge about a focus: in our case the engaged through the game dynamics in a learning concept of social mindedness. process that involves his/her capability to interpret and decide about a concrete problem-solving Educators and trainers began to take notice of the situation. power and potential of computer games for education and training back in the 1970s and 1980s. It is important to underline that all the game Computer games were hypothesized to be situations are designed starting form the concept of potentially useful for educational purposes and social mindedness. were also hypothesized to provide multiple benefits: (a) complex and diverse approaches to Let’s start taking into consideration the concept of social mindedness in order to better understand the general framework of SMILEY. 2
  3. 3. 21 Social Mindedness as an “umbrella concept” An individual attitude concerned with social conditions and benefits of the others, according with the welfare of the wide society The growing relevance of bullying episodes in sense of community: an experience that primarily schools all over the European context is the takes place thanks to educational agencies as school framework of reference of SMILEY. The whole and family during the process of socialization. project is based upon the concept of social mindedness. This section of the training course In detail, according to the operative needs of briefly presents the constitutive elements of social SMILEY project, the concept of social mindedness mindedness as operative concept explaining how it “crosses” the main structural aspects of daily social interacts with general structure of the project. reality: socialization, family, educational institutions, organizations and groups, membership A definition of Social Mindedness can be expressed and social stratification. in this way: “social mindedness is an individual attitude concerned with social conditions and In this sense, social mindedness is an example of benefits of the others, according to the welfare of pro-social behavior that creates harmonious the whole society”. relations between members of the group. Starting from a sociological perspective, social mindedness The definition of social mindedness denotes an is composed by five operative dimensions that “umbrella concept” that links social cohesion and “translate” the integration process: social inclusion: it is impossible to comprehend individual reality without considering the communal a) Holistic membership to a definite context; dimension of the social life. b) Recognition of the interdependence between In this way the social mindedness experience enable social actors; people to develop the necessary “bag” of c) Social capital dynamics; knowledge, skills, values and attitudes useful for securing a sustainable and peaceful world in which d) the dynamics of cooperation to achieve common everyone has the right to fulfill his/her potential. goals; In a sociological perspective, the connection e) Family Habits. between values and social competences lead individuals to realize integration, cohesion and Let’s start explaining these components!
  4. 4. 21 Membership is linked to social relashionship It is not only subjective but a context matter Social relationships are very important in of industrial society raised fears that we the formation of the subject as well as to were losing our sense of community: that help him to live the membership to every the faceless, anonymous sprawl of the social group in a right balance between world’s town was depriving us of the independence and belonging. basic need to feel as though we are part of something bigger than ourselves. The importance of belonging to particular groups changes over time. As It is possible to distinguish four different we join and leave different social dimensions or “states” in the networks and groups, we reposition involvement of individuals in the context ourselves in relation to others, of human relations: territorial location, developing new connections and ecological participation, social discarding others in a continuous process belonging, and cultural conformity. of social interaction and integration. In fact, to develop a sense of belonging is an ongoing process that involves Membership includes Five attributes: membership in a wide variety of • boundaries different groups, or exclusion from, during the course of our lives. The • emotional safety relative importance that we place on our membership within particular groups • personal investment (family, peer, religious group, etc.) says a lot about our personal and social • a common symbol system identity. • a sense of belonging and While the need to belong is a basic identification aspect of being human, the ways in which we satisfy this need have changed significantly over time. The development In deep… The Parsonsian Framework Following the Talcott Parsons’s scheme of reference, the structure of social belonging can be described by starting from the relations among the four chief components that define it as such: attachment, loyalty, solidarity, and the sense of affinity or we-feeling. To better understand the meaning of the holistic membership to a particular group we have, on the one hand, to enumerate the attribute of membership, and to underline the principal contexts of affiliation, on the other hand, to stress on the sense of belonging and identification of every member to the context.
  5. 5. 43 Boundaries are marked by things such as language, dress, and ritual, indicating who belongs and who does not. When we meet others, we want to know immediately whether the other is friend or not, and whether he/she is capable enacting their respective friendliness or enmity. If we teach today as The ways in which we sort out belonging also differs according to culture, we could look, in fact, to we taught yesterday, some differences between the East and the West. we rob our children Finally, group members of tomorrow legitimate needs for boundaries to protect their intimate social connections have often John Dewey been overlooked. Emotional safety concerns the emotional and physical wellbeing of the person, so that he/she can realize his/her full potential in the group. The emotional environment is very important for the The sense of belonging and members of the group, because of their feelings of identification of every member to the belonging and safety. If they don’t feel safe, they group and context will not be able to trust anybody, or themselves. Moreover, such negative thoughts result in people To be a group it is fundamental to feel feeling that they do not belong. ourselves as a team, i.e. we-feeling. The members of the group have to see it as a The personal incentives, sense of self and perceived new subject: they are “part” of the group options are critical determinants of human in a holistic way. At the same time, the behaviour. Personal incentives refer to the reasons necessity of everyone to satisfy his/her identified for involvement in an activity, and own needs into the group must be include such incentives as recognition, mastery, interrelated to the satisfaction of the competition and affiliation. Sense of self is needs of the group. In this way, being a comprised of ones own perceived competence to member of a group means: engage in an activity, self-reliance, goal directedness and social identity. - to be similar to the other member of the same group; A common symbol system Understanding common symbol systems is a prerequisite to understand a - to be different from the other community. “The symbol is to the social world what the cell is to the biotic world and the atom to the physical world. The symbol is the beginning of the social world as we know it”. A sense of belonging and identification It concerns expectation or faith on belonging, and acceptance by the community. To know one’s own needs, and to satisfy them are the principal reasons why people became part of a group. To belong and to identify ourselves satisfy important individual needs linked to the personal and social identity, the self-esteem and safety, and to the psychological need to be useful to the others. The sense of membership is an essential condition for the existence of any group.
  6. 6. From socialisation to intercultural competenceBehaviour is the most evident There are four basic sociologicalmanifestation of human acts, but not interpretations of social interactions:every behaviour is meaningful. Onlyhuman behaviour has a meaning, or 1 - behavioural‘makes sense’, is described in sociology 2 – of rational choice (transactional)as an activity. Its sense can beinterpreted in various ways, consciously 3 – symbolic interactionismor not. It is culture that provides certainfixed models and patterns of behaviour 4 – dramaturgical.and their interpretation. For example,language is one of the most complexsystems of meanings developed in agiven community and its general sense is 1 - Interaction is understood as abased on its communicative function. mutual orientation of individuals’Both our language and the majority of behaviour manifested as a sequenceour behaviour is directed to other of stimuli and reactions; the behaviourpeople; it is a transmission of some of one actor becomes a set of stimuli,message to the others. In this way an to which the other actor reacts.activity becomes a social activity. 2 - Interaction is perceived as a mutualGenerally speaking, there are four types exchange of goods or values betweenof social actions: creative, imitative, partners. This exchange is rational andhabitual and destructive. However, we with a social action only when our 3 - Interaction is interpreted as anperformance is directed at other actors’ exchange of ideas, symbols andpotential response. A single and meanings; in this type of interactiontemporary social action where a mutual particular emphasis is put on ansocial reaction between at least two individual’s view of a situation or ofpeople takes place is a social contact. other actors involved, their personalUsually most of such contacts are of interpretation of the specific reality.transient, short-lived nature. But in asituation when a social contact changes 4 - In the light of this interpretationinto a longer and dynamic sequence of the social world, especially in itssocial action we can talk about a social everyday dimension, is a theatre, ainteraction. In such a context an drama. In all their doings people areincreasingly apparent, objective and driven by their desire to make a goodmutual relation between two individuals impression on others. This is why they(a discussion, a quarrel, haggling, tend to manage their impression inestablishing a relationship, etc.) occurs. order to transmit to the others only those messages and signals that areIt is in a course of a social interaction positive.that a social distance appearsdemonstrated by a spatial and timedistance between two interactingsubjects, the variety of whose isdetermined by culture. So, it is a form ofa ‘civil distance’: from an intimate, asocial to a public one.
  7. 7. Definitional   Phisical   Meaning Orientation   Orientation   Mutual   Sequence   Accidental   Rhythmical   Normatively   Scheme  of   Feature               movement towards   to  reaction   occasional   of   episodes  of   episodes  of   defined   interactions     others of  others reactions mutual   interactions interactions course  of   among     reactions events positions   Sociological   (roles) Term Behaviour   + Activity   + + Social  activity + + + Social  action + + + + Social   contact + + + + + interaction + + + + + + Repetable   interaction + + + + + + + Regular   interaction + + + + + + + + Regulated   interaction + + + + + + + + + Social   relationship + + + + + + + + + +Social circles and social groups constitutethe social environment: - Social circle is a part of social There are two types of social groups: primary and reality that has been distinguished secondary ones. because a certain number of actors • Primary group is typically small and the sharing the same social status; interactions among its members are informal, spontaneous, direct (face to face) - Social group indicates a collection and personal (e.g. a group of friends). of individuals interconnected by • Secondary group is numerous and common awareness of participation, a common sense of identity and interactions among people are of formal, shared patterns of social anonymous character and focus on a specific relationships. In other words, on the task (e.g. a workplace). one hand the social groups are There are groups that combine functions of the two created by social relationships and types as the school is. on the other hand- social groups create the environment in which Thanks to socialization process an individual social relationships are generated. “define” his/her own social personality that is an integrated set of his/her past and present social roles. Therefore it is only a part of the individual’s personality, which consists of other types of personalities as well – mental and cultural.
  8. 8. Social personality shapes the elementary models and patterns of anIn deep… individual behaviour, their interactionsElias chains of with the others and it forms their socialinterdependence capital. Nevertheless, social capital does not determine all the real social behaviours of a person, their“Each individual, even themost powerful, even a relationships with others. Specifictribal chief, an absolute attitudes and social behaviours, i.e.monarch, or a dictator, is a social mindedness of an individual arepart of a chain ofinterdependence, the also influenced by mental factors (e.g.representative of a function their character) and, to a larger extent,wich is formed and by cultural factors. It is the diversity ofmaintained only in relationto other function which can cultural context, or adopted values,only be understood in terms symbols and beliefs/religions, thatof specific structures andthe specific and specific decides about the variety of both socialtensions in this total groups and societies. Therefore we cancontext” say that, basically, societies are similarAs Norbert Elias statues all on the level of social needs (such as athe social actors are born family, work, bringing up children,into a particular chains ofinterdependence that etc.), but not on the level of culturaltranslates the interlinkages solutions to satisfy these needs.without which he/she could Different cultural values underline thenever become fully human. recognition of diversity, which may butSocial actors are born into does not have to lead to socialchains of functionlinterdependencies in which antagonisms or hostility towards thetheir habits and self- others.perceptions are shaped bythe others around them.Chains of interedependenceare simultaneously formsand chains of power.
  9. 9. Family Habits are very important determinants ofhuman natureIn the social perspective a family is a The family dynamics greatly influencesgroup based on a bond resulting from the process of socializing youngcommon residence, shared property, generation. This process can even leadlove, mutual loyalty and helpfulness, to negative social effects in the formconcern about children and their of a lack of integrational abilities. Theupbringing, emotional openness, i.e. the second factor that has a strong impactfactors that, when summed up, on the socialisation of the youth in theconstitute a strong sense of identity of family depends on its broader socio-‘us’. cultural context, on different social organisation which determines theA family is a social group the structure of cultural transmission dynamicswhich is characterised by a specific between generations.system of positions and roles that areindependent from those who play them There are three types of cultures:and which are manifested as a network • post-figurative;of internal social relationships, such asmarriage, fatherhood, kinship, etc. • configurative;From the cultural perspective, a family is • pre-figurative.a specific collection of values, norms,symbols and beliefs that reflect the The post-figurative culture is typicalgeneral ‘family culture’ of a given of traditional culture; the youngsociety. In a synthetic approach we can generation is shaped withoutsay that a family in a biological disturbance – their parents serve them(procreation) and social (socialisation) as a model. There are no alternativesense creates and shapes the new models and quite naturally there is nomembers of society. In this perspective it discrepancy between social andis a group that is exclusive and cultural patterns of both generations.irreplaceable. The configurative culture, whereOnly the family provides new-born generations coexists as equal partners,human beings with an adequate social is increasingly common in the modernenvironment as well as with the culture. The young generation doesenvironment necessary for their mental, not follow their parents’ behaviouralsocial and cultural constitution to shape. patterns, but imitates their peers (e.g.These are the rudimental family such a situation takes place infunctions when we take into immigrant families as a result of theconsideration the fact that a human need for assimilation).comes to this world in an incomplete,weak form and their existence depends The pre-figurative culture isentirely on a social group to which they characterised by a social configurationhave been born. where the older generation has to re- socialise, i.e. learn new things fromThe dynamics of the social life of a the younger ones as a consequence offamily has typically a volatile but rapid social, cultural or technologicalrepeatable rhythm, which on the one changes. Such phenomena are morehand depends on the roles played by and more typical of the westernfamily members and on the other – on society of today. Paradoxically,the forms of social children become their parents’ tutorsperception/experiencing of time.
  10. 10. The previuos sequence shows clearly that theprincipal difference in the cultures of inter-generational transfer results in the fact that theprocess of socialisation slips out of control of the Education is not theolder generation, although they never lose theirinfluence on the educational process entirely, filling of a pail, butespecially when their children are young. the lighting of a fireThe positive or negative reference groups for theyoung generation are the out-groups rather than Willian Butler Yeatstheir own family. At a certain stage of thesocialisation process their own family may even turnout to be a rejected member group. In such asituation on the level of social attitudes andbehaviour a generation gap may appear, which caneventually upset the general social balance.The third factor that determines the ‘family • In the masculine society (of a highculture’ is the type of general cultural reference of masculinity rate) the upsetthe society in which the family lives. In the light of balance of the maternal role inrecent extensive research on cultures it has been favour of the paternal one is afound out that there are the following five basic norm; fathers are responsible fordimensions (the ‘Big Five’) of cultural diversity the living standards while motherswhich are highly influential on the level of social take care of the sphere ofattitudes and behaviour: emotions.1) power distance In a feminine society both men2) collectivism and individualism, and women, boys and girls are treated equally; all of them have3) masculinity and femininity (gender), to meet identical generational4) uncertainly avoidance standards.5) time orientation • In the society of weak uncertainty avoidance children are vaguely• In an environment with a low power distance informed of what is forbidden or children are treated equally to parents; partner evil; there is no difference in relationships prevail; parental care aims at addressing family members and children’s leaving home as soon as possible. In strangers; what is strange is meant the environment where the power distance is to be interesting; high parents expect unconditioned obedience from their offspring; the majority of social In the society where uncertainty relationships is determined by strong avoidance is strong children are dependence of the young from the adults. very well aware of what is forbidden and evil; family• In the collectivistic environment decisions are members are addressed differently made within the family; children that express than strangers, strange means their own opinions are regarded as difficult and dangerous; bad tempered; they are taught to think in the terms of ‘us’; • In short time orientation societies• In individualistic families new types of marriage is a moral obligation; behaviour are desired and valued; children living with parents-in-law means without their own opinions are considered weak; conflict; children should be taught they are taught to think in the terms of ‘me’; tolerance and respect for others; the obligations towards the family is regarded as In the long time orientation an act of free will and thus respected. societies marriage is a pragmatic relationship; elder children have power over the younger ones.
  11. 11. Cooperation is workingtogether sharing belivesand feelingsCooperation is the process of working oracting together. This definition refers toall that behaviors which involves workingtogether, side by side, regarding at This attitude promotes peer friendshipindividual or collective subjects. In this and conflict resolution.sense its contrary is the concept ofcompetition. Cooperation, as social doings, The cooperative feeling is notcomprehend a huge variety of activity: to impersonal: it is a network of personal relations that are important forshare resources, to set common goals, to everyone promoting the sense ofrecognize social needs, to respect public community and the construction ofgoods. collective values. The motivation to cooperate to overcome conflictsCooperation in human societies is mainly depends on the quality of relationship.based on social norms so it is necessary to According to this point, individualsexplain social norms to explain human should make the effort to coordinate different points of view.cooperation. Social norms are standards ofbehavior that are based on widely shared We can see this process starting frombeliefs. The group in which social norms the perspective of the social skillsprevail can be a family, a peer group, an theory.organization or even a whole society.The group members might conform to the Following the theory of social skills thenorms voluntarily (if their individual goals individuals have to motivate the others to cooperate. These skills are useful toare in line with the normatively required engage other people in collectivebehaviour) or they might be “forced” to action promoting peaceful social order.follow the norms. If the individual goals “Cooperation-skilled” individualsdiffer from the normatively required motivate the others and, at the samebehavior the norm violations are socially time, they foster motivations forpunished. The demand for a social norm themselves. Where do they find these social skills?arises when individual actions causepositive or negative influence for other 1. Coordination of efforts andpeople. tasks and orientation to achievement;There are (at least) two perspectives to 2. Feeling of agreement with theunderstand social cooperation: others and dialogue; 3. Confidence in different ideas • In the state of nature man is a and shared believes; “predator” and his behavior 4. Common goals and respect for depends on a struggle competition the other. for surviving; social order is the product social institutions that permit large-scale cooperation among unrelated self-interested individuals. In this perspective the role of the internalization of social values is fundamental. • Cooperation starts from feelings of mutual affection and mutual trust. These feelings are oriented to sympathy and consciousness towards others.
  12. 12. Social Capital is not “capital” in economicsense. It refers to the interactive and positivepotential of networksSocial capital refers to trust The starting point of this interactivenetworks that individuals activate for dynamic is individual-instrumentalsocial support, as financial capital can but the arrival point is collective-be drawn upon to be used for ideal referred to the whole societyinvestment. In fact, like financial and its basic, social capital can beexpanded – invested and reinvested. In this view, cooperation becomes aSocial Capital is composed by all the synthesis of individual and collective,benefits accessed by individuals both professional and moral values.thanks to their affiliation in groups It is clear that the two perspectivesand social relationships. In this sense, are focused on two different aspectsthe “volume” of social capital owned of social capital essence: on the oneby an individual is determined by the hand, the instrumental importance ofquantity and the quality of other cooperation, on the other hand, theforms of capital (economic, cultural, cultural and holistic significance of it.symbolic etc.) possessed. Thesociological literature concerning According to the framework of SMILEYsocial capital highlight a wide range of project social capital can beideas and perspectives about it: not considered as a resource able toall the approaches have a positive stimulate solidarity even into aview of the concept. context characterized by differences. In this sense positive social capital isTaking into consideration the SMILEYframework, social capital isconsidered as a positive component ofindividual interactive dynamics inorder to enhance integration andsocial cohesion.Following this line, thephenomenology of social capital showsthree basic elements: 1. The individual will; 2. Group participation; 3. Performance of the institutional structure. In deep… The J.Coleman view Following Coleman theory it is possible to distinguish three forms of social Capital: a) obligations, expectations, trustworthiness of structures; b) information channels; c) norms and effective sanctions. The first of these forms a) refers to situations in which an individual does something for someone else with the expectation that that person will reciprocate at some time in the future. The second form of social capital b) refers to the idea that an individual can trust another to provide accurate information which is then used to inform action. The third type of social capital c) refers to effective norms and sanctions which contribute to a generalized environment of trust. Each of these forms of Social Capital facilitate the resolution of collective action problems
  13. 13. YOUR TOWN as a Social MindednessTool in EducationIn SMILEY the game, YOURTOWN, the student/player is catapulted in alearning ambient that involves his/her capability to interpret and decidein a virtual city daily life. It is important to underline that all the gamesituations are designed starting from the social mindedness dimensionspersented above.In “Your Town” there are four missions. Foreach mission the incidents are defined inrelation with the theoretical segmentation ofthe concept of social mindedness definedabove.These factors are the following:a) sense of holistic membership to a definitecontext ;b) recognition of the inter-dependencebetween social actorsc) interactive dynamics of the structure ofrelational networks (social capital)d) dynamics of cooperation in order to achievecommon goalse) traditions and family habitsThe final goal of the game is to reach one ofthe main targets of SMILEY project: to fostersocial awareness and conflict resolutionapproach in the pupils involved into the gameexperience. In a certain sense, the focus of our The whole purpose ofattention is the correct balance between an education is to turn mirrors into windowsamazing game experience and a research-basedapproach to engaged learning. Sydney J. Harris
  14. 14. From a concrete point of view “YourTown” is divided in two steps:a) a phase in which the objective of thegame is to find hidden incidentshappening across the map of “YourTown”b) deal with them during a specific gamesession in which the player could reflecton the nature of his/her choice. In facts,during the “council meeting phase” ofthe game the player expresses hisevaluation about the relevance of the The  MENU  of  the  Player  identified incident providing data,recorded by the learning platform,useful for the game outputs overall • Find  hidden  incidents  happening  across  interpretation. the  map  of  “Your  Town     • Decide  if  the  selected  incident  will  be  The map of the city is divided in four included  in  the  folder  for  the  second  parts (four ‘missions’) corresponding to phase  four defined areas. Moreover, these • Do  it  as  soon  as  possible  areas are inspired by the building styleof the five Countries involved into the • Extra  bonus  for  quick  search  SMILEY project. • Extra  bonus  for  good  choices    
  15. 15. There are twenty-four “relevant” incidentshidden in the town, 6 in each area; theplayer must click to find the incidents ineach of the four areas of YourTown. Thepoint of the game was that players must,as quickly as possible, find the correctincidents to add to their file. There are 3types of incidents: • Negative • Positive • SubjectiveIn negative incidents the “polarity” of thesocial mindedness dimension is associatedto negative behaviours. On the contrary,the positive polarity of the socialmindedness dimension translates a goodpractice related to the involved dimension.The subjective incidents are special. Infact, in these situations the evaluationmade by the player is not based upon an‘objective’ distinction (as in negative orpositive incidents is). In order to “find out”these incidents the player must decidetheir meaning with a subjective decision.The players get extra points for speed. Theplayer gets extra points for adding the‘correct’ incidents to the file (making‘good’ choices). In order to maintain theskilfulness of a web-based game the playerhas to select only the negative incidents tobe added to the folder files and discussedin the second phase of the game (councilmeeting).
  16. 16. The “polarities” of the incidents aredifferentiated in every mission. Forexample, in mission one the player willdeal with (as showed by the followingtable) three “negative” dimensions(membership, family habits,cooperation) and two “positive”dimensions (interdependence andinteractive dynamics). In mission 2 wehave, on the contrary, three positiveincidents (related to membership,family habits and cooperation) and twonegatives incidents (interdependenceand interactive dynamics).The sixth incident of any mission isbased upon a “subjective”interpretation of the incident made bythe player. The subjective incidents areformulated taking into considerationthe social mindedness dimensions. So inthe first mission (Johnny Smithson andLucy) the “contested” incident isrelated to membership dimension, inthe second mission (mrs Kowalska) the“contested” incident is related tocooperation dimension. Consideringthat there are 4 missions and 5 socialmindedness dimensions the dimensions“interactive dynamics” and“interdependence” will be merged in asingle “contested” event.