Beyond The Present Methods And Approaches To ELT/Education: The Crucial Need For A Radical Reform
Book No. 1 – 420 pages of 36 lines each
Beyond the Present Methods and Approaches to ELT/Education:
The Crucial Need for a Radical Reform
By Dr Seyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini, PhD (ELT)
[This book has been published by Jungle Publications, Tehran, in 2012]
This guidebook seeks to throw into relief the relationship between theory, research, innovation,
and application with reference to the conventional innovative methods/approaches. Importantly,
it brings into sharp focus the author's 'inimitable' revolutionary pedagogical innovation as a
pragmatic solution to the present socio-educational problems. The nature and the characteristics
of this world-class innovative approach not only contribute to language learning (strategies) and
excellence in the learning. They likewise promote true and flexible active learning, interactive
competence, long-term retention, and especially the acquisition of some crucial habits of mind
such as objectivity, and critical and creative thinking. Another outstanding feature of this
fundamentally different approach to ELT refers to the fact that it facilitates tomorrow citizenry to
instil humanitarian interpersonal skills and democratic values, principles, and norms which are
essential requirements for successful life-long learning, working, interdependence, and survival
in today world context. Considering its magic transforming power for converting today
students/objects to Agents of change or the Subjects who have the capacity to influence the
world, Dr Hosseini's innovation is in essence a 'catalyst for change'. It is an incommensurable
edu-political approach to the empowerment and the emancipation of the oppressed, and in fact,
an apt strategic instructional 'weapon' for the elimination of dictatorship/apartheid. CTBL, Dr
Hosseini's realistic approach to liberal education is an ensured pathway to human security,
development, and prosperity.
This seminal 420-page volume has special foci upon:
1. Penetrating deep into the conventional antediluvian dictatorial didactic regimes, which cherish
the Banking Method, and excoriating the beyond;
2. Shedding light on the chronological development of language teaching methodology for
justifying the need for accommodating Dr Hosseini’s innovation in education regimes;
3. Engineering the conventional educational methods and approaches towards CTBL;
4. Differentiating CTBL from other innovative methods/approaches, and discussing the
significance and relevance of this holistic approach against the backdrop of ongoing
5. Bringing to the fore the author's Multiple Input-Output Hypothesis and Cognitive SocioPolitical Language Learning Theory, which is the core of theoretical foundations of CTBL;
6. Implementing CTBL via the emerging online technologies state/country wide, and
7. Stimulating the readers' critical, analytical, and creative thinking skills, and promoting their
personal growth especially through the 13 chapter-end thought-provoking discussion questions.
This invaluable resource manual will be of immense help particularly to those educators who are
committed to the cause of peace building. As a gold mine of the latest issues in ELT, it will also
be found highly useful for ELT students, teachers at all levels, and in-service programmes and
seminars for instructors. Policy makers, educationalists, researchers, syllabus designers, and
material developers could also take note of the noteworthy benefits this manuscript along with its
accompanying DVD proposes.
Organization of the Material
he present volume penetrates into the history of language teaching and language learning and
excoriates the TLM/ the Banking Method in order to justify a turn from the traditional methods
towards more humanistic approaches to ELT/Education like CLT, Interactive Learning,
Collaborative Learning and particularly CL methods. After analysing such interactive approaches, the
book focuses exclusively on my innovative instructional approach, CTBL, through different dimensions.
To be more specific, this manual consists of 8 sections with 13 chapters. The first four chapters
intend to lay the grounds to a thorough introduction to my innovation. And the last nine chapters dwell – at
length – elaborating my instructional approach. Each chapter begins with a set of 'Advance Organiser
Questions' and ends with a set of 'Discussion Questions' followed by few questions, which are in essence
some 'Food for Thought'. The thought-provoking questions included in these three sections aim at
stimulating critical sensibility, analytical thinking, creative reasoning, and professional and personal growth of
the readers. It should be noted that although, at first sight, some of these questions may be found a little bit
more challenging, they would seem easier after the book is studied cover to cover. Some questions,
particularly in the last chapter, may also, i hope, inspire readers to consider further investigation and research,
in the concerned areas.
The First Chapter is a significant tour through the chronological development of language teaching
methodology. It brings into sharp focus such a development in an attempt to illuminate the dynamics and
flexibility of the profession in the ever changing context of our planet. The chapter elucidates the process
under which interactive approaches like CL have emerged. Prominent characteristics as well as major
deficiencies of widely adopted methods and approaches like CLT have also been elaborated. More
importantly, the chapter highlights the impact of my ideology on the field of education in general and ELT in
particular. The chapter prioritizes the vital significance of CTBL, as a totally different systematically
structured approach to ELT/Education, for the present context of globalisation. The Chapter also brings to
light the impact of the Cyber Age on ELT/Education, and emphasises the need for the rapid calculated
adaptability of the profession with the emerging research-oriented trends and innovations.
Chapter 2 endeavours to justify the relevance and the significance of a pragmatic overhauling of the
present antediluvian dictatorial didactic regimes not only in the present-day context but also for the future,
for the benefit of future generations. After bringing to the fore the significant role of English as the
international lingua franca in today world context, this chapter presents a view of the language classes that are
run through the TLM or the Banking Method. It seeks to dissect and mirror the present contexts of learning
in Education in general, and in ELT sphere in particular in most parts of the world, including the Middle
East, Asia, Africa, and even Europe and America. The chapter deals with statement of bare facts and tries to
profile the deficiencies of (language) learning classes occasioned by the present traditional didactic modes of
instruction like the Banking Method. The destructive results of the implementation of such educational
methods and approaches have been spotlighted both at class level and at social/global level. Against this
backdrop, i try to recalibrate (educational) policy makers and language specialists’ attention from the
traditional expository or even interactive methods and approaches like CLT, which is - unfortunately strongly recommended even by some eminent professors, towards the approach i have developed as a
pragmatic solution to our present socio-educational/cultural/economical/political problems.
The 3rd chapter casts light on different interpersonal learning goal structures in order to lay the
grounds to an introduction to Cooperative (Language) Learning. Also, after introducing Collaborative
Learning, Interactive Learning, and CL, the chapter highlights the main differences between cooperative
language learning, the major focus of which is on groupwork, a factor of paramount importance in language
classes, and the traditional language teaching methodology.
The Forth Chapter is a significant attempt for bringing together some popular CL methods. It also
brings into focus the method (TT) i have developed. After a brief but to the point introduction to each
method, the chapter discusses their main characteristics - at the class level - and then explicates their
Having dissected part of the socio-educational/political background to my instructional innovation,
Chapter 5 clarifies certain misgivings regarding integrating the element of competition within cooperative
learning settings in order to pave the way to a to-the-point introduction to CTBL, my instructional catalyst.
The chapter also discusses – at length – distinguishing features and characteristics of my approach with
reference to the present methods and approaches like CLT and particularly CL methods. The chapter throws
light on the mechanisms underlying the implementation of CTBL in real classroom situations and illustrates
presentations and classroom techniques in classes where this approach may be applied by teachers. It also
highlights the kind of objectives, the syllabus, materials, tasks, and activities proposed for CTBL. Teachers’
roles as well as students’ responsibilities in CTBL situations have also found a place in this chapter. More
importantly, the chapter gives a glimpse of the significance of my pedagogical approach for today world
context of globalisation, which is highly complicated and fiercely competitive.
The 6th chapter underscores salient features of CTBL in an attempt to give a more clear portrayal of
my world-class approach to ELT/Education. It gives a glimpse of the significance of interpersonal skills,
mutual face-to-face promotive interaction, and (continuity of) team processing, and highlights the importance
of adherence of all class participants to CTBL’s culture. The strategies which could be applied for ensuring
positive interdependence, individual accountability, equal participation, and simultaneous interaction of all
team members have also been elaborated. The chapter also differentiates different criteria for team formation
and sheds light on the distinguishing features of team formation plan in CTBL situations. Most importantly,
the chapter elaborates CTBL teachers’ roles, both at class and at global level.
Chapter 7 intends to put forward certain techniques for boosting the effectiveness of CTBL. It also
suggests some relaxing but influential activities for accelerating further the efficiency of teamwork in classes
run through CTBL. Importantly, this chapter puts forward a comprehensive introduction to students’
responsibilities in CTBL settings.
Chapter 8 serves as a platform to precisely substantiate the success of CTBL as an effective strategic
socio/edu-political instructional approach. To that end, it lays out part of the (didactic) theories and
hypotheses - both in general education and in ELT - which in one way or another delineate, confirm, and
support the mechanisms under which successful (language) learning/living occurs and then tries to correlate
them to the components, mechanisms, and objectives of CTBL. My "Multiple Input-Output Hypothesis"
and, more importantly, my "Cognitive Socio-Political Language Learning Theory" have also been thrown into
sharp relief. The bridging the gap between theory and practice in this chapter, would, i hope, enable educators
to better recognize the true essence of my approach and consequently its pivotal significance especially for
today world context not only as a sophisticated, modern, super-flexible, inclusive, and relevant and realistic
approach to ELT/Education, but as a 'weapon' as well. The chapter eloquently implies how my ‘unique’
instructional innovation is, in the last analysis, an approach to empowering and liberating the Other/the
oppressed and, in point of fact, an approach to the elimination of dictatorship and apartheid.
Considering the multitude of benefits (language) learners could derive from an online technologyenriched curriculum, the task of the application of such technologies in classes/courses run through CTBL is
a challenge that must be addressed. The Ninth Chapter, as such, suggests the inclusion of online technology,
as an effective educational apparatus, into CTBL language classes/courses via a concrete plan of action. The
Chapter also gives glimpse of the emerging online technologies and presents pragmatic guidelines for
successful implementation of such innovations. Educational institutes – from primary to post secondary –
could consider the proposed programme for enhancing the attainment of CTBL/their educational objectives.
The project may also be implemented state-/country-wide.
Chapter 10 presents an overview of evaluation of CL (methods) done by researchers throughout the
last decades with reference to eight distinct domains of research. These domains include
1. General education,
2. Language learning,
3. Reading comprehension,
4. (Language) learning strategies,
5. Attitudes of students,
6. Retention of information,
7. Undergraduate learners, and
8. The kind of inter-group interdependence.
Of these, i will briefly survey the first six, and pay closer attention to the remaining two, which are
more directly relevant to current research on CL methods. The last part focuses upon research findings which
are divergent vis-à-vis efficacy of CL methods.
Chapter 11 is an attempt to bring to the fore my MA and PhD level research findings regarding the
effectiveness of my instructional innovation in comparison to the TLM as well as to the most popular
method of CL which has been developed by Johnson and Johnson at the University of Minnesota in the
USA. More importantly, the Chapter elaborates the reasons as to why CTBL has been more effective than the
traditional methods even in the arena of CL methods in terms of its contribution to effective learning. The
chapter then substantiates the relevance of my pedagogical approach against the backdrop of ongoing
globalisation, which means a great deal of competitive spirit in the present world context.
The 12th Chapter presents a cogent and critical analysis and comparison of CTBL and other popular
methods and approaches in the arena of Education in general and ELT in particular in terms of their
distinguishing features and characteristics. Among such methods and approaches are ALM, CLT,
Collaborative Learning, Interactive Learning, and CL/methods. A synthesis of the distinguishing drawbacks
of the comparison methods and approaches is part of the chapter. The chapter also explicates how my
educational approach is, in the last analysis, an approach to human prosperity and world peace. I hope this
chapter would contribute to making a sound decision on a method/approach for the benefit of today
In the light of the importance attributed to interactive methods and approaches and particularly
CTBL, suggestions to prospective stakeholders (viz. policy makers, resource material developers, syllabus
designers, methodologists, teachers, test constructers and examiners, and researchers) have been put forth in
the last chapter, Chapter 13. The contribution of this volume to new knowledge and information on the
subject in question and the journey or evolution CTBL vis-à-vis ELT/Education is likely to take in the near
future is indicated. Some pragmatic guidelines for the inclusion of a head university for promoting the quality
of ELT particularly in undeveloped and developing countries have also been provided in this last chapter of
Appendices, a detailed bibliography of the select list of books, articles, journals, internet- resources,
and the index have also been included, at the end of the present volume, for the benefit of students, teachers,
and researchers. Finally, as noted, you will not get a comprehensive picture of my message unless you go
through the 'Epilogue', and even 'Appendices'.
Book No. 2 – 150 pages of 24 lines each
Teach Language Effectively: A Practical Crash Course
This guidebook brings into sharp focus some effective techniques for teaching vocabulary, grammar,
reading, writing, listening, speaking, and language learning strategies at primary, secondary, and
collegiate levels. Some effective guidelines have also been provided for Online Teaching.
Importantly, this manual throws light on chronological development of ELT in an attempt to introduce
CTBL, the author’s pedagogical innovation. The nature and the characteristics of this world-class
innovative approach not only contribute to language learning (strategies) and excellence in the learning.
They likewise promote true and flexible active learning, interactive competence, long-term retention, and
especially the acquisition of some crucial habits of mind such as objectivity, and critical and creative
thinking. The mechanisms underlying the implementation of CTBL as well as presentations and
classroom techniques in classes where this approach may be applied have been illustrated. Dr Hosseini’s
sample lesson plans and CV have also found a place in this book.
This must-read guidebook along with its accompanying DVD will be of immense help to whoever wants
to teach language. It is helpful particularly to ELT students, language teachers at all levels, and in-service
programmes for instructors / T.T.C. crash courses.