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    1. 1. Chapter 1 The Major Issues
    2. 2. The Mind-Brain Relationship <ul><li>Biological Psychology is the study of the physiological and genetic basis of behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis is placed upon physiological, evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>A strong emphasis is placed upon brain functioning. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Fig. 1-1, p. 2
    4. 4. The Mind-Brain Relationship <ul><li>Brain functioning can be explained at a more microscopic level in terms of neuron and glia activity. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Fig. 1-2, p. 3
    6. 6. The Mind-Brain Relationship <ul><li>Biological explanations of behavior fall into four categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological - emphasis on brain and other vital organs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontogenetic - describes the development of a structure or behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary - focuses upon the evolutionary history of a behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional - describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. The Mind-Brain Relationship <ul><li>Deep understanding of a particular behavior is tied to being able to explain the behavior from each of these perspectives. </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Mind-Brain Relationship <ul><li>Biological explanations of behavior raise the issue of the relationship between the mind and the brain also know as the “ mind-body ” or “ mind-brain problem ”. </li></ul><ul><li>The “mind-brain problem” has a variety of explanations. </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Mind-Brain Relationship <ul><li>Dualism is the belief that there are different kinds of substances and the mind and the body are separate entities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defended by French philosopher Rene Descartes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common belief among nonscientists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected by most neuroscientists. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. The Mind-Brain Relationship <ul><li>Monism is the belief that the universe is only comprised of one type of substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of monism include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materialism - everything that exists is physical by nature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentalism - only the mind truly exists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity position- mental processes are the same as brain processes but simply described in different ways. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. The Mind-Brain Relationship <ul><li>Explanations of the mind-body relationship do not answer some fundamental questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is consciousness a property of brain activity? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of brain activity produces consciousness? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does brain activity produce consciousness? </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The Mind-Brain Relationship <ul><li>Because “consciousness” is not observable, it’s function is often difficult to define and/ or explain. </li></ul><ul><li>Solipsism - suggests that “I alone” am conscious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty of knowing if others have conscious experiences is known as the “ problem of other minds”. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The Mind-Brain Relationship <ul><li>Chalmers (1995) proposes two problems that must be distinguished when discussing consciousness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy problems - focus on differences in conscious states and their mechanisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard problems - focus on why and how brain activity is associated with consciousness. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The Mind-Brain Relationship <ul><li>Research approaches to the “hard problems” include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using brain scan techniques to identify specific regions of the brain and the corresponding amount of activity when a stimulus is consciously detected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring brain activity when attention is directed or focused upon varying competing stimuli. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>Both genes and environment interact to shape human behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The fundamental issue is how much a role genetics do play in shaping human behaviors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: psychological disorders, weight gain, personality, sexual orientation? </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>19 th century monk Gregor Mendel demonstrated that inheritance occurs through genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes are basic units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes are aligned along chromosomes (strands of genes) and come in pairs. </li></ul>
    17. 17. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>A gene is a portion of a chromosome and is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). </li></ul><ul><li>DNA serves as a model for the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA) . </li></ul>
    18. 18. Fig. 1-7, p. 12
    19. 19. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>RNA is a single strand chemical that can serve as a template/ model for the synthesis of proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins determine the development of the body by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forming part of the structure of the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serving as enzymes that serve as biological catalysts and regulate chemical reaction in the body. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>Homozygous for a gene means that a person has an identical pair of genes on the two chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterozygous for a gene means that a person has an unmatched pair of genes on the two chromosomes. </li></ul>
    21. 21. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>Some genes can be either dominant or recessive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: eye color, ability to taste PTC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A dominant gene shows a strong effect in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition. </li></ul><ul><li>A recessive gene shows its effect only in the homozygous condition. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Fig. 1-8, p. 13
    23. 23. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>Each chromosome participates in reproduction independently of the others. </li></ul><ul><li>Each species has a certain number of chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing over occurs when a pair of chromosomes break apart during reproduction and reconnects and attaches to the second chromosome. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BC & bc  Bc & bC </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>Types of genes include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autosomal genes - all genes except for sex- linked genes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex-linked genes - genes located on the sex chromosomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In mammals, the sex chromosomes are designated X & Y. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Females have two X chromosomes (XX). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males have an X and a Y chromosome (XY). </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>During reproduction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Females contribute an X chromosome. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males contribute either an X or a Y chromosome that determines the sex of the child. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If an X chromosome is contributed by the male, the off-spring is female. </li></ul><ul><li>If a Y chromosome is contributed by the male, the off-spring will be male. </li></ul>
    26. 26. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>The human Y chromosome has genes for 27 proteins </li></ul><ul><li>The human X chromosome has genes for approximately 1500 proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, sex-linked genes usually refer to X-linked genes. (Example: Red-green color deficiency) </li></ul><ul><li>Sex-limited genes are genes that are present in both sexes but mainly have an effect on one sex (Chest hair, breast size, etc.) </li></ul>
    27. 27. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>Sources of variation in a species that allows for evolution to occur include: </li></ul><ul><li>Recombination refers to a new combination of genes in the off-spring that yield characteristics not found in either parent. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation refers to a change in a single gene that is rare, random and often independent of the needs of the organism. </li></ul>
    28. 28. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>Almost all behaviors have both a genetic component and an environmental component. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers study monozygotic and fraternal twins to infer how much of a genetic component exists for a particular behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers also study adopted children and their resemblance to their biological parents to infer the influence of heredity. </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Estimates of hereditary influences are often difficult to infer and are prone to error. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of error include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The inability to distinguish between the effects of genes and prenatal influences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental factors can inactivate genes. </li></ul></ul>The Genetics of Behavior
    30. 30. <ul><li>Sources of error (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiplier effect – genetic tendencies that guide behavior will result in a change in the environment that magnifies the original tendency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traits with a strong hereditary influence can by modified by environmental intervention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. “elevated plus maze”, PKU </li></ul></ul></ul>The Genetics of Behavior
    31. 31. Fig. 1-9, p. 15
    32. 32. <ul><li>Genes do not directly produce behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes produce proteins that increase the probability that a behavior will develop under certain circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes can also have an indirect affect. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genes can alter your environment by producing behaviors or traits that alter how people in your environment react to you. </li></ul></ul>The Genetics of Behavior
    33. 33. <ul><li>Evolution refers to a change in the frequency of various genes in a population over generations </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution attempts to answer two questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How did some species evolve? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do species evolve? </li></ul></ul>The Genetics of Behavior
    34. 34. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>How species did evolve involves the tentative construction of “evolutionary trees”. </li></ul><ul><li>How species do evolve rests upon two assumptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offspring generally resemble their parents for genetic reasons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutations and recombination of genes introduce new heritable variations that help or harm the chance of survival and reproduction. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Fig. 1-10, p. 17
    36. 36. The Genetic of Behavior <ul><li>Common misconceptions about evolution include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamarckian evolution - “The use or disuse of some structure or behavior causes an increase or decrease in that behavior.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Humans have stopped evolving.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Evolution means improvement.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Evolution acts to benefit the individual or the species.” </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>Evolutionary psychology (sociobiology) focuses upon functional explanations of how behaviors evolved. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes that behaviors characteristic of a species have arisen through natural selection and provide a survival advantage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: differences in peripheral/color vision, sleep mechanisms in the brain, eating habits, temperature regulation. </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. The Genetics of Behavior <ul><li>Some behaviors are more debatable regarding the influence of natural selection. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life span length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender differences in sexual promiscuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altruistic behavior </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. The Use of Animals in Research <ul><li>Animal research is an important source of information for biological psychology but remains a highly controversial topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal research varies on the amount of stress and/ or pain that is caused to the animal itself. </li></ul>
    40. 40. The Use of Animals in Research <ul><li>Reasons for studying animals include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The underlying mechanisms of behavior are similar across species and often easier to study in nonhuman species. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are interested in animals for their own sake. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What we learn about animals sheds light on human evolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some experiments cannot use humans because of legal or ethical reasons. </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Fig. 1-12, p. 23
    42. 42. The Use of Animals in Research <ul><li>Opposition to animal research varies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Minimalists ” favor firm regulation on research and place consideration upon the type of animal used and the amount of stress induced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Abolitionists ” maintain that all animals have the same rights as humans and any use of animals is unethical. </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. The Use of Animals in Research <ul><li>Justification for research considers the amount of benefit gained compared to the amount of distress caused to the animal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No clear dividing line exists. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colleges and research institutions in the United States are required to have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversees and determine acceptable procedures. </li></ul></ul>
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