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Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles
           The Electronic Textiles Option



Dr Tilak Dias
School of ...
Tilak Dias



                 Introduction

• All current commodity textiles are passive;
  i.e. not capable of adapting ...
Tilak Dias

                                          Introduction



Next generation of textiles will be active and
intel...
Tilak Dias


SMART & Intelligent Knitted Structures

          Core Elements


Knitted transducers


Intelligent signal pr...
Tilak Dias




Background
Tilak Dias




          Background

Research team:
• Anura Fernando
• Edward Lay
• Kim Mitcham
• Ravindra Monaragala
• Ra...
Tilak Dias




      Research in Electro-textiles

• Heat generating knitted structures
• Knitted transducers and sensors
...
Tilak Dias


            Electrically Active Knitted Structures

Concept of creating textiles with significant electrical ...
Tilak Dias



       Science and Technology Base

    Advantage of using knitted structures

•
•


•


•
Tilak Dias




 Creation of ECA

Use of electro-conductive
fibres/yarns
 Metal yarns (mono-filament
   and multi-filament...
Tilak Dias




 Creation of ECA

Use of electro-conductive
fibres/yarns
 Metal yarns (mono-filament
   and multi-filament...
Tilak Dias




 Creation of ECA

Use of electro-conductive
fibres/yarns
 Metal yarns (mono-filament
   and multi-filament...
Tilak Dias

                                           Scan2Knit Technology


 Computerised flat-bed knitting technology t...
Tilak Dias




Advantages of using modern computerised flat-
bed knitting technology to create medical textiles


   • Pre...
Tilak Dias


  Example of a knitted sensor
                                Conductive pathway 1

       Base structure


 ...
Tilak Dias

                     Modelling

                                        RH




                             RL...
Tilak Dias


                                  Modelling

                        Calculation of RH and RL



            ...
Tilak Dias


             Equivalent resistive mesh circuit of the ECA


Modelling                                        ...
Tilak Dias


            Theoretical Prediction of Current Distribution




Current Distribution in Stitch Heads   Tempera...
Tilak Dias



                                                                            Heating Glove

Conductive pathwa...
Tilak Dias



           Knitted Switch Technology “K-Switch”


Motivation:
Development of Next Generation of Textiles for...
Tilak Dias

             Knitted structure with 4 dual ECAs (K-Switches)



                                         ECA2
...
Tilak Dias

                                                          K-Switch Technology

                               ...
Tilak Dias

                     K-Switch Technology


DC Resistance variation with time




Observation: less than 300µs ...
Tilak Dias

Applications   K-Switch Technology
Tilak Dias

                                                K-Switch Technology
Analysis
Advantages:
• Easy and reliable m...
Tilak Dias

                                          K-Switch Technology

Modelling of Impedance between the ECAs




   ...
Tilak Dias


                                   Influence of the measurement frequency on the
                            ...
Tilak Dias

                      Impedance characteristics of K-Switch
                           Closed circuit of the E...
Tilak Dias


                      Impedance characteristics of K-Switch
                           Closed circuit of the ...
Tilak Dias


                 Electro-Luminescent Fibre Structures

Theoretical background:
Exposure of an electroluminesc...
Tilak Dias

                             EL Yarn Technology

     Motivation:
     Develop EL Yarns which could be integra...
Tilak Dias

Experimental Rig
Tilak Dias




  Not activated       Activated – low frequency



Knitted EL Samples



                     Activated – h...
Tilak Dias

                     Application of EL Fibres
• Light Emitting Textiles
  • Transport sector, passenger cabin ...
Tilak Dias


Garment System for vital sign monitoring

Background

Suggestion from School of Medicine, University of Manch...
Tilak Dias




Research Achievements


• Creation of Science base for knitted transducers
  •   Knitted dry electrodes
  •...
Tilak Dias




Commercialisation of Technology

• IPR protected by UMIP
  1 core patent
• IPR assigned to a group of entre...
Tilak Dias

SmartLife® Health Vest




                         2004




 2004                           2007
Tilak Dias



     Signal comparison




Signal from standard Ag/AgCl Gel electrodes           Signal from SmartLife® elec...
Tilak Dias



   Target Markets


  1. Health, Wellbeing & Homecare
     Market size e.g. cardiovascular: ECG US$8bn1
    ...
Tilak Dias



Current Research




                          Sensor sock for drop
                          foot detection...
Tilak Dias


Future ……       Electronically functional yarns




            Fibres and yarns with
            sensors, tr...
Tilak Dias


               Apparel Manufacturing Process Interface
Key process steps                 Integration of elect...
Tilak Dias


      Electronically active and sensor fibres




Technology is based on the encapsulated area not
    exceed...
Tilak Dias




Vision
The development of novel technology for
fabricating electronically active and sensor
fibres which wi...
Tilak Dias


     Micro-device Encapsulation Technology




Involves encapsulating devices with a flexible hermetic
seal f...
Tilak Dias


MET Platform

                                        μ-devices:
                                           •...
Tilak Dias

MET Platform
Tilak Dias


   INVENTION

Micro-device
Encapsulation
Technology Platform




                      Prototype
            ...
Tilak Dias


Demonstrator 1               Light Emitting Fibres




 Yarn with a working Diode                 Energised
 ...
Tilak Dias

Light Emitting Garments
   Events Garments
Tilak Dias


                                                            Demonstrator 2   RFID Fibres

                   ...
Tilak Dias


              Current Research

Development of light emitting fabrics
• Active fashion garments
• Displays


...
Thank You
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Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles The Electronic Textiles Option (Handout)

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Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles The Electronic Textiles Option (Handout)

By Tilak Dias
School of Materials
The University of Manchester, UK

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Transcript of "Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles The Electronic Textiles Option (Handout)"

  1. 1. Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles The Electronic Textiles Option Dr Tilak Dias School of Materials The University of Manchester, UK
  2. 2. Tilak Dias Introduction • All current commodity textiles are passive; i.e. not capable of adapting to environmental changes • Current technical textiles are engineered to perform within a defined set of parameters; may have the ability to adapt to changes within very narrow bandwidth of environmental changes
  3. 3. Tilak Dias Introduction Next generation of textiles will be active and intelligent; i.e. they would be able to adapt to changes in the environment Question What are they ?
  4. 4. Tilak Dias SMART & Intelligent Knitted Structures Core Elements Knitted transducers Intelligent signal processing Knitted actuators
  5. 5. Tilak Dias Background
  6. 6. Tilak Dias Background Research team: • Anura Fernando • Edward Lay • Kim Mitcham • Ravindra Monaragala • Ravindra Wijesiriwardana • William Hurley
  7. 7. Tilak Dias Research in Electro-textiles • Heat generating knitted structures • Knitted transducers and sensors • Light emitting fabrics • Electronically active yarns
  8. 8. Tilak Dias Electrically Active Knitted Structures Concept of creating textiles with significant electrical properties: Incorporate conductive elements into the structure knitted structure Electro Conductive Area (ECA)
  9. 9. Tilak Dias Science and Technology Base Advantage of using knitted structures • • • •
  10. 10. Tilak Dias Creation of ECA Use of electro-conductive fibres/yarns  Metal yarns (mono-filament and multi-filament)  Metal deposition yarns  Carbon fibres and yarns  Conducting polymeric yarns Stainless steel yarn
  11. 11. Tilak Dias Creation of ECA Use of electro-conductive fibres/yarns  Metal yarns (mono-filament and multi-filament)  Metal deposition yarns  Carbon fibres and yarns  Conducting polymeric yarns PA yarn vacuum coated with Ag nano layer
  12. 12. Tilak Dias Creation of ECA Use of electro-conductive fibres/yarns  Metal yarns (mono-filament and multi-filament)  Metal deposition yarns  Carbon fibres and yarns  Conducting polymeric yarns Silicone monofilament yarn loaded with Carbon (0.5mm diameter); FabRoc®
  13. 13. Tilak Dias Scan2Knit Technology Computerised flat-bed knitting technology to create three dimensionally shaped seamless stockings Stoll CMS 330.6, E18
  14. 14. Tilak Dias Advantages of using modern computerised flat- bed knitting technology to create medical textiles • Precision positioning of fibers in 3D space • Ability to create seamless 3D structures • Multilayer structures • True seamless garment knitting techniques • “Scan2Knit” technology
  15. 15. Tilak Dias Example of a knitted sensor Conductive pathway 1 Base structure ECA Conductive pathway 2
  16. 16. Tilak Dias Modelling RH RL RL RH Unit Cell - Stitch Electrical Equivalent Circuit
  17. 17. Tilak Dias Modelling Calculation of RH and RL Lleg Lhead RL  RH  A A RL Resistance of the stitch leg RH Resistance of the stitch head Lleg Yarn length in the stitch leg Lhead Yarn length in the stitch head A Yarn cross sectional area A Yarn cross sectional area ρ Resistivity of yarn ρ Resistivity of yarn
  18. 18. Tilak Dias Equivalent resistive mesh circuit of the ECA Modelling 22 Equivalent Resistance (Req) 20 18 16 14 12 10 20 10 20 15 10 0 5 0 Relationship between equivalent resistance and stitch density of the ECA Dimensions of the ECA: m courses x n wales Assumption: Lleg = 2 Lhead
  19. 19. Tilak Dias Theoretical Prediction of Current Distribution Current Distribution in Stitch Heads Temperature Distribution in Stitch Heads Current Distribution in Stitch Legs Temperature Distribution in Stitch Legs
  20. 20. Tilak Dias Heating Glove Conductive pathways ThermoKnit® heater elements (ECA) Power Vs Temperature (Room temp: 25°C ) Voltage Vs Average Steady State Temperature (Room temp: 25°C)
  21. 21. Tilak Dias Knitted Switch Technology “K-Switch” Motivation: Development of Next Generation of Textiles for the Automotive Industry Industry Requirement: • Textile based switches and sensors with electro conductive pathways • Heating textiles • Light emitting textiles (headliners)
  22. 22. Tilak Dias Knitted structure with 4 dual ECAs (K-Switches) ECA2 ECA1 Knitted structure 20m m Constructional information: Principle of operation: The minimum gap between the ECAs: Measurement of DC resistance between • Yarn filament diameter; the two ECAs • Stitch length
  23. 23. Tilak Dias K-Switch Technology DC Resistance variation Operation of the K-Switch Principle of operation: Measurement of the DC resistance between the two ECAs Determined with a precision digital multimeter under two wire resistance measurement configuration at 0.1s sample rate
  24. 24. Tilak Dias K-Switch Technology DC Resistance variation with time Observation: less than 300µs settling time
  25. 25. Tilak Dias Applications K-Switch Technology
  26. 26. Tilak Dias K-Switch Technology Analysis Advantages: • Easy and reliable manufacture • Higher degree of design capability (3 yarn jacquard knitting) • Cost effective manufacture • Higher durability and life time • Straightforward integration of K-Switches for different applications Limitations: • Simple electronics • Switch characteristics depends on skin resistance • Ineffective to other materials
  27. 27. Tilak Dias K-Switch Technology Modelling of Impedance between the ECAs Cole-Cole model equivalent circuit of the ECA - Skin - ECA Impedance
  28. 28. Tilak Dias Influence of the measurement frequency on the impedance - open circuit of the ECAs Open circuit impedance is 0.1954 MΩ at frequencies greater than 2 MHz Impedance in MΩ K-Switch Technology Frequency in MHz
  29. 29. Tilak Dias Impedance characteristics of K-Switch Closed circuit of the ECAs K-Switch Technology
  30. 30. Tilak Dias Impedance characteristics of K-Switch Closed circuit of the ECAs K-Switch Technology
  31. 31. Tilak Dias Electro-Luminescent Fibre Structures Theoretical background: Exposure of an electroluminescent substance to a high frequency electrical field radiate light The state-of-the-art EL polymer sheets Screen printing micro-encapsulated phosphors (Osram) on to plastic sheets EL layer (µm) Conductive transparent layer (µm) 2 dielectric layers (µm) Silver layer (µm) Plastic sheet (base)
  32. 32. Tilak Dias EL Yarn Technology Motivation: Develop EL Yarns which could be integrated into textile structures Concept 1. Electro-conductive yarn 2. Dielectric layer 3. EL layer 4. Transparent protective layer 5. Conductive wire
  33. 33. Tilak Dias Experimental Rig
  34. 34. Tilak Dias Not activated Activated – low frequency Knitted EL Samples Activated – high frequency
  35. 35. Tilak Dias Application of EL Fibres • Light Emitting Textiles • Transport sector, passenger cabin design of vehicles; e.g. headliners, carpets, upholstery • Advertising industry; e.g. flexible and drapable billboards and notice boards • Buildings; e.g. ceilings, walls, carpets • Household products; e.g. curtains, furniture fabrics, wall hangings, lamp shades, decorative products • Safety and security products • Light Emitting Braids and Ropes • Safety and security products • Decorative and fashion products
  36. 36. Tilak Dias Garment System for vital sign monitoring Background Suggestion from School of Medicine, University of Manchester Initiation of partnership between Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering (ISBE), Medical School; Digital Signal Processing Group (DSPG), School of Electrical & Electronics, and Department of Textiles (UMIST) in 2002 Initial funding from The Department of Trade and Industry, UK Setting-up research team for Science & Technology development
  37. 37. Tilak Dias Research Achievements • Creation of Science base for knitted transducers • Knitted dry electrodes • Knitted strain gauges • Knitted inductive sensors • Knitted conductive pathways • Development of technology for producing a garment with integrally knitted sensors and conductive pathways • Development of vest with 2 lead ECG (proof of concept)
  38. 38. Tilak Dias Commercialisation of Technology • IPR protected by UMIP 1 core patent • IPR assigned to a group of entrepreneurs • Formation of a joint venture company by UMIP SmartLife® Technology Ltd • Raised funds by SmartLife® for development of core technology in the University (SoM, ISBE, DSPG) • Development of “Health Vest” with 3 leads ECG, Respiratory and Skin Temperature monitoring • Development of hardware and signal processing software
  39. 39. Tilak Dias SmartLife® Health Vest 2004 2004 2007
  40. 40. Tilak Dias Signal comparison Signal from standard Ag/AgCl Gel electrodes Signal from SmartLife® electrodes Amplitude (mV) Duration (ms) Signal Section Ag/AgCl Vest Ag/AgCl Vest P wave 0.2 0.3 120 120 QRS complex 2.0 2.5 80 80 T wave 0.5 0.5 240 240
  41. 41. Tilak Dias Target Markets 1. Health, Wellbeing & Homecare Market size e.g. cardiovascular: ECG US$8bn1  Predictive monitoring  Clinical monitoring of patients in their own homes 2. Sports Estimated market size US$2bn – Professional Personal monitoring  Training, lifestyle, personal 3. Hazardous Environment – first responders, military Estimated market size US$2bn [1] Global Market For Patient Monitoring devices US$11.4bn (Frost & Sullivan 2005)
  42. 42. Tilak Dias Current Research Sensor sock for drop foot detection High frequency textile antenna
  43. 43. Tilak Dias Future …… Electronically functional yarns Fibres and yarns with sensors, transducers and activators
  44. 44. Tilak Dias Apparel Manufacturing Process Interface Key process steps Integration of electronic devices with apparels Active and sensory micro-devices GARMENT Fibres/Yarn Fabric Garment Manufacture Manufacture 2nd Generation Manufacture 3rd Generation 1st Generation 1st Generation
  45. 45. Tilak Dias Electronically active and sensor fibres Technology is based on the encapsulated area not exceeding 110% of the thread thickness
  46. 46. Tilak Dias Vision The development of novel technology for fabricating electronically active and sensor fibres which will be the basic building blocks of the next generation ‘SMART’ fibrous materials
  47. 47. Tilak Dias Micro-device Encapsulation Technology Involves encapsulating devices with a flexible hermetic seal for mechanical, thermal and electrical protection
  48. 48. Tilak Dias MET Platform μ-devices: • electronic chips • magnetic devices • optical devices • thermal devices Schematic diagram of a yarn device • Development of the concept of encapsulating • Mathematical modelling • Design and development of an experimental rig • Demonstrator E-Yarn with a working diode (LED) and RFID tag
  49. 49. Tilak Dias MET Platform
  50. 50. Tilak Dias INVENTION Micro-device Encapsulation Technology Platform Prototype Demonstrator ?
  51. 51. Tilak Dias Demonstrator 1 Light Emitting Fibres Yarn with a working Diode Energised (0.4 x 1.0 x 0.3 mm LED)
  52. 52. Tilak Dias Light Emitting Garments Events Garments
  53. 53. Tilak Dias Demonstrator 2 RFID Fibres Aim: Development of MET for embedding Hitachi MU Tag © Copyright EntellFibres Ltd 2008
  54. 54. Tilak Dias Current Research Development of light emitting fabrics • Active fashion garments • Displays Development of sensory yarn capable of: • Monitoring strain/stress • Sensing temperature • Pressure measurement • Sensing fluids/liquids
  55. 55. Thank You
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