Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles The Electronic Textiles Option (Handout)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles The Electronic Textiles Option (Handout)

3,866
views

Published on

Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles The Electronic Textiles Option (Handout) …

Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles The Electronic Textiles Option (Handout)

By Tilak Dias
School of Materials
The University of Manchester, UK

Published in: Technology, Business, Lifestyle

0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,866
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
393
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Smart Textiles – Adding Value to Sri Lankan Textiles The Electronic Textiles Option Dr Tilak Dias School of Materials The University of Manchester, UK
  • 2. Tilak Dias Introduction • All current commodity textiles are passive; i.e. not capable of adapting to environmental changes • Current technical textiles are engineered to perform within a defined set of parameters; may have the ability to adapt to changes within very narrow bandwidth of environmental changes
  • 3. Tilak Dias Introduction Next generation of textiles will be active and intelligent; i.e. they would be able to adapt to changes in the environment Question What are they ?
  • 4. Tilak Dias SMART & Intelligent Knitted Structures Core Elements Knitted transducers Intelligent signal processing Knitted actuators
  • 5. Tilak Dias Background
  • 6. Tilak Dias Background Research team: • Anura Fernando • Edward Lay • Kim Mitcham • Ravindra Monaragala • Ravindra Wijesiriwardana • William Hurley
  • 7. Tilak Dias Research in Electro-textiles • Heat generating knitted structures • Knitted transducers and sensors • Light emitting fabrics • Electronically active yarns
  • 8. Tilak Dias Electrically Active Knitted Structures Concept of creating textiles with significant electrical properties: Incorporate conductive elements into the structure knitted structure Electro Conductive Area (ECA)
  • 9. Tilak Dias Science and Technology Base Advantage of using knitted structures • • • •
  • 10. Tilak Dias Creation of ECA Use of electro-conductive fibres/yarns  Metal yarns (mono-filament and multi-filament)  Metal deposition yarns  Carbon fibres and yarns  Conducting polymeric yarns Stainless steel yarn
  • 11. Tilak Dias Creation of ECA Use of electro-conductive fibres/yarns  Metal yarns (mono-filament and multi-filament)  Metal deposition yarns  Carbon fibres and yarns  Conducting polymeric yarns PA yarn vacuum coated with Ag nano layer
  • 12. Tilak Dias Creation of ECA Use of electro-conductive fibres/yarns  Metal yarns (mono-filament and multi-filament)  Metal deposition yarns  Carbon fibres and yarns  Conducting polymeric yarns Silicone monofilament yarn loaded with Carbon (0.5mm diameter); FabRoc®
  • 13. Tilak Dias Scan2Knit Technology Computerised flat-bed knitting technology to create three dimensionally shaped seamless stockings Stoll CMS 330.6, E18
  • 14. Tilak Dias Advantages of using modern computerised flat- bed knitting technology to create medical textiles • Precision positioning of fibers in 3D space • Ability to create seamless 3D structures • Multilayer structures • True seamless garment knitting techniques • “Scan2Knit” technology
  • 15. Tilak Dias Example of a knitted sensor Conductive pathway 1 Base structure ECA Conductive pathway 2
  • 16. Tilak Dias Modelling RH RL RL RH Unit Cell - Stitch Electrical Equivalent Circuit
  • 17. Tilak Dias Modelling Calculation of RH and RL Lleg Lhead RL  RH  A A RL Resistance of the stitch leg RH Resistance of the stitch head Lleg Yarn length in the stitch leg Lhead Yarn length in the stitch head A Yarn cross sectional area A Yarn cross sectional area ρ Resistivity of yarn ρ Resistivity of yarn
  • 18. Tilak Dias Equivalent resistive mesh circuit of the ECA Modelling 22 Equivalent Resistance (Req) 20 18 16 14 12 10 20 10 20 15 10 0 5 0 Relationship between equivalent resistance and stitch density of the ECA Dimensions of the ECA: m courses x n wales Assumption: Lleg = 2 Lhead
  • 19. Tilak Dias Theoretical Prediction of Current Distribution Current Distribution in Stitch Heads Temperature Distribution in Stitch Heads Current Distribution in Stitch Legs Temperature Distribution in Stitch Legs
  • 20. Tilak Dias Heating Glove Conductive pathways ThermoKnit® heater elements (ECA) Power Vs Temperature (Room temp: 25°C ) Voltage Vs Average Steady State Temperature (Room temp: 25°C)
  • 21. Tilak Dias Knitted Switch Technology “K-Switch” Motivation: Development of Next Generation of Textiles for the Automotive Industry Industry Requirement: • Textile based switches and sensors with electro conductive pathways • Heating textiles • Light emitting textiles (headliners)
  • 22. Tilak Dias Knitted structure with 4 dual ECAs (K-Switches) ECA2 ECA1 Knitted structure 20m m Constructional information: Principle of operation: The minimum gap between the ECAs: Measurement of DC resistance between • Yarn filament diameter; the two ECAs • Stitch length
  • 23. Tilak Dias K-Switch Technology DC Resistance variation Operation of the K-Switch Principle of operation: Measurement of the DC resistance between the two ECAs Determined with a precision digital multimeter under two wire resistance measurement configuration at 0.1s sample rate
  • 24. Tilak Dias K-Switch Technology DC Resistance variation with time Observation: less than 300µs settling time
  • 25. Tilak Dias Applications K-Switch Technology
  • 26. Tilak Dias K-Switch Technology Analysis Advantages: • Easy and reliable manufacture • Higher degree of design capability (3 yarn jacquard knitting) • Cost effective manufacture • Higher durability and life time • Straightforward integration of K-Switches for different applications Limitations: • Simple electronics • Switch characteristics depends on skin resistance • Ineffective to other materials
  • 27. Tilak Dias K-Switch Technology Modelling of Impedance between the ECAs Cole-Cole model equivalent circuit of the ECA - Skin - ECA Impedance
  • 28. Tilak Dias Influence of the measurement frequency on the impedance - open circuit of the ECAs Open circuit impedance is 0.1954 MΩ at frequencies greater than 2 MHz Impedance in MΩ K-Switch Technology Frequency in MHz
  • 29. Tilak Dias Impedance characteristics of K-Switch Closed circuit of the ECAs K-Switch Technology
  • 30. Tilak Dias Impedance characteristics of K-Switch Closed circuit of the ECAs K-Switch Technology
  • 31. Tilak Dias Electro-Luminescent Fibre Structures Theoretical background: Exposure of an electroluminescent substance to a high frequency electrical field radiate light The state-of-the-art EL polymer sheets Screen printing micro-encapsulated phosphors (Osram) on to plastic sheets EL layer (µm) Conductive transparent layer (µm) 2 dielectric layers (µm) Silver layer (µm) Plastic sheet (base)
  • 32. Tilak Dias EL Yarn Technology Motivation: Develop EL Yarns which could be integrated into textile structures Concept 1. Electro-conductive yarn 2. Dielectric layer 3. EL layer 4. Transparent protective layer 5. Conductive wire
  • 33. Tilak Dias Experimental Rig
  • 34. Tilak Dias Not activated Activated – low frequency Knitted EL Samples Activated – high frequency
  • 35. Tilak Dias Application of EL Fibres • Light Emitting Textiles • Transport sector, passenger cabin design of vehicles; e.g. headliners, carpets, upholstery • Advertising industry; e.g. flexible and drapable billboards and notice boards • Buildings; e.g. ceilings, walls, carpets • Household products; e.g. curtains, furniture fabrics, wall hangings, lamp shades, decorative products • Safety and security products • Light Emitting Braids and Ropes • Safety and security products • Decorative and fashion products
  • 36. Tilak Dias Garment System for vital sign monitoring Background Suggestion from School of Medicine, University of Manchester Initiation of partnership between Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering (ISBE), Medical School; Digital Signal Processing Group (DSPG), School of Electrical & Electronics, and Department of Textiles (UMIST) in 2002 Initial funding from The Department of Trade and Industry, UK Setting-up research team for Science & Technology development
  • 37. Tilak Dias Research Achievements • Creation of Science base for knitted transducers • Knitted dry electrodes • Knitted strain gauges • Knitted inductive sensors • Knitted conductive pathways • Development of technology for producing a garment with integrally knitted sensors and conductive pathways • Development of vest with 2 lead ECG (proof of concept)
  • 38. Tilak Dias Commercialisation of Technology • IPR protected by UMIP 1 core patent • IPR assigned to a group of entrepreneurs • Formation of a joint venture company by UMIP SmartLife® Technology Ltd • Raised funds by SmartLife® for development of core technology in the University (SoM, ISBE, DSPG) • Development of “Health Vest” with 3 leads ECG, Respiratory and Skin Temperature monitoring • Development of hardware and signal processing software
  • 39. Tilak Dias SmartLife® Health Vest 2004 2004 2007
  • 40. Tilak Dias Signal comparison Signal from standard Ag/AgCl Gel electrodes Signal from SmartLife® electrodes Amplitude (mV) Duration (ms) Signal Section Ag/AgCl Vest Ag/AgCl Vest P wave 0.2 0.3 120 120 QRS complex 2.0 2.5 80 80 T wave 0.5 0.5 240 240
  • 41. Tilak Dias Target Markets 1. Health, Wellbeing & Homecare Market size e.g. cardiovascular: ECG US$8bn1  Predictive monitoring  Clinical monitoring of patients in their own homes 2. Sports Estimated market size US$2bn – Professional Personal monitoring  Training, lifestyle, personal 3. Hazardous Environment – first responders, military Estimated market size US$2bn [1] Global Market For Patient Monitoring devices US$11.4bn (Frost & Sullivan 2005)
  • 42. Tilak Dias Current Research Sensor sock for drop foot detection High frequency textile antenna
  • 43. Tilak Dias Future …… Electronically functional yarns Fibres and yarns with sensors, transducers and activators
  • 44. Tilak Dias Apparel Manufacturing Process Interface Key process steps Integration of electronic devices with apparels Active and sensory micro-devices GARMENT Fibres/Yarn Fabric Garment Manufacture Manufacture 2nd Generation Manufacture 3rd Generation 1st Generation 1st Generation
  • 45. Tilak Dias Electronically active and sensor fibres Technology is based on the encapsulated area not exceeding 110% of the thread thickness
  • 46. Tilak Dias Vision The development of novel technology for fabricating electronically active and sensor fibres which will be the basic building blocks of the next generation ‘SMART’ fibrous materials
  • 47. Tilak Dias Micro-device Encapsulation Technology Involves encapsulating devices with a flexible hermetic seal for mechanical, thermal and electrical protection
  • 48. Tilak Dias MET Platform μ-devices: • electronic chips • magnetic devices • optical devices • thermal devices Schematic diagram of a yarn device • Development of the concept of encapsulating • Mathematical modelling • Design and development of an experimental rig • Demonstrator E-Yarn with a working diode (LED) and RFID tag
  • 49. Tilak Dias MET Platform
  • 50. Tilak Dias INVENTION Micro-device Encapsulation Technology Platform Prototype Demonstrator ?
  • 51. Tilak Dias Demonstrator 1 Light Emitting Fibres Yarn with a working Diode Energised (0.4 x 1.0 x 0.3 mm LED)
  • 52. Tilak Dias Light Emitting Garments Events Garments
  • 53. Tilak Dias Demonstrator 2 RFID Fibres Aim: Development of MET for embedding Hitachi MU Tag © Copyright EntellFibres Ltd 2008
  • 54. Tilak Dias Current Research Development of light emitting fabrics • Active fashion garments • Displays Development of sensory yarn capable of: • Monitoring strain/stress • Sensing temperature • Pressure measurement • Sensing fluids/liquids
  • 55. Thank You