Au Psy492 E Portfolio Gilbert S
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Au Psy492 E Portfolio Gilbert S



Argosy University Eportfolio

Argosy University Eportfolio



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  • Attention Deficit Disorder and Criminal Activity is a subject which researchers are just beginning to look into based on the amount of criminals who are currently suffering from ADD or ADHD and the amount of juvenile delinquents who are suffering from ADD and ADHD.
  • When looking into a possible link between ADD/ADHD and criminal activity it is important to fully understand what ADD/ADHD is. This slide gives an overview of the key points of ADD and ADHD.
  • The importance a person’s quality of life has on the decisions they make throughout life.
  • Long term effects of having ADD or ADHD.
  • Individuals who suffer from ADD or ADHD are more likely to commit the following criminal activity.
  • Seeing how treatment often only slightly increases the quality of life of an individual suffering from this condition it is important to also look at the side effects of the medications.
  • Although there appears to be a strong link between those who suffer from ADD/ADHD and criminal activity there are other things to consider as not every person who suffers from ADD/ADHD ends up on a path of criminal activity.
  • Since it is apparent that there is a link between ADD/ADHD and Criminal Activity it is important to continue research and expand the research to include more detailed theories so as to have a better understanding of how significant the link between the two is.

Au Psy492 E Portfolio Gilbert S Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 1
    Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio
    Stephanie L. Gilbert
    Bachelor of Arts in Psychology, 2010
  • 2. Personal Statement
    Psychology has always been a subject which I find fascinating, but always worried if I would
    be successful in the field of psychology. I first went to college to study design so I could go to
    work for my father’s company and help my brother mold it into something bigger than my father
    every imagined. As many people know plans do not always work the way we plan out, yet I
    continued down a similar path just at a different company. Design and architecture has always
    been in my family so I continued to work for architecture firms over the past ten years. Ironically
    I was never in a design position even though that is what I initially studied. I ended up on
    the path of Office and Accounting Management. My time as an Office and Accounting Manager
    made me realize what parts of a job I enjoyed and what parts I did not enjoy. After discovering
    the fields I excelled at I was still anxious to find more of a balance between what came naturally
    to me and what I would in the end enjoy. It was at this time that I went back to school for
    Going back to school influenced me to more parts of Psychology than I ever dreamed were
    out there. At this time I would like to find a position which falls under forensic psychology or child
    psychology. My hope is to incorporate the two and help the youths who have been either
    exposed by their parents to criminal activity or have committed a crime themselves. The youth
    of society are very impressionable and more often than we should we hear about cases in which
    a youth commits a horrific crime. Reaching out to these youth before they get to the point of
    committing the crime is important, yet can sometimes be overlooked. At the very
    least being involved with various high schools could make a difference; and running
    a specialized program could make an even bigger impact.
  • 3. Resume
    Education: Argosy University, 2009-2010, Bachelor of Arts in Psychology, Focus in Forensic Psychology
      Art Institute of Dallas, 2001-2002, Fashion Design, Fashion Illustration
      Texas Christian University, 1998-2001, Interior Design, Lighting
     Software: Adobe Creative Suite CS-CS3, Microsoft Office, Quickbooks, Deltek
    SMS Architects, Irvine, California April 2009- December 2009
    Office and Accounting Manager / Marketing
    Completely set up all accounting software and created marketing material for Architecture firm prior to the opening in April of 2009.
    Maintained all financial records, reports, billings, and marketing material after office opened.
    Handled Human Resources Issues.
    MBH Architects, Newport Beach, California May 2006- April 2009
    Accounting Manager / Office Manager
    All contracts and accounting duties for the office including: Creating/ Maintaining financial reports, overseeing project billings for all project managers and directors, visa reconciliation, processing office expense billings including overhead bills, and printing company bills. Issued, processed, and tracked all contract, consultant contracts, work authorizations, and additional services for four departments.
    Managed / Maintained all office issues including office relations, office maintenance, employee complaints, and other human resource issues.
    Assisted Principal of the company and coordinated with Principals in Company Headquarters in Alameda, California.
    Responded to all Requests for Proposals for entire office.Created and Updated of all Marketing Material.
    Seek out, establish, and maintained relationships with both Clients and Consultants. Worked with the Director of Marketing in booking appointments, creating and presenting presentations, and designing of marketing material.
    Managed Administrative Staff of three.
    Coordinated with IT department on server, printer, and minor CPU issues.
    Scheduled all meetings and travel for Directors and Principals along with maintaining own Marketing Schedule.
    Created, Maintained, and followed up on all Project Schedules.
    Preformed orientation of new hires and delegated duties to other administrative staff.
  • 4. Reflection
    My overall college education experience has been wide ranging with a variety of
    majors over the year. Although it took me a while to determine what area of study
    was the best fit for me what I have learned studying psychology has been some of
    the most memorable classes I have had. While only attending Argosy University for
    a year and a half almost all of my classes were psychology based classes. I feel I
    came to Argosy with some strengths which have I have been able to continue to
    excel at. For example my communicating and listening skills, my ability to stay
    unbiased during a discussion, and ability to keep ethical circumstances in mind.
    These skills which I came to Argosy with came from working many years in an
    human resources position. Some of my other strengths which I discovered while at
    Argosy include the ability to formulate research ideas and find the material to back
    them up. All of my classes which had this requirement I excelled at. I have also
    been complimented on being able to think outside the typical box and come up with
    some new and interesting ideas for research. Some of my strengths include
    anything involving computing statistics on my own. It does not matter if they are
    regular statistics or psychology based statistics it is an area in which I am not as
    strong as I would like to be in. I also feel my writing skills have improved overall
    from this class. There is something to be said for being forced to communicate
    solely in writing and never having face on face contact with the people in your class.
  • 5. Table of Contents
    Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
    Research Skills
    Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Foundations of Psychology
    Applied Psychology
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
    **Include work samples and projects with a Title Page and organized accordingly to demonstrate each of the Program Outcomes above
  • 6. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
    Health insurance is coverage by a health plan which a consumer pays premiums on in order to be able to receive the
    healthcare needed when they are ill (Health Insurance Resource Center, 2010). There are various plans which an
    Individual can have there is employee sponsored health insurance, government sponsored health insurance, and private
    coverage health insurance (Health Insurance Resource Center, 2010). Americans today spend an ever increasing amount
    of money for coverage which fits their needs (New York Times, 2010). The coverage of insurance is not always created
    equally among companies. Ideally health insurance should cover any procedure and medication needed by a consumer,
    but unfortunately this is not the case (New York Times, 2010). When asked if insurance companies should be required to
    pay for breast reconstruction, birth control pills, or viagra the answer is yes. Consumers pay insurance premiums so they
    can always get the services and medications which they need. The type of service should not be an issue even if is
    considered a cosmetic necessity it should still be covered.
    In 1998 a new federal law was passed which was called the Women’s Health and Cancer Rights Act of 1998 which
    requires health insurance plans to cover the breast reconstruction in connection with a mastectomy if the patient chooses
    reconstruction (Health Care Choices, 2010). This bill allows for those who have suffered from Cancer and a mastectomy
    to reconstruct their breasts and attempt to become whole again. The coverage should not stop there though. Anyone who
    wants breast reconstruction and pays for insurance should be allowed to have at least a portion of it covered by their
    Insurance. The fact that it is based on whether or not a person has cancer could be considered discriminating. For
    example a person who suffers from back pain, or self esteem issues due to large breasts should be able to have the same
    reconstructive surgery as one who suffered through cancer and a mastectomy.
    In 2007, courts ruled that health insurance companies may bar birth control pills and other contraceptives from their
    coverage plans if they desire to do so (New York Times, 2007). This ruling came after several sex discrimination lawsuits
    by female employees on Union Pacific (New York Times, 2007). The women felt they were discriminated against by not
    being able to purchase birth control pills and have insurance companies cover a portion of it (New York Times, 2007).
    Insurance companies responded by saying they also do not cover condoms or vasectomy’s therefore proving they were
    not discriminating against the women but against forms of birth control (New York Times, 2007). Most do not agree with
    this ruling and feel that both birth control contraceptives along with fertility drugs should be covered by insurance
    companies even if only a percentage of the costs are covered (New York Times, 2007).
  • 7. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
    Birth control is considered a medication just like heart medicine or blood pressure medicine and a portion of it should
    at least be covered by insurance especially considering individuals pay the premiums. It is not fair for an insurance
    company to pick and choose the drugs which it covers just because the drug is not needed for a life or death health issue.
    Viagra is another drug which should be covered by insurance even though it is not considered a treatment for a life-
    threatening disease. In June of 1998 it was announced that many of the top insurance companies in the country would no
    longer cover the cost of Viagra claiming it was too expensive, the demand of the drug had a potential for abuse, and not
    medically necessary (New York Times, 1998). Pfizer has said it recommended ten pills a month based on their research
    which insurance companies feel could cost them approximately one hundred million a year to cover the cost of the drug
    (New York Times, 1998).
    Most people feel everyone should be eligible for health insurance and that it should cover anything and everything a
    patient could ever need. Insurance companies should not be mandating what is necessary and what is not necessary for
    an individual’s well being. As expensive as insurance is today to an individual it is crazy to think that they might not cover
    what we feel is necessary to lead happy and healthy lives. If things such as breast reconstruction, birth control pills, and
    viagra will lead to a happier and healthier life in an individual then it should be up to the individual not the insurance
    company. Today insurance tends to be expensive, hard to come by unless you are employed, and the coverage is often
    lacking to say the least. Given the present circumstances of the economy and the nation most would appreciate just
    having insurance instead of worrying about whether or not everything they could ever want and need is covered.
    Health Care Choices. Expanded insurance coverage for breast reconstruction for mastectomy patients. Retrieved from on March 21, 2010.
    Health Insurance Resource. Health Insurance. Retrieved from on March 21, 2010.
    New York Times. Health Insurance: What you need to know, February 2, 2009. Retrieved from on March 21, 2010.
    New York Times. Many Insurers are deciding not to cover cost of viagra, June 20, 1998. Retrieved from on March 21, 2010.
    New York Times. Court says health coverage may bar birth-control pills, March 17, 2007. Retrieved from on March 21, 2010.
  • 8. The following Slides are from a Research Project which was completed while at Argosy University.
    Research Skills
  • 9. Attention Deficit Disorder and Criminal Activity
    Stephanie Gilbert, December 13, 2010
    Attention Deficit Disorder and Criminal Activity
  • 10. Is there a link between ADD/ADHD and Criminal Activity ?
    Why the question is asked?
    • It is important to discover what some of the traits are in people which may or may not have an effect on whether or not they are more likely to commit a crime.
    Why is this important to consider?
    • Recent studies of criminals have discovered that many have either had ADD or ADHD.
    • 11. By determining what is at the root of the link between ADD/ADHD and criminal behavior , society can take the results and make the appropriate changes to decrease criminal activity.
  • ADD/ADHD Facts
    • Attention Deficit Disorder or Hyperactive Attention Deficit Disorder is a common disorder among children and adults which was first diagnosed in 1902 (Additude Magazine, 2010).
    • 12. ADD/ADHD were previously referred to as “Defect of Moral Control”, “Minimal Brain Damage”, and “Hyperkinetic Disorder” (Additude Magazine, 2010).
    • 13. ADD or ADHD can be defined as a chronic condition which affects millions of children and adults and include symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, low self-esteem, and troubled relationships (Mayo Clinic, 2010).
    • 14. Approximately three to five percent of the population of the United States suffers from either ADD or ADHD (Additude Magazine, 2010).
    • 15. Unfortunately ADD / ADHD is not curable but there is a treatment which can help minimize the symptoms related to the disease.
    • 16. Although some believe ADD/ADHD can only occur in children recent studies shows that it last into adults and can show up in brain scans along with having a genetic link (Additude Magazine, 2010).
    • 17. There are a variety of medications available to treat individuals with this disorder. Some medications are government regulated, while others are of the more homeopathic type.
  • Reasons Why ADD/ADHD May Lead to Criminal Activity
    The main reason why there may be a significant link between ADD/ADHD and criminal activity has to do with an individual’s quality of life (Coghill, 2010).
    • An individual’s quality of life can be described as an individual’s subjective perception of their position in life as expressed in their physical, psychological, and social functioning (Coghill, 2010).
    • 18. Studies show that an individual who is diagnosed with ADD or ADHD has a lower quality of life than a person who does not suffer from this condition (Coghill, 2010).
    • 19. This study also explains that those who received medical treatment for the condition have a better quality of life than those who are not seeking treatment (Coghill, 2010). Unfortunately in many cases these medications only provide a short term increase in quality of life instead of a long term increase (Cognill, 2010).
  • When ADD/ADHD is left Untreated, What can happen?
    • Can cause a person to spiral out of control (Additude, 2010)
    • 20. Individuals are reported to have dropped out of school, lose jobs, and eventually fall into the criminal court system (Additude, 2010)
    • 21. Individuals are reported to have lower reading achievement scores, greater absenteeism, increased chance of being held back in school, behavioral issues, and issues with drug and alcohol abuse (4-adhd, 2010)
  • Criminal Activity in ADD/ADHD Individuals
    • The proportion of individuals who have been convicted and placed in jail and have ADD/ADHD is estimated to be high (Zimney, 2010)
    • 22. Issues start in individuals at a young age as a person who is suffering from ADD/ADHD are at a greater risk of being involved in a motor vehicle accident, drinking and driving, and traffic violations (PubMed, 2010).
    • 23. In a study of more than 10,000 adolescents which were later surveyed in adulthood found that children with ADHD were twice as likely to commit theft in their lifetime and fifty percent more likely to end up selling drugs (US News, 2010). The study also included analyzing the link of the individual symptoms to other crimes (US News, 2010).
  • Can the treatment be a part of the problem?
    The most common medications used to treat ADD/ADHD are Adderall, Ritalin, and Concerta
    • Adderall was approved by the FDA for treatment of ADD/ADHD in 1996 and is composed of a mixture of four different amphetamine salts which is taken orally by an individual (Additude, 2010)
    • 24. Side effects of Adderall can include everything from restlessness, dizziness, insomnia, headaches, dryness of the mouth, weight loss, euphoria, unpleasant taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and psychotic reactions (Additude, 2010)
    • 25. Ritalin is the brand name of methyphenidate which originated in 1956 and is considered to be a more controversial treatment of ADD/ADHD (Additude Magazine, 2010)
    • 26. Side effects include loss of appetite, nervousness, trouble sleeping, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, stomach pain, fast heartbeat, increased blood pressure, chest pain, fever, joint pain, skin rash and hives, unusual bleeding and bruising, blurred vision, agitation, confusion, convulsions, seizures, and false sense of well-being (Additude Magazine, 2010)
    • 27. Concerta is the newest medication used to treat ADD/ADHD (Additude Magazine, 2010).
    • 28. Side effects include headache, upper respiratory tract infection, stomachache, vomiting, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, increased cough, sore throat, sinusitis, dizziness, blurred vision, agitation, confusion, convulsions, and seizures (Additude Magazine, 2010)
  • ADD/ADHD and Other Considerations
    • Some studies show that most criminals did in fact have ADD or ADHD, most also had other disorders, family issues, economic issues, and other hardships which also played into why they ended up on the life path which they did (Pardini & Fite, 2010)
    • 29. ADD and ADHD is often associated with other disorders such as depression, mental disorders, conduct disorders, and oppositional defiant disorders.
  • Facts about Criminals and ADD/ADHD
    • When looking into the mental health of criminals a majority of them do suffer from ADD or ADHD
    • 30. Most of them have either been undiagnosed or untreated for this disorder, but this is usual not the only reason for concern among these criminals
  • Future Research theories to Consider
    • Were the majority of convicted criminals who were diagnosed with ADD or ADHD taking medication at the time of their conviction? If so, which medication and did they express any extreme symptoms from the medication?
    • 31. Were the majority of convicted criminals who were diagnosed with ADD or ADHD also diagnosed with other conditions such as depression, mental disorders, conduct disorders, or oppositional defiant disorder? If so were they receiving treatment for these disorders?
  • Conclusion
    It seems clear that having ADD or ADHD alone will not make your more likely to end up as a criminal, but it does seem to be part of the puzzle. Society is trying to lower the overall crime rate so as to make the world a safer place. When doing this it is important to try to understand what makes a person follow a life of crime. Is it meanness, necessity, because of lack of treatment of disorders, or because of side effects related to medications involved in treatment of disorders? By further researching this it will raise awareness so as to help prevent others from following these patterns. Further research will also determine the effects of multiple conditions on the mind and how it relates to criminal activity. Research should also continue to be conducted to determine how sage the medications are which we use to treat all of the individuals which suffer from ADD/ADHD. Even if the research just rules out a possibility this would still take us one step closer to understanding why some individuals commit the horrific acts which they commit. We can’t help lower the crime rate by sitting around and doing nothing so by looking at disorders such as this which is most often diagnosed when a person is a child could provide some enlightenment as to why a person does what they do therefore providing a way to provide prevention in society.
  • 32. References
    Mayo Clinic. (2010). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Retrieved on November 1, 2010 from
    Additude Magazine (2010) Living with Attention Deficit. Retrieved on December 1, 2010 from
    Pardini, D., & Fite, P.. (2010). Symptoms of Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Callous-Unemotional Traits as Unique Predictors of Psychosocial Maladjustment in Boys: Advancing an Evidence Base for DSM-V. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(11), 1134.  Retrieved November 5, 2010, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete. (Document ID: 2178861431).
    Pediatrics; Scientists at Yale University target pediatrics. (2010, October). Mental Health Weekly Digest,2923.  Retrieved November 5, 2010, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete. (Document ID: 2167950561).
    Coghill, D.. (2010). The Impact of Medications on Quality of Life in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder :A Systematic Review.CNS Drugs, 24(10), 843-866.  Retrieved November 5, 2010, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete. (Document ID: 2137437181).
    Young, S., & Goodwin, E.. (2010). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in persistent criminal offenders: the need for specialist treatment programs. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 10(10), 1497-500.  Retrieved November 5, 2010, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete. (Document ID: 2174557581).
    Miller, D., Derefinko, K., Lynam, D., Milich, R., & Fillmore, M.. (2010). Impulsivity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Subtype Classification Using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32(3), 323-332.  Retrieved November 5, 2010, from Criminal Justice Periodicals. (Document ID: 2108887191).
    Lee, Z., Klaver, J., Hart, S., Moretti, M., & Douglas, K. (2009). Short-Term Stability of Psychopathic Traits in Adolescent Offenders. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38(5), 595-605. doi:10.1080/15374410903103536.
    4ADHD. (2010). ADHD, Criminal Behavior and Academic Performance. Retrieved on November 4, 2010 from
    U.S. News (2010). Childhood ADHD Linked to Criminal Behavior in Adults. Retrieved on November 4, 2010 from
    Zimney, Ed (2010). Behind Bars: ADHD and Criminal Behavior. Retrieved on December 1, 2010 from
  • 33. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Course Project
    PSY400 Counseling Theories
    The only option Sabina’s therapist has if she ran into Sabina in public is to wait and see if Sabina acknowledges her therapist in public. Sabina’s therapist has an ethical obligation to maintain Sabina’s confidentiality (Nystul, 2003, p 3). If Sabina’s therapist approaches Sabina without “waiting to determine if the clients want to be identified” this is considered a breach in confidentiality (Nystul, 2003, p 3).
    Sabina’s therapist is aware of her ethical responsibility to Sabina. According to the APA Code (2002) “Psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all people, and the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, and self-determination”. “Psychologists are aware that special safeguards may be necessary to protect the rights and welfare of persons or communities whose vulnerabilities impair autonomous decision making” (APA Code, 2002). Keeping in mind the APA Code Sabina’s therapist should follow Sabina’s lead. If Sabina approaches her therapist and introduces her as a friend or acquaintance then Sabina’s therapist should follow her lead. If Sabina is honest and introduces her as her therapist then her therapist should still keep the conversation short and vague as to not release any information about Sabina’s therapy to her husband. If Sabina’s therapist stays to chat with Sabina and her husband then she runs the risk of starting a “dual relationship” (Nystul, 2003, p 4) with Sabina and her husband. A dual relationship is when a therapists plays too roles in Sabina’s world; one as her therapist and one as her friend” (Nystul, 2003, p 4).
    If Sabina’s therapist acknowledged her without waiting for a signal from Sabina saying it was ok then anyone might be ashamed if acknowledged in that way no matter what cultural background they came from. Given Sabina’s cultural background she might embrace the relationship she has with her therapist. “In most other cultures dual relationships are the norm rather than the exception” which might make Sabina proud of her relationship with her therapist (Argosy University, 2009, p 1).
    Clients from different ethnicities tend to make the counseling process more difficult to determine what is considered ethical and unethical. One example is the trend of gift giving in minority groups. This is considered an appropriate way of showing appreciation but is considered unethical for a therapist to accept (Argosy University, 2009, p 1). Another example would be as I mentioned dual relationships. “As a result it would be necessary to explain to clients why you cannot also see their friends and family members for therapy, or why you cannot attend their anniversary party” (Argosy University, 2009, p 1). Therapists can handle these situations on a case by case basis as they need to balance what is considered ethical and what will affect their clients in a negative way.
    American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethics Principals of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.
    Nystul, M. S. (2003). Ethical Issues in Counseling Practice. Argosy University.

    Argosy University. (2009). Ethics in Multicultural Counseling.
  • 34. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Gender and Culture Bias
    PSY400 Counseling Theories
    Debrah’sson Anthony who is 13 years old has an East Indian friend called Chaya. Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Kapoor object to their daughter being friends with Anthony. They tell Debrah that they think Anthony is a fine boy, but that they think it is inappropriate for Chaya to be playing football with other boys. They say that even though they live in America, they cannot forget their own culture and that it is time for Chaya to stop being a child and to start being a girl.
    Identify any gender and cultural biases in the provided case scenario.
    Feminist therapists believe “societal gender-role expectations profoundly influence a person’s identity from the moment of birth and become deeply ingrained in adult personality” (Corey, 2009, p 346). It is believed a women’s sense of self and morality is based in issues of responsibility and care for other people and is embedded in a cultural context (Corey, 2009). Chaya’s parents are raising her to be forced into a stereotypical role of a woman in society. Their culture implies that girls should act like girls and boys like boys. Chaya’s parents exhibit cultural biases and gender biases when they make comments referring to Chaya acting like a girl and when they restrict her from playing sports with boys. It follows a gendercentric mindset which proposes two separate paths of development for men and women (Corey, 2009). This uncritical acceptance of traditional roles can greatly restrict Chaya’s range of freedom which may result in Chaya rebelling or living an unfulfilling life.
    A feminist would say, “Women have been restricted by their cultural conditioning and by accepting gender-role stereotypes that keep them in an inferior position.”
    How do you think Mrs. Kapoor would react to this statement?
    Mrs. Kappoor would probably disagree with the statement “women have been restricted by their cultural conditioning and by accepting gender-role stereotypes that keep them in an inferior position”. She would probably become offended by this statement as it is obvious Mrs. Kapoor is very proud of her culture and sees nothing wrong with its methods and beliefs. She also would probably defend her position and her culture as it is the path she followed.
    What are the implications of Mr. and Mrs. Kapoor’s attitude to their daughter in the long run?
    According to Corey (2009), “Females are raised in a culture grounded in sexism, and they internalize the oppression” (p 347) which is what will happen to Chaya. Chaya will lack mutual behavioral characteristics such as accepting herself as being independent, giving to others, being open to receiving, thinking and feeling, and being tender and tough” (Corey, 2009, p 347). She will also miss out on a chance to be equal with everyone else, value the diversity around her, the ability to be independent, and to define herself in a way which will make her happy (Corey, 2009).
     Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th Edition). Belmont, California: Thomson Brooks / Cole, a part of The Thomson Corporation.
  • 35. Foundations of Psychology
    Personality Theory 
    Course Project: Module 6, Assignment 3
     Course Code: PSY361 
    Date: October 16, 2010
    The way people act in a particular situation depends on the reciprocity of behavioral, environmental, and cognitive conditions, including the factors which relate to their beliefs that they can or cannot execute the behavior necessary to produce desired outcomes in any particular situation is called self-efficacy (Feist, J & G, 2009). These beliefs in their personal efficacy will influence the actions which they choose to purse and how much effort they will invest in activities, how long they will persevere in the face of obstacles and failure experiences (Feist, J & G, 2009). Personal efficacy is acquired, enhanced, or decreased through a combination of four sources which are mastery experiences, social modeling, social persuasion, and physical and emotional states (Fesit, J & G, 2009).
    Being a parent is one of the most difficult jobs there is, and no one prepares you for how difficult it will actually be. You can read books, talk to doctors, and talk to other friends which are parents, but in the end it is your own actions which determine the path of your parenting. Low self-efficacy is when the desired outcome is not what you hope with would be. With parenting this can happen often and sometime with no direct reason as to why. Parents often wake up in the morning hoping that they day will go well, their children will mind, and all will be peaceful. When parents have infants not only is there the stress of being the perfect parent but you have to figure out what it is the child wants and needs without the child being able to communicate it on their own. This can often be frustrating for a parent and can make the parent feel like a failure if they cannot figure out what is wrong with their baby. These feelings of frustration or failure can lead to feelings of self-efficacy. Another example is if a parent of a toddler might effectively be able to talk them out of a temper tantrum one day but the next day may be pushed to the point of making the child cry and scream it out. Low self-efficacy can occur when the parent has to repeatedly let the child cry and scream it out instead of being able to reassure and calm the child down. This situation can be frustrating and upsetting for the parent. Parents also go thru the trials that their children encounter. For example the first time a adolescent has to deal with a bully at school or in the neighborhood it is hard on the child too. The parent can give the child advice on what to do, but if the bully still bothers then child then not only does the child start to feel low self-efficacy, but so does the parent. It is very difficult to try to help our children and not be able to do so in a positive and successful way. Another situation is a parent trying to talk to their teenage son or daughter. Parents repeatedly try to communicate with their teenagers so as to know what is going on in their life but it can often be difficult to balance the relationship and the communication. If they push too much the teenagers can stop confiding in them and start hiding or lying to their parents resulting in low self-efficacy in the parents.
  • 36. Foundations of Psychology
    Personality Theory 
     Course Code: PSY361 
     On the other hand if the parent does not push enough to find out what is going on then the teenagers can feel as though they have no one to turn to and can make bad decisions which can also cause low self-efficacy in the parents. When you become a parent it is your responsibility not only to care for a child but to make sure they are raised in a way which makes them positive members of society. Sometimes this does not always work out the way parents hope which is why they can end of up with low self- efficacy. Low self-efficacy usually comes from within and starts with the pressure we and society put on ourselves to do things the best possible way. When you are a parent you are constantly judged whether your child is young and running wild, older and talking back, or a teenager who dresses strangely society is constantly watching you to see if you are doing what they think is the right thing to do. This constant second guessing, and butting in of other family members and friends causes us to second guess ourselves which ends up with low self-efficacy. The best way to overcome these feelings of low self-efficacy is to focus on the positive times of parenting and to remember it is your child and you are the one who knows your child the best therefore you should start by making choices which are right for you and your child. Also keeping in mind how difficult parenting is you should keep in mind that everyone is in the same boat and that there is no rule book for you to follow. A lot of parenting involves trial and error and as long as you don’t let the bad times get the best of you, then you should be able to maintain a more balanced self-efficacy.
    Feist. J & Feist. G. (2009). Theories of Personality. (Seventh Edition). New York, New York. McGraw-Hill Companies, Incorporated.
  • 37. Foundations of Psychology
    PSY361 Personality Theory
    Self-Actualization in Action
    Rogers and Maslow both use the term self-actualization but apply the concept somewhat differently. Rogers says that the human organism has an underlying actualization tendency, which aims to develop all his or her capacities in ways that maintain or enhance the growth of that person. It can be seen as a push to experience self in a way that is consistent with a person’s conscious view of self. Maslow states that the need for self-actualization is the desire to become increasingly what one is, which means to become everything that one is capable of becoming. Although both, Rogers and Maslow initially sound similar, there are important differences in their approaches.
       According to Rogers self-actualization is a subset of the actualization tendency and is therefore not synonymous with it; the actualization tendency refers to the organismic experiences of the individual which refers to the entire person both conscious and unconscious (Feist J & G, 2009). Self actualization also includes the tendency to actualize a person’s self as it is perceived by others (Fesit J & G, 2009). Within this concept Rogers came up with self-concept and the ideal self. Self-concept are the aspects of a person’s being and a person’s experience (Feist J & G, 2009). The self-concept is not the same as the organismic self which contains parts of a person which they are unaware of (Feist J & G, 2009). Once a person determines their self-concept they often find it difficult to make changes or to learn new ways (Feist J & G, 2009). The ideal self is a subsystem of a person’s self and can be defined as ones view of themselves as they hope it is instead of actually is (Feist J & G, 2009). Having awareness of a persons self-concept and ideal self is what determines whether or not a person is congruent or incongruent (Feist J & G, 2009).
    Maslow’s theory of self-actualization was based on whether or not a person was free from psychopathology meaning they were neither neurotic nor psychotic, and that self actualizing people had progressed through the hierarchy of needs therefore the subsistence level of existence had not threat on their safety (Feist J & G, 2009). He also believed that self-actualized people were better capable of handling frustration, criticism, and scorn because they had their lower level needs satisfied (Feist J & G, 2009). Another criteria for self-actualization was embracing of the b values meaning they felt comfortable and wanted truth, beauty, justice, simplicity, and humor (Feist J & G, 2009). The final criterion was the full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, and potentialities which allowed a person to fulfill their needs to grow, develop, and become what they are capable of becoming (Feist J & G, 2009).
    Feist. J & Feist. G. (2009). Theories of Personality. (Seventh Edition). New York, New York. McGraw-Hill Companies, Incorporated.
  • 38. Applied Psychology
    Crime and Causes
     Fragmentation of Society
     Course Code: PSY493
    Karl Marx is said to be the founder of the conflict theory in criminology (Argosy University, 2010). Conflict theory is based on a set of assumptions about the order and distribution of power, wealth, and resources in society create a conflict between segments in the society (Argosy University, 2010). According to Marx and the conflict theory, conflict exists primarily between the wealthy and the poor (Argosy University, 2010). He also believed that the interests of groups shape the values, norms, and crimes found within society (Argosy University, 2010). There is conflict between the material forces of production or the ability, knowledge, skills, technological means, and organization to produce along with the social relations of production including the relationships between people who receive and produce and the profit (Argosy University, 2010).
    Marx wrote his theory during the Industrial Revolution which changed and eliminated a thousand years of feudal society (Argosy University, 2010). Marx felt that feudalism was overturned based on the need of production of goods being more important than the needs of social relationships of feudalism (Argosy University, 2010). He felt that this would then lead to a revolution in social relationships (Argosy University, 2010). Marx is also known for his “haves and have nots” (Argosy University, 2010). The “haves” have to do with accumulating more and more means of production by eliminating the competition through takeovers and mergers, bankruptcy, and the survival of the fittest (Argosy University, 2010). This would cause the ownership class to become smaller therefore the wage earners class becoming larger and poorer (Argosy University, 2010). He also thought this revolution might cause more laws to be formed, more voting, more socially progressive candidates and parties, and a more violent confrontation within society (Argosy University, 2010). Marx believed that with wealth came power and so the wealthy “haves” develop more power than the workers “have-nots” (Argosy University, 2010).
    Based on this knowledge of Karl Marx and his theories if I was him today and I would agree to the statement "Some argue that the fragmentation of life in the United States leads to social pathology. We all can be replaced in our work by any other person who can do the job. Specialization is so atomized that people working next to each other don't understand what each is doing. Time is lived by the clock, not lived qua living." In today’s economy you are lucky to have certain things in your life which once came more easily to people. You are lucky if you have a job, if you have a house, a car, and money in your bank account. In February of 2008 the United States Unemployment Rate was 4.8 percent and in February of 2010 the unemployment rate was 9.7 percent (Trading Economics, 2010). This makes the work place a very desperate place and those who have jobs realize if they do not work hard, do not do what they are supposed to do, and do not appreciate the jobs they have that they can easily be replaced by a person who is desperate for a job.
  • 39. Applied Psychology
    Crime and Causes
     Fragmentation of Society
     Course Code: PSY493
    These facts make the workplace a very difficult place to be because the higher ups and the bosses can take advantage of the employees knowing they have the upper hand. In today’s society people who have a job tend to stay to themselves and just work when they are at work. Having a specialized field is no longer as important as it once was it is more important to be able to play by the rules and survive in the eyes of the owners or bosses.
    It is apparent that he owners have the upper hand in today’s society. Not only do they control the fate of their employees and tend to hold the standards of each employee much higher than they did in a day in which there were a lot of available jobs, but they also are going after their competitors too. Every day we read about business going out of business, filing for bankruptcy, or being bought out by a bigger company. The retail and building specialties of the economy have been hit extremely hard. Retailers are constantly going out of business and as a consumer if it is not on sale then chances are the consumer will not be willing to buy it. The economy is in a state in which if you are going to spend your money then the consumer is expecting to receive a huge concept or they will buy something similar from someone else. As far as the building industry it has dropped severely also. The prices of land have dropped and those who bought the land when its value was at a high are at risk of losing everything. Banks are also no longer lending money as often as they once were so it is up to builders to front the money themselves. This again shows an example of the survival of the fittest or the one with the most power wins. Those with the money have the power and they are the ones who are surviving.
    The statement “Time is lived by the clock, not lived qua living” is an interesting statement and one which applies to society today and also follows the Marx theory of what might happen. Today time is lived by what you do, what you achieve how much money you make, how much power you have, and who comes out on top. Time is not lived by living life to its fullest, equally, and happily. I think society would be more balanced and in better shape if the focus were to shift to living life instead of living life by the clock.
    Argosy University (2010). Marxist Theory and Conflict Criminology. Retrieved on August 13, 2010 from
    Trading Economics (2010). United States Unemployment Rate. Retrieved on August 16, 2010
  • 40. Applied Psychology
    Physiological Psychology
    Course Code: PSY350 
      Sally is most likely suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. “Posttraumatic stress disorder is caused by a situation in which a person has experienced, witnessed, or confronted with an event or events which involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others” (Carlson, 2009). PTSD can cause intense fear, helplessness, or horror along with recurrent dreams or recollections of the event and feelings that the traumatic event is repeating itself (Carlson, 2009). Other symptoms of PTSD include difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, irritability, angry outbursts, difficulty concentrating, and reacting to noises and movements (Carlson, 2009). Panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and depressive disorder are also side effects of PTSD (Carlson, 2009). The stress which PTSD has caused on Sally’s brain has also increased the amount of memory loss which Sally is experiencing (Carlson, 2009). There are very few antidepressants which have been proven to be affective in the treatment of PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatment, 2010). The drugs which have proven effective in treating PTSD are sertraline or Zoloft, propranalol or inderol. It is possible that if Sally were to try one of these antidepressents then the treatment might be more successful than her previous medicines. In order for PTSD treatment to be successful the medicines must be combined with psychotherapy. Without the psychotherapy a person suffering from PTSD will not improve the symptoms enough to be considered a successful treatment (PTSD, 2010).
    Ethics and diversity are very sensitive issues which must be handled delicately and fairly. Any place which is not considered ethnically diverse will be discriminated against as a result. Diversity is considered an extremely sensitive issue and should be handled with knowledge and care. Informed consent is what protects Doctors of all kinds. “It is a process of communication between the patient and the physician that results in the patient’s authorization or agreement to undergo a specific medical intervention” (Informed Consent, 2010). Since you are providing treatment to your patient regarding the diagnosis, the nature and purpose of the treatment, the risks and benefits, alternatives, and the risk factors of the alternatives (Informed Consent, 2010). This also allows for the patient to have an opportunity to ask questions and receive a better understanding of the treatment so you can make an informed decision on the treatment (Informed Consent, 2010). It is the physician’s ethical duty to maintain the confidentiality of their patient and to not disclose any information as it relates to their medical treatment or diagnosis (Patient Confidentiality, 2010). The physician patient relationship is completely confidential (Patient Confidentiality, 2010). Information regarding the patient can only be released to others per the patient’s consent or if a patient threatens bodily harm to themselves or another person (Patient Confidentiality, 2010).
    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatment, Retrieved from on March 3, 2010.
    PTSD. Retrieved from on March 3, 2010.
    Informed Consent. Retrieved from on March 3, 2010.
    Patient Confidentiality. Retrieved from on March 3, 2010.
    Carslon, N.R. (2010). Physiology of Behavior. (Tenth Edition). Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon.
  • 41. Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Reflection Paper
    Stephanie Gilbert
    PSY180 Interpersonal Effectiveness
    Prior to completing the “Reading the Mind from the Eyes” activity I did a mental assessment of how well I believed I would do on
    the test. In my own personal experience I tend to read peoples nonverbal communication very well. Nonverbal communication is
    described as messages which are expressed by other than linguistic means (Adler, 2010, p 175). I am usually the person that can tell if
    something is bothering someone and can almost predict how a situation will play out. Keeping in mind that this exercise only included
    the eyes and not all body language I felt that I would get around 60% of the questions correct. I also felt that I would be able to better
    identify females than males if for no other reason than I am a female and I just thought it would be easier for me.
    After completing the activity and receiving my score I realized my prediction and my actual score were fairly close. I answered
    70% of the questions correctly only missing three questions which was slightly better than what I predicted. The questions I missed
    were for a female who I thought was sad and she was actually angry, a male who I thought was bored and was actually happy, and a
    female who I thought was fearful and she was actually surprised. I was surprised to realize that I miss interpretated more female
    expressions than male expressions but once given the entire face completely understood how I was wrong. During the activity I felt the
    easiest eyes to predict were sadness, anger, disgust, and happiness. These are all activities which affect your eyes greatly, especially
    the corners of the eyes. If the activity had shown more than just the eyes I feel my score would have been much higher, but since it was
    only the eyes I think I did fairly well as in my opinion the eyes alone can be tricky sometimes when it comes to interpretation.
    When discussing nonverbal communication, Adler states “these nonlinguistic messages are important because what we do often
    conveys more meaning that what we say” (Adler, 2010, p 175). I agree with this statement and seeing how my score was 70% I do
    have room for improvement in this area. Oculesics is the study of how the eyes can communicate (Adler, 2010, p 188). In order to
    improve my score I need to research oculesics more so I will be better versed in the meanings behind the looks people express.
    “Nonverbal regulators are cues that help control verbal interaction” (Adler, 2010, p 183). I feel paying more attention to the nonverbal
    regulators of the people I am around in order to become more familiar with what different signals mean which emotions will also
    improve my score. Adler (2010) tells us that the face is a tremendously complicated channel of expression to interpret, for several
    reasons (p 187). I agree with this statement and since the face and eyes are so complicated that practice and research are the only
    means to improving your ability to read and understand them.
    Adler, Ronald, & Rosenfeld, Lawrence, & Proctor II, Russell. (2010). Interplay The Process of Interpersonal Communication. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • 42. My Future in Learning
    Learning is a lifelong process. How do you envision your future as a lifelong learner?
    In order to pursue a career in Psychology one most continue to educate themselves in the fields which they are focused on. Psychology is an area in which research is constantly being done and new developments are constantly being made. By staying up to date with all the latest theories, research, and studies it will make me that much stronger in my career path. As a lifelong learner it is important to stay open minded and try to learn and discover as much information as possible. Research on criminal behavior is especially important considering my focus while studying at Argosy.
  • 43. Contact Me
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