Increasing information v making meaning for oneself
Remembering facts (exams) v developing new ways of seeing/preparing learners for the world that will be
Applying information/skills v engaging in effective action in different situations/ seeing alternatives available
The Old Debate
The debate hasn’t changed with the advent of new technologies…
“ Learning involves very much more than undertaking activities on a computer... it includes an intricate and complex interaction between neural, cognitive, affective and social processes”
Aragon, 2003, Facilitating learning in on-line environments
“ See learning as holistic and iterative. This acknowledgement of the necessary iteration between teacher, student and content is more realistic than the cause/effect/behaviourist models usually presented. It requires a shift in focus from what the teacher should do to how they should set up the interactions”
Laurillard, 2006, presentation on Integrating technology into teaching
The same old issues keep appearing… e.g. the best role for the ‘teacher’
“ I shall only ask him, not teach him and he shall share the enquiry with me”
“ I know I cannot teach anything, I can only provide an environment in which someone can learn”
“ The technology is a very poor tool for teaching; its strength lies in supporting learning”
Dr David Hay, the pedagogy of e-learning,2007 conference
The same old issues keep appearing… e.g. the learner as active agent Social constructivism John Biggs Ference Marton 2003 Experiential learning Lauren Resnick 1980 Reflective practice Seymour Papert Learning as conversation Paulo Freire Jerome Bruner 1940 Problem-based learning Lev Vygotsky Discovery learning Jean Piaget Inquiry based education John Dewey 1890
The same old issues keep appearing… e.g. the importance of collaboration
Social constructivist approaches to learning have led to an emphasis on collaborative approaches to learning where ideas and attitudes are actively constructed/ deconstructed, rebuilt/renewed through group processes. (Brown et al ,1989)
Peer collaboration in developing on-screen concept maps led to sustained and improved learning and better outputs; using on –screen concept mapping without collaboration did not make a significant difference in learning.
(Black boxes to Glass boxes; on-screen learning in school with concept maps. Jan 2007 TLRP)
Personal, learning and thinking skills framework
The framework has the potential to influence teaching and learning positively…..By providing a common way of talking about personal, learning and thinking skills the framework can enable a more specific focus on skills… QCA Advisor. December 2006
Meeting the range of needs, interests and aptitudes to ensure that every student reaches the highest standard possible…The quality of learning is shaped by learners’ experience, characteristics, interests and aspirations. High quality teaching explicitly builds on learner needs.
Best practice: genuine pupil voice ( When their perspectives are taken seriously pupils feel more positive about themselves as learners, understand and manage their own progress better…) pupils taking more responsibility for their own learning; curriculum flexibility to re-engage disaffected pupils
Judy Seba et al, research brief 843, May 2007 (commissioned by DFES)
‘ I never thought of playing with my website as connected to literacy’.
“ At home students engage in a whole variety of social practices which involves text… Students were not aware of the literacy involved in these practices and were not therefore able to draw on them when working at school… What is equally important is that none of the staff were aware of the range of literacy practices students engaged in.”
In the web 2.0 environment do other concerns e.g. forming their own perspectives and creating new insights. Information literacy should enable students to discover and present their own authentic voices.
How does IL fit in with the personal, learning and thinking skills framework?
How far should librarians venture into areas such as critical and creative thinking, structured reflection and active construction of new knowledge?
Based on a fusion of two research-based published models, a non-linear model of information-seeking behaviour devised by Allen Foster (2004) and a model of information and critical literacies offered by Ross Todd(2001 etc.)
Information and Critical Literacies Connecting with Information ( orientation; exploring; focussing; locating) Making use of information ( transforming; communicating; applying ) Interacting with Information ( Thinking critically; evaluating; transforming; constructing ) Monitoring progress Reflecting on the experience and the outcome
orientation exploring locating Focussing (e.g. keywords, formulating questions ) Monitoring progress Reflecting on the experience and the outcome Connecting with information Making use of information Interacting with information Thinking critically Constructing new knowledge, concepts Evaluating and verifying transforming transforming Citing and referencing applying communicating i-skills
Connecting with Information problem definition reviewing identifying sources orientation focussing networking picture building browsing exploring l locating systematic searching M o n I t o r I n g p r o g r e s s
Interacting with Information questioning and challenging filtering knowing enough thinking critically refining and interpreting synthesising and analysing transforming constructing l evaluating Imposing structure R e f l e c t I n g
Making Use of Information restructuring transforming taking ownership of the learning communicating applying R e f l e c t I n g o n t h e e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h e o u t c o m e Citing and referencing
Blended Learning: a complex mixture of experiences that build on how students operate