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Six Sigma Presentation Storybd 07 Mar24

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Six Sigma Project Presentation …

Six Sigma Project Presentation
statistical analysis, risk analysis, process improvement


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  • 1. 01/29/15 05:31 PM 005 SixSigma_Template 1 Six Sigma Project Report Presentation Optimizing the Article Library Project ID No.: CSI Spring 2007 Black Belt Name: CSI Six Sigma Instructor Project Sponsor: Sheri A. Kelly Date: May 7, 2007
  • 2. Define Phase Project Charter Roles & ResponsibilitiesRoles & Responsibilities Project DefinitionProject Definition Project Deliverables/BenefitsProject Deliverables/Benefits Champion: champion Process Owner: Sheri Kelly Project BB/GB: leader Problem Statement My home’s hard copy and digital articles are not easily accessible, and contain untrustworthy, duplicate, out-of- date articles resulting in increased costs for storage and retrieval time. Project Scope Home’s hard copy and digital articles. Project Goal Improve article trustworthiness by 80%. Discard the 60% of duplicate & out-of-date articles. Decrease the article retrieval time to 8 minutes or less. Decrease costs by 20%. Increase customer satisfaction by 35%. Key Deliverables Six Sigma project documentation, project plan, & projected cost savings to meet goal. Financial and Operational Benefits Hard: Potential financial benefit of $230 per year in time & in storage materials. Soft: Increased satisfaction in maintaining & using it. process area: member member member process area: member member
  • 3. Define Phase Operational Definitions Operational Definitions of Key Terms / GlossaryOperational Definitions of Key Terms / Glossary Accessible: An article is accessible if I can reference my list indicating that I indeed have an article on a given topic and can locate it within nine minutes. Trustworthiness: An article is trustworthy if it is published by a company or written by an author that I trust.
  • 4. Define Phase Process Matrix Diagram Employee Tasks CUSTOMERIMPORTANCERATING Duplicate Out-of-Date NotFound FindTime>9minutes Notfromatrustworthysource Folderistoofull Twofoldersforthesametopic Select articles not already in library. 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 Select them if from trustworthy sources. 3 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 Provide an updated article directory. 5 3 1 3 5 1 1 3 Provide electronic keyword directory scanning. 5 3 3 3 5 3 1 1 Provide various ways to sort the directory. 3 1 1 3 5 1 1 1 Provide 10 columns of info for each article. 3 1 1 3 5 1 1 1 Provide electronic keyword article scanning. 5 1 1 5 5 1 1 1 Provide a library free of expired ones. 1 1 5 1 1 1 3 1 Provide images in articles when necessary. 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 Provide folders with <=25 articles. 3 3 3 1 3 1 5 1 22 18 22 32 16 16 12 2 3 2 1 4 4 5 5 = high importance, 3 = average importance, 1 = low importance Customer Tasks IMPORTANCE SCORE RANK Importance • Red = High • Orange = Average • Yellow = Low Find Time ranks number one
  • 5. Define Phase Tree Diagram Graphical View of the Current ProcessGraphical View of the Current Process Not having a directory that would indicate subject, storage location, & date published results in: • Not knowing the subject matters that the library articles cover causing duplicates. • Not knowing the storage locations causing an increased retrieval time. • Not knowing which articles have expired preventing their purging. No article directory Duplicates Increased retrieval time No purging process Out-of-Date Folders are too full No set list of topics (i.e. folder names) Two folders for the same topic
  • 6. Define Phase Process Decision Program Graphical View of the Current ProcessGraphical View of the Current Process Need an article Article is in Library But Not Found Found two similar articles from different sources Article is not in library Digital/Paper Article Inadvertently Deleted/ Discarded Refer to the Article List to verify. Article List indicates the folder name. Article found. Select the more trustworthy article
  • 7. INPUT Define Phase SIPOC SUPPLIER PROCESS OUTPUT CUSTOMER CTQ CRITICAL TO QUALITY • Magazines • Web • Books • I discover an article • I add an article • Digital articles • Hard copy articles • Customer finds article • Customer accesses article from folder • Our household • For our household to pass onto others • Ease of accessibility • Source trustworthiness High-Level Process MapHigh-Level Process Map Discover a helpful article Add the article to the library Retrieve the article Refile the article
  • 8. Define Phase Sigma Calculator Measurement System AnalysisMeasurement System Analysis The process Sigma level is 3.195.
  • 9. Measure Phase Baseline Performance of Ys Baseline Process MeasuresBaseline Process MeasuresCollected DataCollected Data Baseline Process SigmaBaseline Process SigmaGraphical OverviewGraphical Overview Provide a summary description of the data collection process (MSA, sample sizes, etc). How did it go? Did you get a “good” set of data? Provide a table or summary or the basic descriptive statistics for the as-is process (central tendency, spread/variation, defect rates, etc). No data analysis! Insert a graph displaying a high-level overview of the collected data (histogram, bar chart, etc). Compare process performance to specifications. Calculate yields, defect rates and process sigma levels. A brief statement describing the opportunity for process improvement.
  • 10. Measure Phase Detailed Process Map – Current State As shown below in red, the current process for adding an article to the library and maintaining it is not efficient. Current StateCurrent State
  • 11. Measure Phase Data Collection CTQs and SpecificationsCTQs and SpecificationsProcess Measures DefinedProcess Measures Defined Input Measures • Articles’ accessibility and trustworthiness. Process Measures Output Measures • Retrieving an Article: The number of minutes to retrieve an article. CTQ for the Output Measure • Specifications (USL=8, LSL=3, over 9 minutes is a defect, under 9 minutes is an allowable defect rate) Data Collection PlanData Collection Plan • Time each article retrieval time. • Determine the percentage of trustworthy articles.
  • 12. Measure Phase Measurement System Analysis Measurement System AnalysisMeasurement System Analysis Reproducibility Times to locate five articles Repeatability Times to locate five articles Summary of how the MSA has been conducted  Tested 5 article retrieval times for repeatability.  Compared inspectors to themselves for reproducibility ARTICLE Reading #1 Reading #2 Average Range 1 15.0 11.5 13.25 3.5 2 16.3 13.3 14.75 3.0 3 10.8 8.0 9.38 2.8 4 11.5 7.3 9.38 4.3 5 12.8 10.0 11.38 2.8 Average 11.63 1 13.5 13.0 13.25 0.5 2 17.0 14.8 15.88 2.3 3 12.0 10.8 11.38 1.3 4 11.0 9.5 10.25 1.5 5 14.0 12.8 13.38 1.3 Average 12.83 INSPECTOR #1 INSPECTOR #2 average Largest - Smallest Article Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 1 Reading 2 X bar R 1 15.0 11.5 13.5 13.0 13.25 3.5 2 16.3 13.3 17.0 14.8 15.31 3.7 3 10.8 8.0 12.0 10.8 10.38 4.0 4 11.5 7.3 11.0 9.5 9.81 4.2 5 12.8 10.0 14.0 12.8 12.38 4.0 Averages 12.23 3.9 Rp 5.50 INSPECTOR #1 INSPECTOR #2
  • 13. Measure Phase Graphical Analysis: Histogram 1) Reader 1 on average required less time to retrieve an article than did Reader 2. 2) Reader 1 has a greater standard deviation. 3) Reader 1 has a higher bell curve. 4) Both Readers have a normal distribution. 5) Except for one retrieval time, all of the ranges exceed the “nine minutes or less” goal. 6) Focus on reducing retrieval times as they relate to Reader 2.
  • 14. Measure Phase Measure Normality Test Process Capability Normality TestProcess Capability Normality Test The deviation is high.
  • 15. Measure Phase Pareto Chart(s) Pareto Analysis 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 N otTrustw thy FindTim e>10m O ut-of-D ate D uplicates N otFound O ther Retrieval Issues Data 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Percent Data Pareto
  • 16. • Need to bullet here which Xs which have been identified so far during the measure phase that need to be tested to find the root cause(s) (vital few Xs) • X1: Duplicate Articles • X2: Out-of-Date Articles • X3: Not trustworthy Articles Analyze Phase Theories (Xs) to be tested Potential Causes (Xs) to be AnalyzedPotential Causes (Xs) to be Analyzed
  • 17. Analyze Phase FMEA Evaluating Steps from the Current Process Item Name: FMEA Team: Prepared by: Sheri Kelly FMEA Date (Orig): May 22, 2007 Process Step or Variable or Key Input Potential Failure Mode Potential Failure Effects S E V Potential Causes O C C Current Process Controls D E T R P N What is the process step? In what ways can the Process Step, Variable, or Key Input go wrong? (chance of not meeting requirements) What is the impact on the Key Output Variables (customer requirements) or internal requirements? HowSevereiseffect tothecustomer? What causes the Key Input to go wrong? (How could the failure mode occur?) Howfrequentis causelikelyto Occur? What are the existing controls that either prevent the failure mode from occurring or detect it should it occur? Howprobableis Detectionofcause? RiskPriority#to rankorderconcerns Discover an informative article. It is a duplicate, an out-of- date, or a untrustworthy article. The article is added to the library although it is a duplicate, an out-of-date, or a untrustworthy article. 7 The department is not evaluating each article. 4 When filing the article, peruse through the one folder's articles and remove the low quality ones. 4 112 File a digital (soft copy ) article or a hard copy article in a folder. There are two folders with the same name. Having both digital and hard copy articles potentially requires separate folders for a given topic for each medium. May not be able to locate a given article topic because it is stored in the duplicate folder. Also, duplicate folders use more storage space. 4 The department is not able to cross-reference the digital and hard copy articles. 6 The New Article Department notices a duplicate folder while filing related/unrelated articles but only among one of the media. 6 144 Purge any duplicate, out-of- date, untrustworthy articles you see while filing. Will not detect and purge all low quality articles contained in the library. Library is wasting storage space, higher cost of storage space. Increased article retrieval time. 5 The department is not able to systematically identify the low quality articles. 5 When filing the article, peruse through the articles and remove the low quality ones. 4 100 FMEA (Potential Failure Modes and Effects Analysis)
  • 18. Measure Phase Cause and Effect Diagram Cause & EffectCause & Effect Learned: collection is much larger than in years past, scanning will reduce the number of file locations, creating an article list will manage the purging process, & on each occasion I need info I prefer to access my articles than to search the internet.
  • 19. Measure Phase Measure Process Capability Process CapabilityProcess Capability The sample mean is 11.6. The lower & upper control limits are 7 and 17, respectively.
  • 20. Analyze Phase Graphical Analysis: Box Plots 1) Shows that although the mean was greater for Reader 2, the lowest whisker was greater than Reader 1’s whisker, and Reader 1’s 50th -75th percentile range is greater than Reader 2’s who shows more evenly distributed retrieval times. 2) Reader 1’s central tendency is 11.5 minutes to retrieve an article and Reader 2’s is 12.87 minutes. Also, Reader 1 has a greater time spread. (See page 384). 3) Reader 2’s observed values are shown as negatively skewed because the median is closer to the top of the box. 4) Reader 2’s upper whisker is longer at 2.8125 compared to Reader 1’s 2.563.
  • 21. Analyze Phase Advanced Tools – Average Chart There are three points above the upper control limit for article retrieval time to be addressed.
  • 22. Analyze Phase Advanced Tools – S Chart The standard deviations are within the control limits as shown by the green line.
  • 23. Analyze Phase Advanced Tools Range Chart The sample range for retrieval time is within the control limits.
  • 24. Analyze Phase Advanced Tools-Xbar-S It appears that 20% of the articles are found quickly (two points are outside the control limits) whereas 10% of the articles are found slowly (one point is outside the limits). In the upper chart, two points are outside the control limits. In the lower chart the standard deviations are close to the mean.
  • 25. Analyze Phase Statistical Analysis of Cause & Effect – Scatter Diagram Reader 1 vs. Reader 2’s Article Retrieval Time
  • 26. Improve Phase Previous & Revised Process Maps Previous Process Map 1. Verify that each new article is not a duplicate and is trustworthy. 2. Scan hard-copied articles. 3. Save articles in an electronic library. 4. Purge expired articles. 5. Maintain the folders and the library’s Article Directory. Revised Process Map As shown below in red, the current process for adding an article to the library and maintaining it is not efficient.
  • 27. Improve Phase Updated FMEA The updated FMEA shows that the risk has decreased significantly after improvement the process steps. S E V O C C D E T R P N S E V O C C D E T R P N How Severe is effect to the customer? How frequent is cause likely to occur? How probable is Detection of cause? Risk Priority # to rank order concerns How Severe is effect to the customer? How frequent is cause likely to occur? How probable is Detection of cause? Risk Priority # to rank order concerns 7 4 4 112 2 2 3 12 4 6 6 144 3 4 5 60 5 5 4 100 2 2 2 8 BEFORE AFTER
  • 28. Improve Phase Improvement Strategies for Proven Xs StrategiesStrategiesProven Xs (Causes)Proven Xs (Causes) X1 Duplicate: Compliance is dependent on identifying duplicate articles before adding them to the library. X2 Out-of-Date: Compliance is dependent on applying an expiration date to each article. X3 Not Trustworthy: Compliance is dependent on identifying inaccurate articles before adding them to the library. To improve our % compliance rate, include in the procedure to digitally search in the Article Directory by like subject. To improve the % compliance rate, record the expiration dates in the digital article directory and setup e-mail reminders for each purge date. To improve the % compliance rate, include in the procedure to verify the information with trusted websites/ organizations. CTQ - Article access time in minutes of LSL=3 & USL=9
  • 29. Improve I-MR Staging Chart Before Improvement After Improvement Notice the reduced article retrieval times
  • 30. Improve Phase Statistical Proof of Improvements Statistical Proof of ImprovementsStatistical Proof of Improvements Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test for Observed Counts in Variable: After Test Contribution Category Observed Proportion Expected to Chi-Sq 1 5.0 0.1 6.54 0.362630 2 4.8 0.1 6.54 0.462936 3 5.4 0.1 6.54 0.198716 4 8.0 0.1 6.54 0.325933 5 7.4 0.1 6.54 0.113089 6 6.9 0.1 6.54 0.019817 7 7.0 0.1 6.54 0.032355 8 6.5 0.1 6.54 0.000245 9 6.6 0.1 6.54 0.000550 10 7.8 0.1 6.54 0.242752 N DF Chi-Sq P-Value 65.4 9 1.75902 0.995 Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test for Observed Counts in Variable: Before Test Contribution Category Observed Proportion Expected to Chi-Sq 1 15.00 0.1 11.625 0.97984 2 16.25 0.1 11.625 1.84005 3 10.75 0.1 11.625 0.06586 4 11.50 0.1 11.625 0.00134 5 12.75 0.1 11.625 0.10887 6 11.50 0.1 11.625 0.00134 7 13.25 0.1 11.625 0.22715 8 8.00 0.1 11.625 1.13038 9 7.25 0.1 11.625 1.64651 10 10.00 0.1 11.625 0.22715 N DF Chi-Sq P-Value 116.25 9 6.22849 0.717
  • 31. Improve Phase Value-Added Process Flow Waste has been removed (assuming an unlimited budget)
  • 32. Control Phase Communication Plan Communication Plan Stakeholder Level of communication- Storyboard, paragraph update, tollgate summary How information is communicated-- 1:1, meeting, email, newsletter Where information is communicated--e.g. if during a standing meeting, which is the most appropriate forum? Frequency of communication-- every other week, at tollgate, at end of project Who is responsible for doing the communica- tion Date for communicat ion to occur On Agenda Meeting set on individuals calendar (mark when established) CFO storyboard meeting during standing meeting Improve & Control Phases, end of project Green Belt & Sponsor 5/10 & 5/24 established Staff within project department paragraph update e-mail & department meeting during standing meeting Improve & Control Phases, end of project Green Belt & Sponsor 5/12 & 5/26 established customers paragraph update meeting web meeting & 1:1s at beginning of Improve & Control Phases CFO 5/11 & 5/25 established
  • 33. Control Phase Process Control Charts Before Improvements Accessibility mean is 11.63 minutes After Improvements Accessibility mean is 6.54 minutes
  • 34. Before and After Six Sigma LevelsBefore and After Six Sigma Levels Control Phase Six Sigma Level Change 3.195 4.076
  • 35. Control Phase Project Results/Benefits Soft BenefitsSoft BenefitsFinancial (Hard) BenefitsFinancial (Hard) Benefits Decreased storage & time costs by $235 per annum. Decreased the number of storage units from three to one. Improved article accessibility mean rate from 11.6 to 6.5 minutes. Project BaselineProject Baseline Project TargetProject Target Project ActualProject Actual COPQ = $500 DPMO = 45,000 Sigma Level = 3.195 COPQ = $240 DPMO = 12,500 Sigma Level = 3.741 COPQ = $235 (i.e. saved more than target) DPMO = 5,000 Sigma Level = 4.076
  • 36. Control Phase Lessons Learned Lessons Learned during the Six Sigma ClassLessons Learned during the Six Sigma Class • Install and become familiar with the Minitab, Visio, and Net Meeting before the first class meeting. • Learn the copying/pasting guidelines for a reasonable the presentation file size: 1. Copy screen portions. Then, use Paint to crop portions and save them as “gif” files. In Minitab select “Save Graph As” and save graphs as “gif” files’ 2. Copy spreadsheets and flow charts. Use “Paste Special” and select “Picture (Enhanced Metafile)”. To be able to “zoom” spreadsheets/charts, select the Paste Special’s embed object option. • Use a thumb drive to transport labs, presentations, shareware between class and home, and between yourself and classmates. • Verify data early in the process. Bad data & inappropriate statistical tests breaks the presentation’s focus and logical flow through the progression of the phases. • During the first two phases if possible, create all flow charts from left to right so that in the later phases the same two flow charts will fit on the same slide (for comparison purposes). • Use the color key in which red represents below average performance, yellow average, and green above average. Use another color key for example, to differentiate two groups in a flow chart. • Before you finish learning each DMAIC phase in the classroom, complete the corresponding phase section in your presentation file. Phase-by-phase ask the instructor for feedback.
  • 37. Future State Future StateFuture State Improvement Project Intentions: Using DFSS, research vendors and software based on this presentation’s Lean process flow chart.
  • 38. Appendix
  • 39. Appendix Completed FMEA Completed FMEA from the Improve PhaseCompleted FMEA from the Improve Phase Item Name: FMEA Team: Prepared by: Sheri Kelly FMEA Date (Orig): May 22, 2007 (Rev.): Process Step or Variable or Key Input Potential Failure Mode Potential Failure Effects S E V Potential Causes O C C Current Process Controls D E T R P N Actions Recommended Resp.& Target Date Actions Taken S E V O C C D E T R P N What is the process step? In what ways can the Process Step, Variable, or Key Input go wrong? (chance of not meeting requirements) What is the impact on the Key Output Variables (customer requirements) or internal requirements? HowSevereiseffect tothecustomer? What causes the Key Input to go wrong? (How could the failure mode occur?) Howfrequentis causelikelyto Occur? What are the existing controls that either prevent the failure mode from occurring or detect it should it occur? Howprobableis Detectionofcause? RiskPriority#to rankorderconcerns What are the actions for reducing the Occurrence of the cause, or improving Detection? Should have actions on high RPN's or Severity of 9 or 10. Who's Responsible for the recommended action? What date? What were the actions implemented? Include completion month/year. (Then recalculate resulting RPN.) Discover an informative article. It is a duplicate, an out-of- date, or a untrustworthy article. The article is added to the library although it is a duplicate, an out-of-date, or a untrustworthy article. 7 The department is not evaluating each article. 4 When filing the article, peruse through the one folder's articles and remove the low quality ones. 4 112 Devise guidelines that show how to evaluate the quality of each article and, how to purging out-of-date articles. Head of the New Article Department. July 1, 2007 Devised guidelines for the evaluating the quality of each article and for purging out-of-date articles. 2 2 3 12 File a digital (soft copy ) article or a hard copy article in a folder. There are two folders with the same name. Having both digital and hard copy articles potentially requires separate folders for a given topic for each medium. May not be able to locate a given article topic because it is stored in the duplicate folder. Also, duplicate folders use more storage space. 4 The department is not able to cross-reference the digital and hard copy articles. 6 The New Article Department notices a duplicate folder while filing related/unrelated articles but only among one of the media. 6 144 Scan all hard copy articles. Or, create a directory that cross references both media. Head of the New Article Department. July 1, 2007 Scanned all incoming hard copy articles. Have begun to create a directory that will cross- reference both media. 3 4 5 60 Purge any duplicate, out-of- date, untrustworthy articles you see while filing. Will not detect and purge all low quality articles contained in the library. Library is wasting storage space, higher cost of storage space. Increased article retrieval time. 5 The department is not able to systematically identify the low quality articles. 5 When filing the article, peruse through the articles and remove the low quality ones. 4 100 Create a article library directory. Head of the New Article Department. July 1, 2007 Created a directory. 2 2 2 8 FMEA (Potential Failure Modes and Effects Analysis)
  • 40. Analyze Phase Statistical Analysis of Cause & Effect – Test Equal Variance 0.70 0.65 0.50 0.40 0.38 0.28 0.06 0.05 250200150100500 P1 9 5% Bonfer r oni Confidence I nter vals for StDevs 0.70 0.65 0.50 0.40 0.38 0.28 0.06 0.05 1614121086 P1 R1 Test Statistic 0.60 P-Value 0.838 F-Test Test for Equal Variances for R1 5 4 3 2 1 200150100500 P2 95% Bonferroni Confidence Int ervals for St Devs Test Statistic 0.90 P-Value 0.638 Test Statistic 1.37 P-Value 0.353 Bartlett's Test Levene's Test Test for Equal Variances for R1