Columbian Chemicals At Emtec 2007


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Overview of work performed while with Columbian Chemicals 2003-2008

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  • If nothing else in the synthesis of NCM, it is the catalyst that ultimately determines the quality, quantity, and overall structure of the final products. It is most important to realize that careful control of the synthesis and treatment of the catalyst prior to synthesis of NCMs is necessary to achieve the desired results. Above is a simple illustration of the various types of NCMs obtained from identical conditions (CO/H 2 feed gas, 600°C) but with different catalysts. The left structure is a platelet structure, where the graphite is oriented perpendicular to the fiber axis; the middle is a fishbone structure with graphite planes oriented at some angle with respect to the fiber axis; and the final right structure is a tubular structure (nanotube) with graphite planes forming a hollow cylinder. Each catalyst used in the reaction is different: iron (Fe) for platelets, iron-nickel (FeNi) for fishbone, and cobalt (Co) for tubular.
  • Columbian Chemicals At Emtec 2007

    1. 1. <ul><li>  </li></ul>Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes in Fuel Cells EMTEC 3 rd MEA Manufacturing Symposium August 22, 2007 Dayton Marriott Stewart McKenzie Columbian Chemicals Director Business Development Nanotechnology and Energy Systems
    2. 2. Carbon Black: Formation and Fundamental Properties Feed Oil Combustion Gas Water Blast Air Feed Oil Four Fundamental Properties Fineness - Particle Size Structure - Aggregate Size/Shape Porosity - Pore Size Surface Chemistry - Surface Activity
    3. 3. NanoTechnology & Materials Development Carbon Nanotechnology Fuel Cell Catalysts & Components Nano-Composite Materials NanoCarbides
    4. 4. Carbon: A Versatile Element Carbon Nanotubes Cones Fullerenes C 2n Diamond Graphite <ul><ul><li>Properties of carbon combined with nanotubes high electron mobility high thermal conductivity high strength low mass density </li></ul></ul>Carbon Black
    5. 5. <ul><li>NanoBlack TM Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes </li></ul><ul><li>DURA -lyst ® CNT Pt/CNT electrocatalysts </li></ul><ul><li>DURA -lyst ® Pt Alloy electrocatalysts /CNT </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra Durable (UD) CNT Supports </li></ul><ul><li>NanoPaper </li></ul><ul><li>Nano-S TM Metal Nano Carbides </li></ul>Columbian Nanotechnology Fuel Cell Materials
    6. 6. Substrate A. Oberlin, M. Endo and T. Koyama, Journal of Crystal Growth, 32, 335-349 (1976). Growth Model Hydrocarbon Supply Metal catalyst Hydrocarbon Supply Metal catalyst Hydrocarbon Supply Metal catalyst Hydrocarbon Supply Metal catalyst Hydrocarbon Supply Metal catalyst Hydrocarbon Supply Metal catalyst Hydrocarbon Supply Metal catalyst Hydrocarbon Supply Metal catalyst Hydrocarbon Supply Metal catalyst
    7. 7. Two Forms of NanoBlack TM Orientation of graphitic planes in nanostrucutres are system specific : dependent upon feed gas composition, synthesis temperature, catalyst composition. NanoBlack TM Platelet NanoBlack TM Tubular
    8. 8. Portfolio of NanoBlack TM Products Tubular (II) Platelet ( ┴ ) Single Wall Nanotubes High Surface Area (HSF) Spiral (S)
    9. 9. NanoBlack™ “Fluidized Bed” Reactor Pilot Production Pilot Production Capacity ~ 4 metric tons per year
    10. 10. NanoBlack TM for Conductive Applications Diameter Distribution 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Size, nm Frequency (n=87)
    11. 11. Unique Properties of NanoBlack TM <ul><li>Extremely High Aspect Ratio (>1000) </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptional Mechanical Strength </li></ul><ul><li>High Thermal and Electrical Conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>High Surface Area/Surface Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Strength to Weight Characteristics </li></ul>
    12. 12. Carbon Black vs Nanotubes 50 nm
    13. 13. Carbon Oxidation Rates Reduced by Graphitization Time (minutes) Weight (%) Carbon Black Graphitized Black Accelerated Test 70 80 90 100 0 100 200 300 400
    14. 14. Heat Treatment of Carbon Black
    15. 15. Accelerated Durability Testing Voltage Cycling 30 ms (0.6 and 1.2 V) Cell Voltage @ 1A/cm2 (Volts)
    16. 16. Supports for Fuel Cell Catalyst Pt particles size is around 2-2.4nm and a CV surface area of 90 m 2 /g Improvement in Performance and Cost
    17. 17. DURA -lyst ® Ultra Durable (UD) 15% Pt/C 15% Pt/CNT
    18. 18. DURA -lyst ® Advanced Electrocatalysts <ul><li>Series 1100: 10-50% Pt </li></ul><ul><li>Series 2200: 10-70% Pt </li></ul><ul><li>High Durability (HD): 10-50 % Pt </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra Durability (UD): 10-30 %Pt </li></ul><ul><li>Q4, 2007 DURA- lyst ® CNT (UD) </li></ul>75 90 80 Surface Area (m 2 /g-Pt) 2.5 2.3 2.1 Particle Size (nm) 50+ 55 40 Pt Loading (%) DURA- lyst ® 2255HD DURA -lyst ® 2255 DURA -lyst ® 1140 Product
    19. 19. NanoBlack™ Improves GDL Surface Morphology Reference GDL Competitor’s product Columbian GDL Smooth and crack-free surface morphology Smooth and crack free surface minimizes electrical resistance
    20. 20. NanoBlack™ GDL NanoBlack™ GDL performance is as good as competitive product under wet condition, Columbian GDL’s is significantly better than competitive product under dry conditions.
    21. 21. Unique High Strength Carbon Paper Microporous Paper Composition: 92 % NanoBlack TM 8 % UHMWPE Thickness: 100um Resistivity: 4.34 ohm-cm Thermal Conductivity: 7 W/m-K Very Good Physical Properties High Tensile Strength 40X Magnification 40,000X Magnification
    22. 22. Metal Nano Carbides (MNC) NanoBlack™ NanoCarbide
    23. 23. Summary: NanoBlack ™ An Enabling Technology <ul><li>NanoBlack™ Cost Effective Multi-wall CNT </li></ul><ul><li>DURA-lyst® Advanced Electrocatalysts </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DURA-lyst®/NanoBlack™ (UD) electrocatalysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DURA-lyst®/NanoBlack™ alloy electrocatalysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BPP materials development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GDL materials development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NanoPaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NanoCarbides </li></ul></ul>