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Chapter 8
Chapter 8
Chapter 8
Chapter 8
Chapter 8
Chapter 8
Chapter 8
Chapter 8
Chapter 8
Chapter 8
Chapter 8
Chapter 8
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Chapter 8

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  • 1. Chapter 8:Employment, Labor, and Wages<br />
  • 2. 8-1: The Labor Movement<br />Early Union Development<br />First attempt to organize labor in America was in 1778, by printers in New York City<br />Small fraction of workers belonged to unions<br />Comprised of skilled workers and possessed strong bargaining power<br />In early 1800’s, large scale immigration provided a supply of cheap, unskilled labor<br />Public opinion against the unions and labor organizers were viewed as troublemakers<br />
  • 3. Civil War to the 1930s<br />Manufacturing expanded<br />Hourly workers made up about ¼ of working population<br />Working conditions were difficult and often dangerous<br />Attitudes toward labor unions began to ease<br />Two main types of unions:<br />Trade or craft union – association of skilled workers who perform the same kind of work<br />Industrial union – association of all workers in the same industry, regardless of the job<br />
  • 4. Union Activities<br /><ul><li>Unions negotiated for higher wages, better hours, job security and better working conditions
  • 5. Strike - refuse to work until demands were met
  • 6. Picket – demonstrate or march before a place of business to protest a company’s actions
  • 7. Boycott – mass refusal to buy products from targeted employers or companies</li></ul>Employer Resistance<br /><ul><li>Lockout – management refusal to let employees work
  • 8. Hire all new workers
  • 9. Set up company unions, organized, supported or run by employers
  • 10. Ludlow Massacre 1914</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Labor Since the 1930s
  • 11. Most of the significant labor laws in effect today were passed in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s,
  • 12. Great Depression (1929 – 1939) video
  • 13. Stock market crash October, 1929
  • 14. High unemployment
  • 15. Average hourly wage dropped from 55 cents to 5 cents
  • 16. Pro-union legislation
  • 17. The Wagner Act of 1935 established the right of unions to collective bargaining and created the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to police unfair labor practices
  • 18. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 set the first minimum wage, established overtime pay, and prohibited oppressive child labor</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Unions grew strong until the end of WWII, when public opinion changed again.
  • 19. Right to Work Law – state law making it illegal to require a worker to join a union as a condition of employment </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Organized Labor Today
  • 20. Closed Shop - arrangement under which workers must join a union before they are hired, which allows the union to determine who is hired
  • 21. Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 made the closed shop illegal for all companies engaged in interstate commerce
  • 22. Union Shop – workers do not have to belong to the union to be hired, but must join afterward
  • 23. Modified Union Shop – workers have the option to join a union after being hired
  • 24. Agency Shop – workers do not have to join a union to get a job; however, they must pay union dues to help pay for collective bargaining costs</li></li></ul><li>
  • 25. 8-2: Wages and Labor Disputes<br />Wage Determination – different occupations and levels of training are rewarded with different wages<br /> 1. Unskilled labor – workers not trained to operate specialized machines and equipment<br /> 2. Semiskilled labor – workers who operate machines that require a minimum amount of training<br /> 3. Skilled labor – workers who are trained to operate complex equipment and require little supervision<br /> 4. Professional labor – workers with a high level of training, education and management skills<br />
  • 26.
  • 27. Resolving Labor Disputes<br /><ul><li>Collective bargaining – process of negotiation between union and management representatives over pay, benefits, and job-related matters
  • 28. Mediation – process if resolving a dispute by bringing in a neutral third party
  • 29. Arbitration – agreement to place a dispute before a third party for a binding settlement
  • 30. Fact-finding – agreement to have a neutral third party collect facts about a dispute and present nonbinding recommendations
  • 31. Injunction – court order issued to prevent a company or union from taking action during a labor protest
  • 32. Seizure – temporary government takeover of a company to keep it running during a labor-management dispute
  • 33. Presidential intervention </li></li></ul><li>8-3: Employment Trends and Issues<br />Decline of Union Influence<br />Lower Pay for Women<br />Minimum Wage<br />

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