SIXSeoul13 Day 4: Bogota started by changing its software - Antanas Mockus

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SIXSeoul13 Day 4: Bogota started by changing its software - Antanas Mockus

  1. 1. Antanas  Mockus    corpovisionarios.org   Bogota  started  by  changing  so8ware       Managing  urban  problems  with  art-­‐inspired  ac=ons    and  a  fresh  understanding  of  ci=zenship  
  2. 2. •  The  most  valuable  good  will  be  human’s  paying   aBen=on  to  humans.  Thank  you.   •  Urban  infrastructure  has  become  the  most  visible  and   the  most  invisible  human  crea=on.   •  Smooth  flows  get  more  and  more  intertwined  and   op=mized  for  the  long  term.     •  Seoul’s  infrastructure  works  so  smoothly  that  you  can   forget  it  or  just  enjoy  it.   •  Seoul’s  infrastructure  shouts  to  be  seen  like  the  future   single  human.   •  The  essence  of  Seoul’s  miracle:  social  and  ins=tu=onal   innova=on.   Pre-­‐thoughts  
  3. 3. Bogota Flirtatious “If you cannot change your hardware at least change your software” *
  4. 4. What mechanism do you obey the most?What mechanism do others obey the most?Challenge: to harmonize them Regulatory Mechanisms Fear of legal sanction or moral obligation to obey the law Admiration for the law Fear of guilt or moral obligation to follow personal moral criteria Moral self-gratification Fear of social rejection Trust Reputation Social recognition Legal norms Moral norms Social norms
  5. 5. Trust Reputation Social recognition Social norms Regulatory Mechanisms Fear of legal sanction or moral obligation to obey the law Admiration for the law Fear of guilt or moral obligation to follow personal moral criteria Moral self-gratification Fear of social rejection Legal norms Moral norms
  6. 6. Goals of Citizenship Culture To harmonize law, moral and culture To neutralize “shortcut culture”
  7. 7. 7 Examples of illegal and legal urban behavior in harmony or tension with morals and culture If the only way to preserve life is by lying in a public document Rape To overpay taxes Seller offers to reduce the bill of the amount of the tax if no receipt is issued and he does not feel guilt neither shame Taxi driver does not greet the passenger Use reasonable quantity of water Illegal city growth (usually it does not produce neither guilt nor shame) Bribing a traffic police officer in Bogotá circa1994 to avoid a just ticket. Car Parking on public sidewalks in Bogotá in 1994 Public officer imposes arbitrarely small delay on paperwork of his responsability Traffic interruption associated with street protest Deliberate ignorance of etiquette for making someone feel better
  8. 8. Citizenship is “the right to have rights” (H. Arendt) But also the “duty of recognizing duties” (A. M.) We are not born as citizens, we become citizens by… •  Being treated as a citizen •  Trying to act as a citizen •  Letting others interpret one’s actions as manifestations of citizenship Forming citizens
  9. 9. Basic set of shared rules to take advantage of (and enjoy) the cultural and moral diversity of the City Cultural regulation of interactions between citizens and between citizens and state officials Objectives : more… •  voluntary compliance with norms •  citizens peacefully making others comply with norms •  peaceful resolution of conflicts with help of a shared vision of the City •  communication (expression and interpretation) among citizens through arts, culture, recreation and sports “Citizenship Culture” in Bogotá 1995-7 2001-3
  10. 10. Sub-art = Art without the pretentions of being art Refresh, make unfamiliar the familiar Create public through the invitation to judge (building a common sense in the direction of a public sphere) Consciousness of the arbitrary of social constructions. Offer role models, inspire other practices. *Doris Sommer, Cultural agents, Harvard
  11. 11. Viktor Shklovsky •  Things are continuously getting grey •  Art gives back colors (not necessarily the same) •  Elaboration of forms obliges to stop-by, to slow down perception •  You rediscover the old thing under a new light, or you discover a new thing under the old light: you’re estranged •  Grey is unsustainable Shklovsky, V. (2012 [1917]). “Art as Technique”. Russian Formalist Criticism: Four Essays. L.T. Lemon, M. J. Reis and G. S. Morson (Eds.). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  12. 12. Cultural agency features learned from art •  Refresh, make unfamiliar the familiar •  Promote judgment and creating publics •  Announce possible harmonies •  Offer ‘role models’ . •  Make conscious the arbitrary of social constructions. •  Motivate, inspire other practices (close or not) •  Cultural ressources are recontextualized
  13. 13. Examples of sub-art in Bogotá 1995-7, 2001-3 Mobility Citizen’s cards Mimes regulating car and pedestrian traffic The “Zebra” Knights: taxi drivers that respected three rules… Cross-like stars on roads where pedestrians were killed Collective action Water voluntary saving as response to water shortage 63.000 voluntary tax-payers Disarmament Life is sacred “Carrot law” Alcohol restriction after 1 am to save lives. Bullet proof jacket The “Supercívico”
  14. 14. Mobility Mimes instead of Traffic Police in a small part of Central Bogotá succeeded in enforcing the use of zebra crosswalk
  15. 15. Citizen’s Cards
  16. 16. 11.6 12.7 15 18.3 20.3 18.8 18.8 18.4 16.7 15.3 14.7 13.8 12.6 12.1 11.8 11.9 21.3 24.4 23.3 24.1 24.3 22.3 15.6 15.1 14.2 13.2 11.6 10.7 8.6 9.9 8.2 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Numberofdeathsper100,000inhabitants Colombia Bogotá Seatbelts, citizens cards, mimes “Carrot” law (alcohol restriction) and elimination of transit police Better pre-hospital care Signaling of places where pedestrians died because of traffic accidents Deaths in traffic accidents
  17. 17. Examples of sub-art in Bogotá 1995-7, 2001-3 Mobility Citizen’s cards Mimes regulating car and pedestrian traffic The “Zebra” Knights: taxi drivers that respected three rules… Cross-like stars on roads where pedestrians were killed Collective action Water voluntary saving as response to water shortage 63.000 voluntary tax-payers Disarmament Life is sacred “Carrot law” Alcohol restriction after 1 am to save lives. Bullet proof jacket The “Supercívico”
  18. 18. •  Water savings •  Zebra’s Knights •  Disarmament •  Voluntary tax “110% with Bogotá” Collective Actions n Net benefit /person A B C O Number of persons cooperating First movers 29m3 →20m3  l14m3
  19. 19. In the face of a water supply crisis, we discarded mandatory rationing in favor of voluntary reduction of consumption. The commitment to voluntary reduce consumption was sustained, despite an initial increase in consumption.
  20. 20. Fuente: Tesorería Distrital. Cálculos: Secretaría de Hacienda - Dirección Distrital de Impuestos. Results: City’s Tax Revenues 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 200 million dollars per year 750 million dollars per year + additional 700 million dollars: Sales of 50% of Energy company ´s shares
  21. 21. Destruction of guns voluntarily returned
  22. 22. Desarme voluntario Cooperation of government and citizenry for shared delight and learning
  23. 23. Examples of sub-art in Bogotá 1995-7, 2001-3 Mobility Citizen’s cards Mimes regulating car and pedestrian traffic The “Zebra” Knights: taxi drivers that respected three rules… Cross-like stars on roads where pedestrians were killed Collective action Water voluntary saving as response to water shortage 63.000 voluntary tax-payers Disarmament Life is sacred “Carrot law” Alcohol restriction after 1 am to save lives. Bullet proof jacket The “Supercívico”
  24. 24. “Life is Sacred” Intervention in the central cemetery. Bogotá, Colombia.
  25. 25. Because threats from the FARC guerrilla, I wore for nine months a bullet-proof-white jacket with a heart- shaped hole placed over the heart. Possible meanings: to depict, to challenge, to seduce, invitation to seduce instead of frightening, an open narrative (“And now what will happen?”)
  26. 26. “Carrot Law” Carrot Law: Night clubs curfew to save lives.
  27. 27. SuperCívico
  28. 28. Homicide rate dropped, from 80 per 100.000 inhabitants in 1993 to 22 per 100.000 inhabitants in 2004. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 Colombia (S/B) Bogotá Reduction in homicides (partially attributed to cultura ciudadana) Colombia without Bogota Bogota * Fuente: Colombia - Policía Nacional, Bogotá - Medicina Legal
  29. 29. Some results •  Two homicide rate reductions by 1/3 in two non- consecutive three year periods. •  Reduction of the rate of people killed in traffic accidents (from 24 to 8 per 100000). •  Water demand management approach used to afford water supply crisis. •  Patronage-based clientelistic relationships interrupted •  Reduction of tax evasion (voluntary tax and new incomes warranted)
  30. 30. Build on what was built
  31. 31. 1995-1997, 1998-2000, 2001-2003: intertwining Citizenship Culture + improvements Mayor Peñalosa, physical improvements (not only): –  Sidewalks (we all share the condition of pedestrians) –  A new model of Transportation based on BMT + biking + restrictions on car use (40% peak hours, day without car democratically approved) –  Public space defense / egalitarianism –  Construction of 4 huge libraries and 20 mega-schools in very poor neighborhoods. Investment of resources obtained by selling half of energy company.
  32. 32. Before After
  33. 33. En 1999 se decidió intervenir una de las zonas más peligrosas del centro de Bogotá (delincuencia y consumo y tráfico de estupefacientes) Para esto se demolieron las casas que se ubicaban en el sector y se construyó en este lugar el parque Tercer Milenio. 12.000 personas fueron reubicadas Urban Renewal: El Cartucho 198 9 200 7
  34. 34. 1998 2006
  35. 35. Social innovation: art inspired promotion of law obedience Fostering collective action to change specific social norms proved to be a way to enhance legal compliance. It helped to make of legal obedience a general social norm. Learning to manage, managing to learn
  36. 36. Could a similar approach work in face of suicides?
  37. 37. South Korea Lithuania Uruguay Brazil Colombia Suicide rate per 100,000 31.7 31.6 15.8 4.8 4.9 Homicide rate per 100,000 2.6 6.6 5.9 21.0 31.4 Source : Medicina Legal, UNODC, WHO
  38. 38. Seoul Bogotá Suicide rate per 100,000 26.9 3.0 Homicide rate per 100,000 2.38 16.1 Source : Medicina Legal, UNODC, WHO
  39. 39. 0; 67 0; 22 0.1; 60 0.9; 3.2 1.6; 22 2.3; 52 3; 1.05 3.8; 49 3.94; 3.8 4; 15 4.6; 22 4.9; 35 5.2; 1.1 5.7; 3.9 5.8; 2.1 6.1; 0.96.6; 1.2 6.8; 71 6.8; 19 7.2; 13 7.8; 5.97.9; 5.5 7.9; 1.17 8; 11 8.5; 0.93 8.6; 4.1 9.2; 1.289.5; 0.86 10.1; 2.3 10.2; 1.310.3; 1.7410.3; 1.7 10.3; 0.38 10.6; 2.8 10.6; 1.01 11.1; 5 11.3; 2.3 11.3; 011.4; 0.6 11.6; 1.8111.6; 1.3511.8; 1.8 12; 43 12.3; 5.5 12.4; 1.94 12.8; 0.55 13.2; 5.8 13.2; 2.215; 1.67 15.1; 0.7115.2; 1.21 15.4; 34 15.8; 0.89 16.5; 7.1 17; 1.3117.6; 1.8218.3; 2.5 20.7; 4.8 21.6; 7.4 21.8; 1.38 22.6; 5.4 22.9; 21 23.5; 15 24.4; 1.02 25.3; 5.6 31; 2.3 31.5; 9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Venezuela   USA Honduras Perú Repúblic a Dominic ana Colombia Brasil El Salvador Jamaica Guate mala Tobago South Africa Ha ití Ecuador México Guayana Rusia Nicaragua Lituania Corea del Sur Tailandia Estonia Bielorusia HungríaFinlandia Japón Letonia India 10,6: 2,8 China 6,6;12 Costa Rica Sri Lanka Turquía Grecia WORLD 14,5; 8,8   Homicide rate vs suicide rate (circa 2010) Suicides Homicides
  40. 40. 0; 67 0; 22 0.1; 60 0.9; 3.2 1.6; 22 2.3; 52 3; 1.05 3.8; 49 3.94; 3.8 4; 15 4.6; 22 4.9; 35 5.2; 1.1 5.7; 3.9 5.8; 2.1 6.1; 0.96.6; 1.2 6.8; 71 6.8; 19 7.2; 13 7.8; 5.97.9; 5.5 7.9; 1.17 8; 11 8.5; 0.93 8.6; 4.1 9.2; 1.289.5; 0.86 10.1; 2.3 10.2; 1.310.3; 1.7410.3; 1.7 10.3; 0.38 10.6; 2.8 10.6; 1.01 11.1; 5 11.3; 2.3 11.3; 011.4; 0.6 11.6; 1.8111.6; 1.3511.8; 1.8 12; 43 12.3; 5.5 12.4; 1.94 12.8; 0.55 13.2; 5.8 13.2; 2.215; 1.67 15.1; 0.7115.2; 1.21 15.4; 34 15.8; 0.89 16.5; 7.1 17; 1.3117.6; 1.8218.3; 2.5 20.7; 4.8 21.6; 7.4 21.8; 1.38 22.6; 5.4 22.9; 21 23.5; 15 24.4; 1.02 25.3; 5.6 31; 2.3 31.5; 9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Venezuela   USA Honduras Perú Repúblic a Dominic ana Colombia Brasil El Salvador Jamaica Guate mala Tobago South Africa Ha ití Ecuador México Guayana Rusia Nicaragua Lituania Corea del Sur Tailandia Estonia Bielorusia HungríaFinlandia Japón Letonia India 10,6: 2,8 China 6,6;12 Costa Rica Sri Lanka Turquía Grecia WORLD 14,5; 8,8   Homicide rate vs suicide rate (circa 2010) Homicides Suicides
  41. 41. Colombia South Korea Population 47,050,000 50, 004, 441 Annual growth rate 1.18% 0.1 % Surface (km2) 1.141.748 99 828 Density (people/km2) 41,2 500, 91 GDP per capita (USD) 6,685 23, 020 GDP Growth 4.30% -0.40 % Life expectancy (years) 74.3 81.2 Fertility index (children / woman) 2.18 1.15 Infant mortality rate (per 1000) 16.9 4.24 Human Development Index (IDH 2012) 0.719/1.0 (rank : 92/186) 0.909/1.0 (rank : 12/186) Source: www.populatiodata.net
  42. 42. A worldwide problem For each 100 homicides there are 164 suicides During the last 45 years suicides grew a 60%
  43. 43. South Korea Seoul Colombia Bogotá Population 50,004,441 22,692,652 47,050,000 8,423,837 Suicide rate per 100,000 31.7 26.9 4.9 3.0 Homicide rate per 100,000 2.6 2.38 31.4 16.1 Source : Medicina Legal, UNODC, WHO
  44. 44. México Siglo XXI, 2010
  45. 45. SELFEXPRESSION
  46. 46. 15,7 10,1 16,5 6,6 4.0 8,0 15,0 1,7 7,7 8,7 0,64 8,0 Hom Suic Más de 20 por 100.000 hab por año 3,2 TheCulturalMapoftheWorldcirca2000(Welzel-Inglehart)
  47. 47. Promote happiness and entrepreneurship Reduce or reorient politics Soften drive to achieve Strengthen traditional and self- expression values Possible strategies against suicide for South Korea and Lithuania
  48. 48. SELFEXPRESSION Promote familism, health, leisure, importance of friends, life satisfaction, ecology, women’s emancipation and tolerance. Reorient freedom of choice. Possible strategies against suicide for South Korea and Lithuania
  49. 49. SELFEXPRESSION Build upon health, leisure, importance of friends, life satisfaction, ecology, women’s emancipation and tolerance. Possible strategies against suicide for Uruguay
  50. 50. Promote happiness and entrepreneurship Soften drive to achieve Strengthen self-expression values Possible strategies against suicide for Uruguay
  51. 51. Citizenship Culture applied to suicide prevention Strengthening social taboos against suicide. Building on prevalent values or, selectively, reorient some of them. Improving legislation and legal enforcement against third parties complicity or passivity in face of suicidal attempts. Making visible collective actions in favour of human life. Revoking the obligation of not smiling on IDs. Making and divulging mutual commitments to not suicide without previous notice and authorization.

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