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DRDC Knowledge Agenda

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  • A knowledge network looks something like a knowledge organization except that the boundary is somewhat vague and the network has a capacity to create its own knowledge. It should be evident from this slide that everything depends on members putting content into the network in order to make it go.
  • This is an organizational infrastructure that includes pretty much everything that is needed to run CSS. This applies to KM as well as anything else that we do. Simply put, people use tools and process within a governance structure to increase the value of content and services. It isn’t a matter of focussing on one or more parts of the infrastructure. All parts must be reflected in a task, project, or program if it is to succeed.
  • A SWOT analysis is strongly recommended before developing and implementing a social network in government agencies. Describe the four aspects.
  • The key question is: if a department participates in a social network, how does it “capture value” from commonly held external intellectual property? The answer, in a few words, is to bring it inside the organization. The common property has to be stabilized. A report, policy, or regulation cannot change once it is formalized. Internal value has to be added by ensuring that it works. For example, in policy, all stakeholder concerns must be addressed; in business, an innovation must be producible and marketable. A key implication is that a department must retain enough internal core capacity to be able to add value to commonly-held IP.
  • Managers won’t fund what they don’t understand. Managers won’t abandon what worked (or didn’t) before. Managers will oppose loss of resources. Managers want short-term-low-risk deliverables.


  • 1. More than Managing Knowledge Albert Simard Knowledge Manager Defence R&D Canada, DRDKIM Presented to SIKM December 21, 2010 A Knowledge Agenda:
  • 2. Knowledge Environment Background Information Society Knowledge Economy Organizational Environment change complex technology DRDC growing networks global connectivity complex issues engaged citizens security abundant information knowledge assets sharing network value knowledge markets government public security innovation public safety science & technology national defence
  • 3. DRDC Inputs and Outputs Background Defence R&D Canada Intelligence, Integration Knowledge Network Policy, Strategy Priorities, Advice outcomes, services S & T capacity, Innovation Science & Technology existing, new knowledge experience, products Response, Operations Operational needs Reduced risk Government Mandate, Reports
  • 4. Organizational Knowledge Cycle Agenda Creation Validation Organization Authorization
  • 5. Knowledge Agenda Management Regimes Agenda Management levels Authoritative Hierarchy Organizational Infrastructure Negotiated Agreement Responsible Autonomy Knowledge Infrastructure Authorize Organize Collaborate Create Knowledge Assets Control Sole IP rights Joint IP rights Open source Knowledge Sharing Vertical Horizontal Group Ecosystem Knowledge Work Mandate Structure Agreement Interest Knowledge Transfer Promulgate Products & Services Exchange Knowledge markets
  • 6. Management Levels Agenda Knowledge Assets Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Work Knowledge Transfer Knowledge Infrastructure Stock Flow Business National Defence, National Security, Public Safety Defence R&D Canada Markets Resources Government
  • 7. Management Regimes Agenda Authoritative Hierarchy Organizational Infrastructure Negotiated Agreement Responsible Autonomy Purpose (Why) Authorize Organize Collaborate Create Entity (What) Decisions & Actions Objects & Tasks People & Connectivity Environment & Interests Process (How) Decide & Act Capture & Structure Connect Communities Engage people Interactions Hierarchy Work Process Agreements Dialogue Knowledge Authoritative Explicit Tacit Innate
  • 8. Management Regimes: Strategic Trends Agenda Authoritative Hierarchy Organizational Infrastructure Partnership Agreements Responsible Autonomy knowledge assets generation capacity structured processes individual abilities Relative Importance high low Management Regime Competitiveness Sustainability
  • 9. Knowledge Infrastructure Levels Processes work routines lessons learned, best practices, People
      • learning, motivation, rewards, incentives, staffing, skills
    Governance roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources Content, Services data, risk analysis, reports, monitoring, operations, policies Tools systems to capture, store, share, and process content
  • 10. Knowledge Assets
    • Capture : Represent explicit or tacit knowledge on reproducible media
    • Inventory : Find, list, and describe knowledge; map to business needs, value and prioritize
    • Needs : What needs to be known to accomplish DRDC goals; identify core knowledge
    • Gaps : Difference between what is known and what needs to be known
    • Preserve : organize, store, search & retrieval, maintain and migrate throughout life-cycle
  • 11. Knowledge Sharing
    • Exchange : Develop & implement internal systems to enable people to find and retrieve knowledge.
    • Integrate : Combine diverse knowledge from many sources to create a holistic view of complex issues.
    • Transfer : Disseminate knowledge from DRDC to enable use by the Forces, partners, practitioners, and Canadians.
    • Monitor : Acquire knowledge from the environment to identify events and developments of interest to the CSS or public safety.
  • 12. Knowledge Work
    • Input-Related : apply the mandate, monitor the environmental, analyze external content, operational needs analysis, set priorities, establish projects
    • Transformation : manage programs, provide corporate services, generate knowledge, develop products & services, mobilize knowledge, learn from experience
    • Output-Related : reports, integrated knowledge, open innovation, trusted advice, risk mitigation, organizational adaptation
  • 13. Knowledge Transfer
    • Communications : one-way dissemination of approved messages and positions.
    • Transaction : two-way exchanges of knowledge products & services.
    • Parallel : Transferring knowledge products & services from or to two or more providers or users.
    • Sequential : Multiple organizations sequentially produce and transfer knowledge products & services.
    • Cyclic : Knowledge service “value chains” continuously create and transfer new knowledge.
    • Network : Interactions among large numbers of participants in a “knowledge ecosystem.”
  • 14. Incentive Framework Peter Stoyko (2010) Engagement Type of Incentive Individual Response Organizational Results Compliance Behavior Functionality Motivation Attitudes Productivity Engagement Willingness Creativity
  • 15. Incentives
    • Compliance (you will)
      • Pay, job security, duty, work ethic, penalties
      • Military, manufacturing, law, regulation, policies
      • Meet quotas, minimum standards, routine tasks
    • Motivation (you’ll be rewarded)
      • Ambition, challenges, bonuses, rewards, recognition
      • Efficiency, productivity, quality
      • Increases, improvements
    • Engagement (would you like to?)
      • Meaningfulness, ownership, self-esteem, enjoyment
      • Creativity, innovation, discovery
      • Commitment, involvement, willingness, enjoyment
  • 16. Engagement
    • Autonomy: (agreed task, flexible schedule, select technique, choose team)
    • Mastery: (is a mindset, it takes time and effort, it is asymptotic)
    • Purpose: (meaningful goals, words are important, policies)
    Daniel Pink (2009) Engagement
  • 17. Engagement Signals
    • Positive
    • Mutual expectations
    • Listen to ideas
    • Ask for help & advice
    • Jointly review progress
    • Freely share information
    • Work collaboratively
    • Delegate decisions
    • Negative
    • Monitor closely
    • Don’t include in planning
    • Ignore suggestions
    • Seldom interact
    • Withhold information
    • Control tightly
    • Approve all decisions
    Tosti & Nickols (2010) Engagement
  • 18. Community of Practice
    • People who share common expertise, skill, or profession (position, work, colleagues)
    • Government, department
    • Sector, branch, division staff
    • Scientists, engineers, lawyers
    • Policy analysts, regulators
    • Finance, purchasing officers
    • Information, communication specialists
  • 19. Communities and Knowledge Management
    • Knowledge exists in the minds of people. Experience is as important as formal knowledge.
    • Knowledge is tacit as well as explicit. Transferring tacit knowledge is more effective through human interaction.
    • Knowledge is social as well as individual. Today’s knowledge is the result of centuries of collective research.
    • Knowledge is changing at an accelerating rate. It takes a community of people to keep up with new concepts, practices, and technology.
  • 20. Community Benefits Participants - Help with their work - Solve problems - Find experts - Receive feedback - Place to learn - Latest information - Enhance reputation Management - Connect isolated experts - Coordinate activities - Fast problem solving - Reduce development time - Quickly answer questions - Standardize processes - Develop & retain talent
    • Outputs
    • - Tangible : documents, reports, manuals, recommendations, reduced innovation time and cost
    • - Intangible : increased skills, sense of trust, diverse perspectives, cross-pollinate ideas, capacity to innovate, relationships, spirit of enquiry
  • 21. Networks
    • Interconnection among many individuals groups or organizations with common interdependencies, interests, or purpose
    • Networks are much bigger than communities (100s to 1,000,000s of nodes
    • Participants don’t know most other participants, limiting trust and security
    • Large numbers of nodes leads to complex behavior and emergence
  • 22. Social Networks – SWOT Analysis
    • Strengths – rapid development, world-class solutions, emergent properties, creative synergies, vibrant collaboration, openness
    • Weaknesses – constant change, unknown quality, less used by mature individuals, need to motivate participants, cannot be forced
    • Opportunities – leverage internal capacity, provides creative solutions, easy to implement, low cost, can monitor emerging trends
    • Threats – knowledge leaks, free expression poses risk, is the crowd wise, documents subject to ATIP, compatibility with mandate
  • 23. Capturing Value Bring it into the organizational structure Stabilize it; make it work Organization
  • 24. People
    • Workers – who, what, when, where, why, how
    • Human capital – workforce, skills, productivity, salaries
    • Human nature – behavior, attitudes, interests
    • Communities – connectivity, functionality, impacts
    • Culture – domain, ideology, values, norms, rituals
    • Human Resources – staffing & retention, supervision & performance, training & development
  • 25. Governance
    • Mandate – Purpose, goals, authority, responsibility, accountability, roles, resources
    • Decisions – Hierarchy, structure, collaboration, autonomy
    • Planning – Charter, business case, strategy, communication, budget, project plan, work schedules
    • Manage – Lead, organize work, coordinate activities, monitor progress, report results
  • 26. DRDC Work Flow Levels Inputs Mandate Monitoring Analysis Needs Priorities Establishment Transformation Programs Services Create Develop Mobilize Learn Outputs Report Integration Innovation Mitigation Advice Adaptation
  • 27. Technology
    • Control – Security, central, standards, user-centric
    • Computers – Mobile, desktops, work stations, servers, supercomputers, cloud computing
    • Applications – e-mail, text processing, spread sheets, graphics, databases, analysis
    • Systems – acquire, organize, store, process, provide access, and retrieve content
    • Communication – Efficiency, semantics, effectiveness
    • Networks – one-to-many (distribution, blogs), many-to-one (ordering, surveys), many-to-many (collaborate, wikis)
  • 28. Products and Services
    • Content – collections, libraries, data, information, documents, records, knowledge
    • Products – databases, scientific papers, reports, communications materials, maps, statistics, standards, policies, regulations, systems, devices
    • Services – answers, advice, teaching, facilitation, support, laboratory, research
  • 29. Approval
    • Understanding – Keep it simple ; one message with stories and multiple analogies from different perspectives.
    • Experience – Do your homework ; pre-brief decision makers, solicit opinions, negotiate objections (to a point).
    • Resources – Pick low-hanging fruit ; plan low cost, small effort, low impact activities.
    • Management – Think big, start small ; divide into small projects with measurable, high-impact deliverables.
    • Submission – Leadership is essential ; bypass unjustified objections, accept majority vote, authorize work.
  • 30. Implementation
    • Communication - awareness, understanding, consensus, participation
    • Mandate - purpose, objectives, authority, responsibility, accountability, resources
    • Infrastructure - people, governance, work processes, technology, content
    • Plans – milestones & deliverables, work schedules, evaluation criteria, risks
    • Execute – supervise, processes, technology, systems, analysis, outputs
    • Monitor – indicators, measure, interpret, report progress, next steps
  • 31. Sustainability
    • Leadership – Outputs must be delivered within a leader’s tenure; preferably, get them institutionalized.
    • Governance – Representative, federated decision making is the only sustainable governance for knowledge work.
    • Reorganization – Align a project/activity with the organizational business model.
    • Priorities – Align the project/activity with the organization’s long-term strategy
    • Support – Deliver initial outputs when & as promised; be prepared to adapt to changing priorities.
    • Culture – Develop favorable policies, reward desired behavior, leverage work, implement helpful systems.
  • 32. Conclusion
    • Documentation – purpose, objectives, review, approach, data, analysis, plans, accomplishments, outputs.
    • Evaluation – administration, efficiency, effectiveness, outcomes
    • Extension – recommended applicability, limits, enhancements, data requirements, costs & benefits.
    • Learning – positive & negative lessons, problem / opportunity, solution / approach, resources
  • 33. Key Messages Management authorizes the use of knowledge to enable action. A knowledge organization engages people to enhance creativity Community collaboration validates individual knowledge Community knowledge must be put into an organizational context.