A knowledge network looks something like a knowledge organization except that the boundary is somewhat vague and the network has a capacity to create its own knowledge. It should be evident from this slide that everything depends on members putting content into the network in order to make it go.
This is an organizational infrastructure that includes pretty much everything that is needed to run CSS. This applies to KM as well as anything else that we do. Simply put, people use tools and process within a governance structure to increase the value of content and services. It isn’t a matter of focussing on one or more parts of the infrastructure. All parts must be reflected in a task, project, or program if it is to succeed.
A SWOT analysis is strongly recommended before developing and implementing a social network in government agencies. Describe the four aspects.
The key question is: if a department participates in a social network, how does it “capture value” from commonly held external intellectual property? The answer, in a few words, is to bring it inside the organization. The common property has to be stabilized. A report, policy, or regulation cannot change once it is formalized. Internal value has to be added by ensuring that it works. For example, in policy, all stakeholder concerns must be addressed; in business, an innovation must be producible and marketable. A key implication is that a department must retain enough internal core capacity to be able to add value to commonly-held IP.
Managers won’t fund what they don’t understand. Managers won’t abandon what worked (or didn’t) before. Managers will oppose loss of resources. Managers want short-term-low-risk deliverables.
1. More than Managing
Defence R&D Canada, DRDKIM
Presented to SIKM
December 21, 2010
A Knowledge Agenda:
Knowledge Environment Background
DRDC Inputs and Outputs
S & T capacity,S & T capacity,
Authorize Organize Collaborate Create
Control Sole IP rights Joint IP rights Open source
Vertical Horizontal Group Ecosystem
Mandate Structure Agreement Interest
Promulgate Products &
Purpose (Why) Authorize Organize Collaborate Create
Entity (What) Decisions &
Process (How) Decide & Act Capture &
Interactions Hierarchy Work Process Agreements Dialogue
Knowledge Authoritative Explicit Tacit Innate
Governance roles, responsibilities,
data, risk analysis,
• Capture: Represent explicit or tacit
knowledge on reproducible media
• Inventory: Find, list, and describe
knowledge; map to business needs,
value and prioritize
• Needs: What needs to be known to
accomplish DRDC goals; identify
• Gaps: Difference between what is
known and what needs to be known
• Preserve: organize, store, search &
retrieval, maintain and migrate
• Exchange: Develop & implement internal systems to
enable people to find and retrieve knowledge.
• Integrate: Combine diverse knowledge from many
sources to create a holistic view of complex issues.
• Transfer: Disseminate knowledge from DRDC to
enable use by the Forces, partners, practitioners,
• Monitor: Acquire knowledge
from the environment to
identify events and
developments of interest to
the CSS or public safety.
• Input-Related: apply the mandate, monitor the
environmental, analyze external content, operational
needs analysis, set priorities, establish projects
• Transformation: manage programs, provide
corporate services, generate knowledge, develop
products & services, mobilize knowledge, learn from
• Output-Related: reports, integrated knowledge,
open innovation, trusted advice, risk mitigation,
• Communications: one-way dissemination of
approved messages and positions.
• Transaction: two-way exchanges of knowledge
products & services.
• Parallel: Transferring knowledge products &
services from or to two or more providers or users.
• Sequential: Multiple organizations sequentially
produce and transfer knowledge products &
• Cyclic: Knowledge service “value chains”
continuously create and transfer new knowledge.
• Network: Interactions among large numbers of
participants in a “knowledge ecosystem.”
Compliance Behavior Functionality
Motivation Attitudes Productivity
Engagement Willingness Creativity
Peter Stoyko (2010)
• Autonomy: (agreed task, flexible schedule, select
technique, choose team)
• Mastery: (is a mindset, it takes time and effort, it
• Purpose: (meaningful goals, words are important,
Daniel Pink (2009)
• Mutual expectations
• Listen to ideas
• Ask for help & advice
• Jointly review progress
• Freely share information
• Work collaboratively
• Delegate decisions
• Monitor closely
• Don’t include in planning
• Ignore suggestions
• Seldom interact
• Withhold information
• Control tightly
• Approve all decisions
Tosti & Nickols (2010)
Community of Practice
People who share common expertise, skill, or
profession (position, work, colleagues)
• Government, department
• Sector, branch, division staff
• Scientists, engineers, lawyers
• Policy analysts, regulators
• Finance, purchasing officers
• Information, communication specialists
• Knowledge exists in the minds of people.
Experience is as important as formal knowledge.
• Knowledge is tacit as well as explicit.
Transferring tacit knowledge is more effective
through human interaction.
• Knowledge is social as well as individual.
Today’s knowledge is the result of centuries of
• Knowledge is changing at an accelerating rate.
It takes a community of people to keep up with
new concepts, practices, and technology.
- Help with their work
- Solve problems
- Find experts
- Receive feedback
- Place to learn
- Latest information
- Enhance reputation
- Connect isolated experts
- Coordinate activities
- Fast problem solving
- Reduce development time
- Quickly answer questions
- Standardize processes
- Develop & retain talent
- - Tangible: documents, reports, manuals,
recommendations, reduced innovation time and cost
- - Intangible: increased skills, sense of trust, diverse
perspectives, cross-pollinate ideas, capacity to
innovate, relationships, spirit of enquiry
Interconnection among many individuals groups
or organizations with common
interdependencies, interests, or purpose
• Networks are much bigger
than communities (100s
to 1,000,000s of nodes
• Participants don’t know
most other participants,
limiting trust and security
• Large numbers of nodes
leads to complex behavior
Social Networks –
• Strengths – rapid development, world-class
solutions, emergent properties, creative synergies,
vibrant collaboration, openness
• Weaknesses – constant change, unknown quality,
less used by mature individuals, need to motivate
participants, cannot be forced
• Opportunities – leverage internal capacity,
provides creative solutions, easy to implement, low
cost, can monitor emerging trends
• Threats – knowledge leaks, free expression poses
risk, is the crowd wise, documents subject to ATIP,
compatibility with mandate
Bring it into the organizational structure
Stabilize it; make it work
• Workers – who, what, when,
where, why, how
• Human capital – workforce, skills,
• Human nature – behavior,
• Communities – connectivity,
• Culture – domain, ideology,
values, norms, rituals
• Human Resources – staffing & retention, supervision &
performance, training & development
• Leadership – Outputs must be delivered within a leader’s
tenure; preferably, get them institutionalized.
• Governance – Representative, federated decision making
is the only sustainable governance for knowledge work.
• Reorganization – Align a project/activity with the
organizational business model.
• Priorities – Align the project/activity with the organization’s
• Support – Deliver initial outputs when & as promised; be
prepared to adapt to changing priorities.
• Culture – Develop favorable policies, reward desired
behavior, leverage work, implement helpful systems.
the use of knowledge to
the use of knowledge to
engages people to
engages people to
must be put into an
must be put into an