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More than Managing
Knowledge
Albert Simard
Knowledge Manager
Defence R&D Canada, DRDKIM
Presented to SIKM
December 21, 201...
2
Information
Society
Knowledge
Economy
Organizational
Environment
change
complex
technology
DRDC
growing
networks
global ...
3
DRDC Inputs and Outputs
Defence R&D
Canada
Intelligence,Intelligence,
IntegrationIntegration
Knowledge
Network
Policy,
S...
4
Organizational Knowledge Cycle
Creation Validation
OrganizationAuthorization
Agenda
5
Knowledge Agenda
Management
levels
Authoritative
Hierarchy
Organizational
Infrastructure
Negotiated
Agreement
Responsibl...
6
Management Levels
Knowledge Assets
Knowledge Sharing
Knowledge
Work
Knowledge
Transfer
Knowledge Infrastructure
Stock
Fl...
7
Management Regimes
Authoritative
Hierarchy
Organizational
Infrastructure
Negotiated
Agreement
Responsible
Autonomy
Purpo...
8
Management Regimes:
Strategic Trends
Authoritative
Hierarchy
Organizational
Infrastructure
Partnership
Agreements
Respon...
9
Knowledge Infrastructure
Processes
work routines
lessons learned,
best practices,
People
learning, motivation,
rewards, ...
10
Knowledge Assets
• Capture: Represent explicit or tacit
knowledge on reproducible media
• Inventory: Find, list, and de...
11
Knowledge Sharing
• Exchange: Develop & implement internal systems to
enable people to find and retrieve knowledge.
• I...
12
Knowledge Work
• Input-Related: apply the mandate, monitor the
environmental, analyze external content, operational
nee...
13
Knowledge Transfer
• Communications: one-way dissemination of
approved messages and positions.
• Transaction: two-way e...
14
Incentive Framework
Type of
Incentive
Individual
Response
Organizational
Results
Compliance Behavior Functionality
Moti...
15
Incentives
• Compliance (you will)
– Pay, job security, duty, work ethic, penalties
– Military, manufacturing, law, reg...
16
Engagement
• Autonomy: (agreed task, flexible schedule, select
technique, choose team)
• Mastery: (is a mindset, it tak...
17
Engagement Signals
Positive
• Mutual expectations
• Listen to ideas
• Ask for help & advice
• Jointly review progress
•...
18
Community of Practice
People who share common expertise, skill, or
profession (position, work, colleagues)
• Government...
19
Communities and
Knowledge Management
• Knowledge exists in the minds of people.
Experience is as important as formal kn...
20
Participants
- Help with their work
- Solve problems
- Find experts
- Receive feedback
- Place to learn
- Latest inform...
21
Networks
Interconnection among many individuals groups
or organizations with common
interdependencies, interests, or pu...
22
Social Networks –
SWOT Analysis
• Strengths – rapid development, world-class
solutions, emergent properties, creative s...
23
Capturing Value
Bring it into the organizational structure
Stabilize it; make it work
Organization
24
People
• Workers – who, what, when,
where, why, how
• Human capital – workforce, skills,
productivity, salaries
• Human...
25
Governance
• Mandate – Purpose, goals, authority, responsibility,
accountability, roles, resources
• Decisions – Hierar...
26
DRDC Work Flow
Inputs
Mandate
Monitoring
Analysis
Needs
Priorities
Establishment
Transformation
Programs
Services
Creat...
27
Technology
• Control – Security, central, standards, user-centric
• Computers – Mobile, desktops, work stations, server...
28
Products and Services
• Content – collections, libraries, data, information,
documents, records, knowledge
• Products –...
29
Approval
• Understanding – Keep it simple; one message with
stories and multiple analogies from different perspectives....
30
Implementation
• Communication - awareness,
understanding, consensus, participation
• Mandate - purpose, objectives,
au...
31
Sustainability
• Leadership – Outputs must be delivered within a leader’s
tenure; preferably, get them institutionalize...
32
Conclusion
• Documentation – purpose,
objectives, review, approach, data,
analysis, plans, accomplishments,
outputs.
• ...
33
Key
Messages
Management authorizes
the use of knowledge to
enable action.
Management authorizes
the use of knowledge to...
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DRDC Knowledge Agenda

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  • A knowledge network looks something like a knowledge organization except that the boundary is somewhat vague and the network has a capacity to create its own knowledge.
    It should be evident from this slide that everything depends on members putting content into the network in order to make it go.
  • This is an organizational infrastructure that includes pretty much everything that is needed to run CSS.
    This applies to KM as well as anything else that we do.
    Simply put, people use tools and process within a governance structure to increase the value of content and services.
    It isn’t a matter of focussing on one or more parts of the infrastructure. All parts must be reflected in a task, project, or program if it is to succeed.
  • A SWOT analysis is strongly recommended before developing and implementing a social network in government agencies.
    Describe the four aspects.
  • The key question is: if a department participates in a social network, how does it “capture value” from commonly held external intellectual property?
    The answer, in a few words, is to bring it inside the organization.
    The common property has to be stabilized. A report, policy, or regulation cannot change once it is formalized.
    Internal value has to be added by ensuring that it works. For example, in policy, all stakeholder concerns must be addressed; in business, an innovation must be producible and marketable.
    A key implication is that a department must retain enough internal core capacity to be able to add value to commonly-held IP.
  • Managers won’t fund what they don’t understand.
    Managers won’t abandon what worked (or didn’t) before.
    Managers will oppose loss of resources.
    Managers want short-term-low-risk deliverables.
  • Transcript of "DRDC Knowledge Agenda"

    1. 1. More than Managing Knowledge Albert Simard Knowledge Manager Defence R&D Canada, DRDKIM Presented to SIKM December 21, 2010 A Knowledge Agenda:
    2. 2. 2 Information Society Knowledge Economy Organizational Environment change complex technology DRDC growing networks global connectivity complex issues engaged citizens security abundant information knowledge assets sharing network value knowledge markets government public security innovation public safety science & technology national defence Knowledge Environment Background
    3. 3. 3 DRDC Inputs and Outputs Defence R&D Canada Intelligence,Intelligence, IntegrationIntegration Knowledge Network Policy, Strategy Priorities,Priorities, AdviceAdvice outcomes, services S & T capacity,S & T capacity, InnovationInnovation Science & Technology existing, new knowledge experience, products Response, Operations OperationalOperational needsneeds ReducedReduced riskrisk Government Mandate,Mandate, ReportsReports Background
    4. 4. 4 Organizational Knowledge Cycle Creation Validation OrganizationAuthorization Agenda
    5. 5. 5 Knowledge Agenda Management levels Authoritative Hierarchy Organizational Infrastructure Negotiated Agreement Responsible Autonomy Knowledge Infrastructure Authorize Organize Collaborate Create Knowledge Assets Control Sole IP rights Joint IP rights Open source Knowledge Sharing Vertical Horizontal Group Ecosystem Knowledge Work Mandate Structure Agreement Interest Knowledge Transfer Promulgate Products & Services Exchange Knowledge markets Management Regimes Agenda
    6. 6. 6 Management Levels Knowledge Assets Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Work Knowledge Transfer Knowledge Infrastructure Stock Flow Business National Defence, National Security, Public Safety Defence R&D Canada Markets Resources Government Agenda
    7. 7. 7 Management Regimes Authoritative Hierarchy Organizational Infrastructure Negotiated Agreement Responsible Autonomy Purpose (Why) Authorize Organize Collaborate Create Entity (What) Decisions & Actions Objects & Tasks People & Connectivity Environment & Interests Process (How) Decide & Act Capture & Structure Connect Communities Engage people Interactions Hierarchy Work Process Agreements Dialogue Knowledge Authoritative Explicit Tacit Innate Agenda
    8. 8. 8 Management Regimes: Strategic Trends Authoritative Hierarchy Organizational Infrastructure Partnership Agreements Responsible Autonomy knowledge assets generation capacity structured processes individual abilities RelativeImportance high low Management Regime Competitiveness Sustainability Agenda
    9. 9. 9 Knowledge Infrastructure Processes work routines lessons learned, best practices, People learning, motivation, rewards, incentives, staffing, skills Governance roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources Content, Services data, risk analysis, reports, monitoring, operations, policies Tools systems to capture, store, share, and process content Levels
    10. 10. 10 Knowledge Assets • Capture: Represent explicit or tacit knowledge on reproducible media • Inventory: Find, list, and describe knowledge; map to business needs, value and prioritize • Needs: What needs to be known to accomplish DRDC goals; identify core knowledge • Gaps: Difference between what is known and what needs to be known • Preserve: organize, store, search & retrieval, maintain and migrate throughout life-cycle Levels
    11. 11. 11 Knowledge Sharing • Exchange: Develop & implement internal systems to enable people to find and retrieve knowledge. • Integrate: Combine diverse knowledge from many sources to create a holistic view of complex issues. • Transfer: Disseminate knowledge from DRDC to enable use by the Forces, partners, practitioners, and Canadians. • Monitor: Acquire knowledge from the environment to identify events and developments of interest to the CSS or public safety. Levels
    12. 12. 12 Knowledge Work • Input-Related: apply the mandate, monitor the environmental, analyze external content, operational needs analysis, set priorities, establish projects • Transformation: manage programs, provide corporate services, generate knowledge, develop products & services, mobilize knowledge, learn from experience • Output-Related: reports, integrated knowledge, open innovation, trusted advice, risk mitigation, organizational adaptation Levels
    13. 13. 13 Knowledge Transfer • Communications: one-way dissemination of approved messages and positions. • Transaction: two-way exchanges of knowledge products & services. • Parallel: Transferring knowledge products & services from or to two or more providers or users. • Sequential: Multiple organizations sequentially produce and transfer knowledge products & services. • Cyclic: Knowledge service “value chains” continuously create and transfer new knowledge. • Network: Interactions among large numbers of participants in a “knowledge ecosystem.” Levels
    14. 14. 14 Incentive Framework Type of Incentive Individual Response Organizational Results Compliance Behavior Functionality Motivation Attitudes Productivity Engagement Willingness Creativity Peter Stoyko (2010) Engagement
    15. 15. 15 Incentives • Compliance (you will) – Pay, job security, duty, work ethic, penalties – Military, manufacturing, law, regulation, policies – Meet quotas, minimum standards, routine tasks • Motivation (you’ll be rewarded) – Ambition, challenges, bonuses, rewards, recognition – Efficiency, productivity, quality – Increases, improvements • Engagement (would you like to?) – Meaningfulness, ownership, self-esteem, enjoyment – Creativity, innovation, discovery – Commitment, involvement, willingness, enjoyment Engagement
    16. 16. 16 Engagement • Autonomy: (agreed task, flexible schedule, select technique, choose team) • Mastery: (is a mindset, it takes time and effort, it is asymptotic) • Purpose: (meaningful goals, words are important, policies) Daniel Pink (2009) Engagement
    17. 17. 17 Engagement Signals Positive • Mutual expectations • Listen to ideas • Ask for help & advice • Jointly review progress • Freely share information • Work collaboratively • Delegate decisions Negative • Monitor closely • Don’t include in planning • Ignore suggestions • Seldom interact • Withhold information • Control tightly • Approve all decisions Tosti & Nickols (2010) Engagement
    18. 18. 18 Community of Practice People who share common expertise, skill, or profession (position, work, colleagues) • Government, department • Sector, branch, division staff • Scientists, engineers, lawyers • Policy analysts, regulators • Finance, purchasing officers • Information, communication specialists Communities
    19. 19. 19 Communities and Knowledge Management • Knowledge exists in the minds of people. Experience is as important as formal knowledge. • Knowledge is tacit as well as explicit. Transferring tacit knowledge is more effective through human interaction. • Knowledge is social as well as individual. Today’s knowledge is the result of centuries of collective research. • Knowledge is changing at an accelerating rate. It takes a community of people to keep up with new concepts, practices, and technology. Communities
    20. 20. 20 Participants - Help with their work - Solve problems - Find experts - Receive feedback - Place to learn - Latest information - Enhance reputation Management - Connect isolated experts - Coordinate activities - Fast problem solving - Reduce development time - Quickly answer questions - Standardize processes - Develop & retain talent Community Benefits Outputs - - Tangible: documents, reports, manuals, recommendations, reduced innovation time and cost - - Intangible: increased skills, sense of trust, diverse perspectives, cross-pollinate ideas, capacity to innovate, relationships, spirit of enquiry Communities
    21. 21. 21 Networks Interconnection among many individuals groups or organizations with common interdependencies, interests, or purpose • Networks are much bigger than communities (100s to 1,000,000s of nodes • Participants don’t know most other participants, limiting trust and security • Large numbers of nodes leads to complex behavior and emergence Communities
    22. 22. 22 Social Networks – SWOT Analysis • Strengths – rapid development, world-class solutions, emergent properties, creative synergies, vibrant collaboration, openness • Weaknesses – constant change, unknown quality, less used by mature individuals, need to motivate participants, cannot be forced • Opportunities – leverage internal capacity, provides creative solutions, easy to implement, low cost, can monitor emerging trends • Threats – knowledge leaks, free expression poses risk, is the crowd wise, documents subject to ATIP, compatibility with mandate Communities
    23. 23. 23 Capturing Value Bring it into the organizational structure Stabilize it; make it work Organization
    24. 24. 24 People • Workers – who, what, when, where, why, how • Human capital – workforce, skills, productivity, salaries • Human nature – behavior, attitudes, interests • Communities – connectivity, functionality, impacts • Culture – domain, ideology, values, norms, rituals • Human Resources – staffing & retention, supervision & performance, training & development Organization
    25. 25. 25 Governance • Mandate – Purpose, goals, authority, responsibility, accountability, roles, resources • Decisions – Hierarchy, structure, collaboration, autonomy • Planning – Charter, business case, strategy, communication, budget, project plan, work schedules • Manage – Lead, organize work, coordinate activities, monitor progress, report results Organization
    26. 26. 26 DRDC Work Flow Inputs Mandate Monitoring Analysis Needs Priorities Establishment Transformation Programs Services Create Develop Mobilize Learn Outputs Report Integration Innovation Mitigation Advice Adaptation Levels
    27. 27. 27 Technology • Control – Security, central, standards, user-centric • Computers – Mobile, desktops, work stations, servers, supercomputers, cloud computing • Applications – e-mail, text processing, spread sheets, graphics, databases, analysis • Systems – acquire, organize, store, process, provide access, and retrieve content • Communication – Efficiency, semantics, effectiveness • Networks – one-to-many (distribution, blogs), many-to- one (ordering, surveys), many-to-many (collaborate, wikis) Organization
    28. 28. 28 Products and Services • Content – collections, libraries, data, information, documents, records, knowledge • Products – databases, scientific papers, reports, communications materials, maps, statistics, standards, policies, regulations, systems, devices • Services – answers, advice, teaching, facilitation, support, laboratory, research Organization
    29. 29. 29 Approval • Understanding – Keep it simple; one message with stories and multiple analogies from different perspectives. • Experience – Do your homework; pre-brief decision makers, solicit opinions, negotiate objections (to a point). • Resources – Pick low-hanging fruit; plan low cost, small effort, low impact activities. • Management – Think big, start small; divide into small projects with measurable, high-impact deliverables. • Submission – Leadership is essential; bypass unjustified objections, accept majority vote, authorize work. Authority
    30. 30. 30 Implementation • Communication - awareness, understanding, consensus, participation • Mandate - purpose, objectives, authority, responsibility, accountability, resources • Infrastructure - people, governance, work processes, technology, content • Plans – milestones & deliverables, work schedules, evaluation criteria, risks Execute – supervise, processes, technology, systems, analysis, outputs • Monitor – indicators, measure, interpret, report progress, next steps Authority
    31. 31. 31 Sustainability • Leadership – Outputs must be delivered within a leader’s tenure; preferably, get them institutionalized. • Governance – Representative, federated decision making is the only sustainable governance for knowledge work. • Reorganization – Align a project/activity with the organizational business model. • Priorities – Align the project/activity with the organization’s long-term strategy • Support – Deliver initial outputs when & as promised; be prepared to adapt to changing priorities. • Culture – Develop favorable policies, reward desired behavior, leverage work, implement helpful systems. Authority
    32. 32. 32 Conclusion • Documentation – purpose, objectives, review, approach, data, analysis, plans, accomplishments, outputs. • Evaluation – administration, efficiency, effectiveness, outcomes • Extension – recommended applicability, limits, enhancements, data requirements, costs & benefits. • Learning – positive & negative lessons, problem / opportunity, solution / approach, resources Authority
    33. 33. 33 Key Messages Management authorizes the use of knowledge to enable action. Management authorizes the use of knowledge to enable action. A knowledge organization engages people to enhance creativity A knowledge organization engages people to enhance creativity Community collaboration validates individual knowledge Community collaboration validates individual knowledge Community knowledge must be put into an organizational context. Community knowledge must be put into an organizational context.
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