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Synthesis of  Expanding Cassava Production and Commercialization Session
 

Synthesis of Expanding Cassava Production and Commercialization Session

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    Synthesis of  Expanding Cassava Production and Commercialization Session Synthesis of Expanding Cassava Production and Commercialization Session Presentation Transcript

    • Expanding cassava production and accelerating commercialization Utökad produktion av kassava och snabbare kommersialisering – från förädling till produktutveckling Synthesis Magnus Jirström CATISA
    • Linley Chiwona Karltun
    • Synthesis - Cassava project 1. Importance of cassava in Africa 2. West African cassava transformation 3. Southern African transformation 4. Recent research led by SLU as part of the Swedish Government’s support to research on food security 5. Future prospects
    • 1. Importance of Cassava in Africa • Food security • Africa’s #2 food staple, 200 million consumers • low-cost starch • drought tolerant • flexibility seasonally and across years • Economic growth • Processing and trade • Livestock feed • Industrial starches
    • Cassava about the Top And Bottom view
    • Leaves: 25% protein Roots: 90% carbohydrate
    • Africa’s cassava belt
    • Cassava production (t/ha) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Asia Latin America Africa Improved varieties need to move to farmers’ fields
    • Breeding is Key - Development and Diffusion of the TMS Varieties in Nigeria • Breeding research: 1930’s – 1970’s • TMS varieties, which were released to farmers in 1977 • high-yielding TMS varieties boost cassava yield by 40%
    • Industrial Applications Many.. 1. Cassava Flour – Bakery and Confectionery 2. Cassava Chips/pellets & leaves – Livestock feeds 3. Sweeteners – Food industry 4. Starch – paper, wood, oil, and textile industry 5. Ethanol – distilleries, pharmaceuticals Food and Beverage Starch Ethanol Animal Feed Paper Textile CASSAVA Deg. PlasticsWood
    • 11 Long lags for R&D and technology adoption are typical in agriculture
    • Trends in Zambian Cassava Production Source: CSO Post Harvest Surveys. The figure for 1990's average data from 1990/91 to 1993/94. The figures for the early 2000’s average data from 2000/01 to 2004/05. early 1990's early 2000's difference Cassava production a. households growing cassava (%) Dual-staple zone 84% 92% 7% Mixed-staple zones 43% 55% 13% Maize belt 2% 5% 3% All Zambia 36% 42% 6% b. quantity harvested (kg/hh) Dual-staple zone 803 1,434 631 Mixed-staple zones 334 603 269 Maize belt 243 340 97 All Zambia 575 1,142 567 Cassava commercialization a. percent of cassava-growing households who sell some production Dual-staple zone 11% 25% 14% Mixed-staple zones 10% 19% 10% Maize belt 25% 21% -3% All Zambia 11% 23% 12% b. quantity sold (kg/hh) Dual-staple zone 40 131 91 Mixed-staple zones 31 65 34 Maize belt 98 80 -18 All Zambia 38 109 70
    • Improved cassava varieties double and triple yields Variety Released Yield (tons/ha) Taste 1. Bangweulu 1993 31 Bitter 2. Kapumba 1993 22 Sweet 3. Nalumino 1993 29 Sweet/cool 4. Mweru 2000 41 Sweet 5. Chila 2000 35 Bitter 6. Tanganyika 2000 36 Sweet 7. Kampolombo 2000 39 Sweet Traditional 1600 7 Bitter
    • Food staple zones in the three-country region Malawi – Mozambique - Zambia Source: Haggblade & Nielson 2007, p. 13. Country labels added. Mozambique
    • Cassava is drought-resistant 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 production('000tons) maize cassava
    • Cassava is drought-resistant • So cassava production is stable from one year to the next. • Maize production, in contrast, varies wildly from one year to the next, along with fluctuations in rainfall. • If global warming and regional climate change indeed leads to more frequent droughts in the region, then cassava’s importance in moderating food shortfalls will increase.
    • Deficit zone Food security enhancing hot spot Staple food trade flow
    • Towards effective production, product diversification, quality assurance 1 – Basic survey to disclose the following a – what is grown? b – what is generally known about the grown landraces/cultivars? c – which are used for which products? d – how are the products produced (description of processing)? e – what are the general characteristics of each product? f – what is known (can be shown through analysis) about product food safety? g - what is the situation concerning commercial production and marketing?
    • Nyirenda, D.B., Chiwona-Karltun, L., Chitundu, M., Haggblade, S. and Brimer, L. (2011). Chemical food safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing – experience from Southern Africa. Food and Chemical Toxicology 49, 607-612 Haggblade, S., Andersson Djurfeldt, A., Banda Nyrendah, D., Bergman-Lodin, J., Brimer, L., Chitundu, M., Chiwona- Karltun, L., Cuambe, C., Dolislager, M., Donovan, C., Droppelmann, K., Jirström, M., Mudema, J., Kambwea, E., Kambewa, P., Nielson, H., Nyembe, M., Salegua, V.A., Tomo, A. and Weber, M. (2012). Cassava Commercialization in Southeastern Africa. Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies. 2(1), 4-40. On the basis of the information gathered a new more detailed survey of cassava cultivars was performed First study period of CATISA and its results
    • Product specification; area of origin CNp (mg HCN equiv./kg d.w. Traditionally soaked cassava chips (Zambia) Western region 120 Fermented flour (Malawi) 200 Depwere flour (Malawi) 140 Unspecified flour (Malawi) As recent as 2007 it was not so difficult to find problematic samples in Zambia and Malawi: The classical problem when speaking cassava is the occurrence of cyanogenic glycosides Natural plant toxins And these are toxic levels! 63
    • The purpose of a second survey was: • To investigate the dynamics (changes) in landraces/cultivars used • To disclose the reasoning for keeping cultivars or to skip them, respectively • To disclose changes in products and product processing if any • To thereby get a solid background for further product and processing development
    • INFORMATION OBTAINED ON THE CASSAVA VARIETIES 1. Information on the source and description of the cassava varieties CASSAVA VARIETIES PART A: INFORMATION ON THE SOURCE PART B: INFORMATION ON THE DESCRIPTION Source Local/Hybrid Institution which introduced the variety Characteristics of the leaves and stalks/stems Characteristics of the tubers outer covers Resistance to disease and drought tolerance Kampolombo MST Varieties – Kasama Roots and Tubers Res Center Hybrid and sweet variety FODIS Large brown leaves Large light brown tubers Become less disease resistant after growing for a longer period (4Years). Less drought tolerant Bangweulu Same as above Hybrid and bitter variety FODIS Purplish leaves Brown tubers Less disease resistant and less drought tolerant Chila Same as above Hybrid and a slightly bitter variety FODIS Green leaves Light brown tubers Disease tolerant but attacked by ants, a bit drought tolerant Mweru Same as above Hybrid and sweet variety FODIS Brown stem Medium brownish tubers Disease tolerant and not drought tolerant Mweulu Tanzania Local and sweet variety Chinsali District Green thin leaves, reddish stalks Brown outer cover but reddish tubers Disease resistant and drought tolerant Tanganyika Tanzania Local and sweet variety Chinsali District Light green leaves, whitish stalks Whitish tubers Disease resistant and drought tolerant Nalumino MST Varieties – Kasama Roots and Hybrid FODIS Light brownish leaves, brown stalks Large brown tubers Disease resistant and attacked by ants during drought.
    • 1. Information on the preference and use of the cassava varieties CASSAVA VARIETY PART C: INFORMATION ON THE PREFERENCE AND USE PREFERENCE USE Liking of the variety Reason(s) for liking the variety How the variety is used Kampolombo Yes The leaves are nice for relish), the tubers can be cooked fresh because they are sweet and milled dried tuber make a nice cassava mealie meal for Nshima. The fresh tuber can be eaten raw, cooked or roasted. The fresh leaves can be pound and cooked as relish. The dried tubers can be stored up to six months and milled into cassava mealie-meal and flour. Bangweulu Yes The tubers are bigger and more starchy but bitter The dried tubers can be milled into cassava mealie-meal and flour. The tubers cannot be eaten raw but can be roasted after soaking. Chila Yes High yield but is bitter The dried tubers can be milled into mealie- meal and flour. The tubers cannot be eaten raw but can be cooked or roasted after soaking. The fresh leaves can be pound and cooked as relish. Mweru Yes Tubers are starchy and high yielding and sweet The fresh tuber can be eaten raw, cooked or roasted. The fresh leaves can be pound and cooked as relish. The dried tubers can be milled into mealie-meal and flour. Mweulu- local Yes Gives high yields and it’s not bitter The fresh tuber can be eaten raw, cooked or roasted. The fresh leaves can be pound and cooked as relish. The dried tubers can be milled into mealie-meal and flour. Tanganyika Yes Tubers can be cooked fresh, are sweet Can be eaten raw, cooked or roasted. Milled into mealie meal and flour. Nalumino Yes The tubers grow bigger (After 2 years) and give a high yield and are The fresh tuber can be eaten raw, cooked or roasted. The fresh leaves can be pound and cooked as relish. The dried tubers can be
    • CASSAVA VARIETY PART C: INFORMATION ON THE PROCESSING METHODS AND STORAGE PROCESSING METHODS STORAGE Method(s) Used Reason(s) for using this/these method(s) Storage of flour and dried cassava products Shelf life of flour and dried cassava products Kampolombo Chipping, Grating or Soaking Soaking method; people just like it. Dried cassava products are stored in sacks, store for longer. The flour is stored in plastic packages – store for shorter period. Dried products can stay for a longer time without being attacked by weevils while flour can be stored for 6-10 months. Bangweulu Soaking. To increase the yield, Bangweulu after soaking, can be mixed with pounded chips of any sweet variety prior to drying. To remove cyanides and give fermented flavour Chila Soaking method; for mealie meal. Chipping; for flour. Mweru Chipping, Grating or Soaking Soaking for fermented taste Mweulu Chipping, Soaking Nshima prepared chipped mealie meal is thick just like maize. Nshima form soaked cassava is slippery and hold the stomach for a longer time. Tanganyika Chipping. However, the chips can soaked for a day( If they taste bitter) prior to drying Nshima prepared from this cassava mealie-meal tastes like maize meal. Nalumino Chipping, Soaking For fermented taste Manyokola •Information on the processing methods and storage of the varieties
    • To choose cultivars for optimal product development physiochemical properties must be known So the following investiations has been undertaken: • Proximate analysis (crude protein etc) • Minerals • Total cyanogens (toxins) • Viscoelastic Of different cultivars
    • And since cassava roots and their products do not show any significant levels of the mycotoxins aflatoxins – in contrast to maize -
    • Constraints for Commercialisation
    • Women at Lower-end of Value Chain Hand Peeling
    • Deep yellow Yellow Cream White Useful nutritional – cooking characteristics ß-carotene in cassava tuberous roots
    • Future Prospects • continued and increased plant breeding needed to meet higher demands for harvest yield, product diversification and new cultivation situations (environment, pathogens, nutrients etc.) • for effective plant breeding interactions between breeders, farmers, food processing entrepreneurs as well as non-food market actors are essential (e.g. feed and industrial uses • Marketing and processing constraints emerge following production surges • Future efforts need to include focus more on production, processing, and marketing
    • DADTCO and SAB Breweries invest in Cassava as a raw material in Mozambique 2012
    • Support & Policies for Cassava are Key