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Multifunctionality of smallholder farming: A way towards sustaining Food Security and Adapting to Climate Change: Presentation
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Multifunctionality of smallholder farming: A way towards sustaining Food Security and Adapting to Climate Change: Presentation


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Seminar on Landscapes in a Carbon Focused World 26 October 2012 …

Seminar on Landscapes in a Carbon Focused World 26 October 2012

SIANI, Focali & Naturskyddsföreningen organized a one-day seminar in Gothenburg.

Smallholder farming, the dominant in Ethiopia, has a multi-functional dimension. Research results show improvement of ecosystem services such as: tremendous increase of the agricultural yield (human food and animal feed) ecologically. Environmentally it is improved by SLM; agroforestry, ecological farming, intercropping, etc, which is resulted in boosting agrobiodiversity, underground water-retention, regeneration of vegetation and then transferred into micro-irrigation and diversity in the farm such as apiculture. Practically agroforestry has a significant and diverse environmental and socio-economic importance. Family income increment consequently enhanced their socio-cultural and religious participation in communities. These all activities are known for their build up of soil organic matter and humus, low GHG emission and carbon sequestration.

So far the policies, rules, regulations and the present CRGE plan of the Ethiopian government are in favor of smallholder farming. However, many international programs still are pushing governments of the developing world for high external input and monoculture, which are high in GHG emission and are unsustainable. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to indicate the need to recognize the contribution of the smallholder farming in the landscape management and integrating to the academics, extension, research and agricultural development of the country. It will also analyze the existing policy situation and draw policy recommendations locally and internationally.

Hailu Araya is a soil scientist with a PhD in Agricultural Sciences from the University of Hohenheim, Germany. He is a Team Leader (Ecological Agriculture) in an NGO called the Institute for Sustainable Development (ISD) and co-founder of Best Practice Association. He has an experience of 10 years teaching in Geography in High Schools and over 14 years of practical experience with smallholder farmers and extensionists. He trains and being trained by smallholder farmers from their practical work in preparing local inputs especially compost, crop diversification, IPM, agroforestry, and farm innovation.

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  • 1. Multifunctionality of smallholder farming: A way towards sustaining Food Security and Adapting to Climate Change Hailu Araya (PhD) Institute for Sustainable Development ( 26 October 2012
  • 2. The mountainous Ethiopia
  • 3. Mountainous …cont
  • 4. Opportunities and ProblemsWide area with potential for agricultural production (1.12m Km2), pop. (>80m)One of the oldest agrarian countries with IKHigh land degradationSmallholder farmers with open access grazingForest encroachment, declined agro- biodiversity & low agricultural productionHigh level of food insecurity – unemployment
  • 5. ChallengeHigh over-grazingDeep, wide and longgullies
  • 6. AgricultureEthiopia - total emission is 150 Mt CO2eAgriculture- 50 percentMethane 65 Mt CO2eFertilizer ~10 Mt CO2eForestry- 37 percent55 Mt CO2e (deforestation for agricultural land, fuel wood logging)All transport, Industry, power and buildings – 13 percent
  • 7. By 2030 Under Business as Usual – 400 Mt CO2e – more than double Agriculture (4.4%) increase from 75 to 185 Mt CO2e due to increase in cattle population, increase in cultivated land (crops production) and synthetic fertilizer Forestry (2.6%) - average growth of cropland and increase in population leading to higher fuel wood consumption
  • 8. The opportunity for carbon sink in the agriculture sector The CRGE planned the GHG to be around 250 Mt CO2e based on four pillars: One of them is - Improving crop and livestock production practices for higher food security and farmer income while reducing emissions. Therefore, we can work in soil, water, agronomy, etc Vegetation – mixed agriculture – agroforestry A replication of the following examples
  • 9. Healing and greening the landGullies are treated physically and biologically
  • 10. Adi Nefas before (1997) and after (2003) - All the components being used Physical -Trench bunds -Terraces - Check dams -Water points Biological-Planting MPT-Hedge plants- Protect existing trees
  • 11. Wheat yield, Hintalo Wejerat (Waza), 2010 – drier areaimpact of bioslurry compost compared with chemicalfertilizer from one year’s application
  • 12. Tef yield by input and without input in Ude kebele of Ada’a wereda – wet area (2010)
  • 13. Sustainability – the higher compost application results in increasing productivity Control MF 3.2 t/ha 6.4 t/ha 120Cumulative Productivity value 100 80 (%) 60 40 20 0 2005 2006 2007 Year of harvest
  • 14. Tef - transplant right Agronomic practices - and broadcast left System of Crop Intensification Transplanted finger millet - 58 tillers With >3t/ha Tef plants - compost transplant left and broadcast right With 6t/ha compost
  • 15. Animal andforage Ensetdevelopment Napier grass Alfalfa Healthy Cow and calf
  • 16. Trainees making their A woman beehives making a beehive with ‘chika’Beekeeping ismultifunctional Food security Natural resource conservation Biodiversity
  • 17. Leucas ‘siwa karni’ flowers all year where there is moisture Hypoestes ‘gerbiya’ that flowers all yearBiodiversity to support beekeeping Becium ‘tibeb’ the source of famous white honey of Tigray
  • 18. SHF managed seed supply chain in TigrayReliable cultivars at local level 85-90% seed is from local source Personal saving Neighbors/ Local If not “b” relatives market a b If not “c” c Community Government seed supply seed bank d If not “d”
  • 19. • Rocky landscape – The soil makeralmost no soil A•No options forliving A Building series of terraces I change it Crushing like this rocks & mulching
  • 20. Nutrient cycling through mixed farming Household litter Plant litter Farm residue C o Manure m p o s t Compost
  • 21. Nutrient cycling through compost at family level
  • 22. Good compost 14.7% (OM), 8.6% (OC)>1% (TN)0.04% (P)0.29% (K) An average HH produces about 7t/yr of compost. 1,029kg OM/ 602kg OC 77kg TN 2.7kg P 20.3kg K
  • 23. Just do or die
  • 24. Improved water supply for irrigationIntegrated watershed management results in:Re-appearance of springs and streamsMicro-irrigation through hand dug wells at household levelImproving food security by enhancing family income and nutritionAgrobiodiversity - restoredRural families are better resilient to Climate Change
  • 25. Some evidences on Sustain. AgSoil carbon stock increase (Luske and Kamp, 2009) –0.7-1.14t C/ha/year – FYM application(3t/ha)0.66t C/ha/year – long term legume experiment2.7-3.8 t C/ha/year – Compost application in the first yearsSmallholder rainfed dry/cold can sequester carbon 0.26 ±0.035 ton C/ha/year through sustainable agriculture practices (Menale
  • 26. Zero tillageIn intensive arable results in accumulation of 0.3-0.6 t C /ha/year,with mixed rotations and cover crops can accumulate 0.66-1.3 t C/ha/year.The growth rates at the humid tropics (0.2-0.5 t C/ha/yr), and in the semi-arid tropics (0.1-0.2 t C/ha/yr). Pretty and Ball (2001)
  • 27. ConclusionProjects under smallholder farming practices solve many problems through recycling of organic matterMixed farming practice is interconnecting each other and diversify means of income, survival, diversity, innovation, etc based on social problems.Landscape approach become attractive the government – satisfying allThe government policy is supportive for such projects - they coincide with the government policy and Growth and Transformation Plan, National Action Plan for Adaptation
  • 28. RecommendationsEnough attention and respect for smallholder farming b/c it improves environment, livelihood, socialAdequate promotion, including training and follow-up in low inputs and mixed agriculture could contribute substantially to becoming food secureGovernment and Civil Society cooperation is very fundamental for scaling up/out
  • 29. Clarity – requiredWho should know the gain and loss of the Climate changeHow do we collaborate for a stronger result?Do we need to see the contribution of smallholder farming by one eye (carbon)? Why not beyond? – where is the value of biodiversity & food security?
  • 30. AcknowledgementsIt is my pleasure to extend my thanks toFarmers, experts and local authorities- Implementing such projectsSSNC- Supporting the project, this study and inviting to this meetingISD- support community projects
  • 31. Let m e try - myfather wasdoing like this.