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Land deals in Africa: Trends, drivers, impacts and responses
 

Land deals in Africa: Trends, drivers, impacts and responses

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The focus of the seminar was to explore the increasing interest in land acquisition in Africa from the different perspectives of the major stakeholders. It took place at Sida on the 10th of November, ...

The focus of the seminar was to explore the increasing interest in land acquisition in Africa from the different perspectives of the major stakeholders. It took place at Sida on the 10th of November, 2010.

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    Land deals in Africa: Trends, drivers, impacts and responses Land deals in Africa: Trends, drivers, impacts and responses Presentation Transcript

    • Land deals in Africa:Trends, drivers, impacts and responsesLorenzo CotulaSenior ResearcherIIED
    •  Trends and drivers Implications for land rights and rural livelihoods Are there alternatives? Ways forward
    •  Trends and drivers Implications for land rights and rural livelihoods Are there alternatives? Ways forward
    •  IIED/FAO (2008) -Biofuels IIED/FAO/IFAD (2009) -Africa IIED/TNRF (2009) -Tanzania IIED/CTV (2010) -Mozambique
    • •About 10m ha of approved land allocations >1000ha 2004-early 2009(mainly govt leases) in five African countries alone (Ethiopia, Mozambique,Nigeria, Sudan, Liberia) (World Bank 2010)•Usually small % of suitable land (eg 0.6% in Mali, 2.3% in Madagascar) buthigher value lands targeted (irrigation, soil fertility, markets)•Some deals are very large (eg 100,000 ha in Mali) but average sizes aremuch smaller•Little land under productionAllocated land (hectares, cumulative)
    • •Media focus on FDI, especially govt-backedagencies in Asia and Western investment funds•National inventories:•Nationals very important•FDI from Europe and US as well as Gulf, EastAsia and India•Mainly private agribusiness (90% of landacquired in Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar,Mali), though home governments providesupport•Drivers:•Food and energy - security concerns,commercial returns•Ag commodities and timber•Carbon markets
    •  Trends and drivers Implications for land rights and rural livelihoods Are there alternatives? Ways forward
    • •Land central to lives to millions of people in Africa – not justlivelihoods, also cultural and spiritual value. Human rights are at stake•Major risks – for local access to land, water and resources, for familyfarming•Also hopes for benefits – capital, jobs, infrastructure development,productivity increases, market access•World Bank (2010) found little evidence of these so far•Costs are incurred now, benefits are in uncertain future•Benefits do not necessarily accrue to people who lose land
    • Concepts of wasteland, marginal land and idle land disregard orunder-value current usesResource constraints may exist even where land available (egwater)Large natural resource investment projects are unlikely not to affectexisting access to land and resources – even where intensity ofcurrent resource use may be low
    • In Africa, rural people tend to access land through“customary” systems and have use rights on stateland; despite recent law reforms, security of theserights undermined by Limited documentation Legal protection only if “productive use” Extensive powers of compulsory acquisition – whatis “public purpose”? Compensation only for loss of improvements – andno compensation if no “visible” improvements(grazing, hunting-gathering) Little or no local consultation requirements – andwhere legally required, weak implementation More generally, limited capacity to exercise rights,major power asymmetries
    •  As deals move from MOUs to land transfers and implementation,limited but growing evidence that people are losing land Eg in Kenya (FIAN, 2010); Mozambique (Nhantumbo andSalomão, 2010; FIAN, 2010); Ghana (Schoneveld et al, 2010)
    •  Trends and drivers Implications for land rights and rural livelihoods Are there alternatives? Ways forward
    •  Ongoing work: desk research,lesson-sharing, case studies - incollaboration with IFAD, FAO andSDC No tinkering around the edges –assess inclusiveness of corebusiness model based on Ownership Voice Risk Reward
    • The models There are alternatives to land acquisitions Wide range of models - contract farming,joint ventures, lease/managementcontracts, supply chain relations... Great diversity within models Often used in combination Some well tested and documented, othersmore recent Collaboration in production vs value-sharing mainly through rewards (egleases) Context and crop key
    • All that glitters is not gold– devil is in the detail Whether collaborative models benefitlocal groups depends on process andterms Contract farming: access to inputsand markets, more stable incomes –or exploitative outsourcing of risks Joint ventures: equity stake, boardrepresentation, dividends – or landloss, nominal say, transfer pricing Local disaggregation needed toassess impacts; longer-term,impacts on land access possible
    •  Trends and drivers Implications for land rights and rural livelihoods Are there alternatives? Ways forward
    •  Major, lasting repercussions on agriculture and foodsecurity – need for vigorous public debate in hostcountries, farmer organisations must be central to thatdebate Widespread perception that large plantations needed tomodernise agriculture, but no evidence it works Irrespective of development pathway chosen, securinglocal land rights is more urgent than ever Eg Mozambique’s Community Land Fund - communityland delimitation, farmers associations, support to localconsultation...