ARDD at Rio+20: Vegetable gardens a nexus for agriculture, nutrition and health
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ARDD at Rio+20: Vegetable gardens a nexus for agriculture, nutrition and health

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Presented as part of ARDD Learning Event 9: ...

Presented as part of ARDD Learning Event 9:

From field to fork to field - Nutritious food and nutrient cycling to enhance health, wealth and resilience

18 June 2012, 11.30 – 13.00

Agriculture and Rural Development Day at Rio+20

Room A, Mezzanine Floor

Speaker: Dr Robert Holmer, AVRDC The World Vegetable Centre

Organisers: SIANI, SLU, IFAD, AVRDC and Sida

Case: Allotment gardens Cagayan d Óro in the Philippines.

This project was implemented to address some socio-economic and environmental challenges caused by the rapid growth of Cagayan de Oro which is representative for the Philippines being classified among the world’s fastest urbanizing countries. Among the major challenges that urban areas in the country are facing are: Availability, accessibility and affordability to safe and nutritious food for its residents.

The poorest sector of the Philippines, which comprises almost 40% of all households, spends about 60% of its income on food. 20% of Filipinos are regularly suffering from hunger and about one third of all children are underweight with iron deficiency anemia and low vitamin. In 2003, the first allotment garden was established as part of a European Union funded project following a period of agronomic and socioeconomic researches in cooperation with universities, local government units and non-governmental organizations. As of 2008, this number has grown to ten self-sustaining gardens located in different urban and peri-urban areas of the city, three of them within the premises of public elementary schools enabling more than 100 urban poor families the legal access to land for food production.

Each allotment garden has a compost heap where biodegradable wastes from the garden as well as from the neighboring households are converted into organic fertilizer, Urine diverting toilet systems were introduced to facilitate urine harvesting and improve the hygiene in the plots.

Studies on the urine revealed application of urine increased the yield of sweet corn by an average of 14%. Similar experiments were also carried out for non-food crops in cooperation with commercial growers in different areas of Cagayan de Oro. The urine application resulted in earlier and increased flowering of different ornamental plants with subsequent better marketability.

Robert Holmer – AVRDC The World Vegetable Centre. His areas of expertise are in sustainable vegetable production, postharvest and marketing as well as environmental management in Southeast Asia. He manages and coordinates regional development projects for AVRDC in East and Southeast Asia, with major responsibilities for developing partnerships, training programs and new projects. He holds a PhD in Agriculture from the TU München, Germany.

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  • We’ve been at our work for nearly four decades…over that time our geographical focus has shifted, but our research and development work continues to emphasize our mission to…
  • This is where all our raw material is stored – the AVRDC genebank.
  • Overweight children have a strongly increased risk of being overweight as adults (Power & Parsons 2000).
  • Malnutrition can exist in populations even where the food supply is adequate in terms of meeting energy requirements; although these people are not considered "hungry," their diets may be grossly deficient in one or more micronutrients But micronutrient malnutrition is also a growing problem in developed countries. Poor food choices…are leading to increased rates of obesity, diabetes, other chronic diseases.
  • Here are some five of the most popular indigenous vegetables in Africa...the demand for these “traditional” vegetables is increasing in urban markets. On the bottom left is slippery cabbage…it is a special favorite in the Solomon Islands, where we are promoting home gardens. (While you are here I hope you’ll have a moment to visit our Indigenous Vegetable Demonstration Garden)
  • Bundy et al. (2006) encourage school-based approaches for health and nutrition programs because (1) promoting good health and nutrition before and during school age is essential to effective growth and development; (2) the preexisting infrastructure of the educational system can often offer a more cost-effective route for delivery of simple health interventions and health promotion than can the health system; (3) good health and nutrition are prerequisites for effective learning and (4) the provision of quality schools, textbooks, and teachers can result in effective education only if the child is present, ready, and able to learn
  • Overweight children have a strongly increased risk of being overweight as adults (Power & Parsons 2000).
  • Overweight children have a strongly increased risk of being overweight as adults (Power & Parsons 2000).

ARDD at Rio+20: Vegetable gardens a nexus for agriculture, nutrition and health ARDD at Rio+20: Vegetable gardens a nexus for agriculture, nutrition and health Presentation Transcript

  • The World Vegetable Centervegetables + development Vegetable gardens:A nexus for agriculture, nutrition & health Robert J. Holmer Regional Director AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center in East and Southeast Asia Learning event 9: From field to fork to field: nutritious food and nutrient recycling to enhance health, wealth and resilience1/ www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Centervegetables + developmentResearch to promote development• Founded in 1971 as the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center with a regional research focus on Asia.• Our research and development is nonprofit. Our research outputs are international public goods.• Re-branded in 2008 as AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center.• We have an expanding global role with a growing network of regional offices2/ www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Centervegetables + development AVRDC in 20113/ www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Center AVRDC Genebank vegetables + development We now need: Not a Green Revolution, but a Revolution withNo. of accessions 59,294 Greens!No. of species 435No. of countries of origin 155Total lines dispatched 6,119 The world’s largest public sector collection of vegetable germplasm 4/ www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Center Imbalanced Food Systems vegetables + development “Double burden of disease”For example in thePhilippines:26 % of children 27 % of adultsunderweight overweight orSource: FNRI 2008 obese 5/ www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Center Imbalanced Food Systems vegetables + development Deficiency in = HUNGER ≥ 1.02 billion calories + protein underweight Deficiency in = MICRONUTRIENT 2 – 3.5 billion vitamins & minerals DEFICIENCY malnourished Excess Calories = IMBALANCED CONSUMPTION ≥ 2.0 billion Physical overweight inactivitySource: FAO (2009); WHO (2006) 6/ www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterMalnutritionvegetables + development• Vitamin A deficiency – causes blindness and impairs the immune system of about 40 % of the children under the age of five in developing countries, causing about one million child deaths annually• Anemia – Every day, 300 women die in childbirth as a result of iron deficiency anemia, accounting for 20 % of global maternal mortality – Anemia among children can impair health and development, limit learning capacity, impair immune systems and Normal concentration and Decreased concentration and size of red blood size of red blood reduce adult work performance. cells cells7/ www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development National vegetable availability vs. health/nutrition status: Health status indicator: Nutrition status indicator: Children under 5 mortality rate Children under 5 underweight Veg availability Countries Mortality rate (1/1000) Underweight (%) (g/ person/day)Source: FAOSTAT (2010), WHO (2010) Cambodia 85 93 36 Lao PDR 397 75 37 Viet Nam 230 30 20 8/ www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Center Relationship between malnutrition and infection vegetables + developmentSource: Brown (2003) 9/ www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Center Malnutrition and the link to sanitation vegetables + development • Effects of malnutrition – mortality, impairment of cognitive development and educational performance - can cost up to 9% of a country’s Gross Domestic Product. • Health impacts can be prevented by reducing environmental health risks (e.g. improved sanitation, water and hygiene) and improved nutrition • Multiplier effect: for every death prevented from an environmental health intervention, additional deaths from other diseases are averted (Mills- Reincke phenomenon)Source: World Bank (2008) 10 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Center Food and Nutrition Security vegetables + development • Nutrition security: – “secure access to appropriately nutritious food coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services and care, to ensure a healthy and active life for all household members”Source: DFID (2009) 11 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterWhy vegetables? vegetables + development• High value crops• Relatively easy to grow in different environments• Provide employment, especially for women and other vulnerable groups• Generate income• Provide micronutrients, vitamins, dietary fiber, phytochemicals and protein• Contribute to balanced diets Vegetables 3-5 servings a day 1 serving = 80g 240 – 400g a day12 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterWhy vegetables? vegetables + development Vegetable production can take place in small spaces and can still be productive. Ingenuity is the key! 13 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Center vegetables + developmentIndigenous treasures Spider plant African eggplant Nightshade Butterfly Slippery pea cabbage Amaranth Cowpea14 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Center vegetables + developmentIndigenous treasures 5.8 4.4 3 75 194 2.7 4.4 2.2 113 186 0.4 1.8 0.9 37 44 4.6 3.3 1.7 120 135 0.9 3.2 1.3 157 157 0.5 1.1 1 10 9 1.7 3.5 3 42 270 0 1.1 0.2 7 23 0.2 0.9 0.6 30 9 Many indigenous vegetables have high nutritional content, they are relatively very high in calcium, vitamin C and iron as compared to onions and tomatoes Slide source: adapted from Dalberg Report for BMGF Data source: "Advancing urban agriculture through use of indigenous vegetables: African experiences 2009; Chapter 3”, by Ray-Yu Yang and Gudrun B. Keding15 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterWhy home gardens? vegetables + development16 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterAnything new? vegetables + development Berlin, 194617 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterAllotment Gardens Philippines vegetables + development ... preparing the land 18 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterAsset-Based Community Development (ABCD) vegetables + development Jeannette M.E. Tramhel. 2010. Using Participatory Urban Design to "Close the Nutrient Loop" in the Philippines. Urban Agriculture Magazine 23 - Urban nutrient management, 30-31. 19 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterEcological Sanitation vegetables + development FOOD FOOD Closing the loop between sanitation and agriculture NUTRIENTS NUTRIENTS Pathogen destruction 20 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterEcological Sanitation vegetables + developmentEstimated annual excretion of nutrients per person (500 l of urineand 50 kg of faeces)*: Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium (kg/capita) (kg/capita) (kg/capita) Urine 2.3 – 4.0 0.3 – 0.4 0.9 - 1.1 Faeces 0.3 – 0.6 0.1 – 0.2 0.3 - 0.4 Total 2.6 – 4.6 0.4 – 0.6 1.2 – 1.5 * flushed away with about 10,000 liters of water as medium of transportation 21 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterEcological Sanitation vegetables + development Monetary equivalents (PhP/capita and year) of annual excretion of nutrients: per person: Amount Cost Subtotal (kg/year) (PhP/kg) (PhP/year) Complete (14-14-14) 6.53 35.60 232.47 Urea (46-0-0) 3.65 33.20 121.18 MoP (0-0-60) 0.96 38.00 36.48 Total 390.13 Multiplied by 90 million Filipinos: 35.1 Billion Pesos (580 Mio Euro) worth of fertilizer equivalents go down the drain every year polluting water bodies. 22 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterEcological Sanitation vegetables + development How a “waterless” urine diversion dehydration toilet works 23 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterEcological Sanitation vegetables + development How a “waterless” urine diversion dehydration toilet works 24 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterEcological Sanitation vegetables + development Primary treatment (storage) 6 months 1 month How a “waterless” urine diversion dehydration toilet works 25 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterEcological Sanitation vegetables + development Diluting urine with water Side dress application Preplant application of composted faeces Reuse of ecosan products 26 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterEcological Sanitation vegetables + development Secondary treatment (aerobic & vermicomposting) How a “waterless” urine diversion dehydration toilet works 27 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterEcological Sanitation vegetables + development • International guidelines are FOOD available, but: • Lack of R&D investment to develop local protocols that best suit the agronomic requirements of the crops grown as well as the specific socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental realities NUTRIENTS of many NUTRIENTS countries developing • “Nexus”: another catchphrase or real commitment? 28 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterPotential of School Gardensvegetables + development • A school usually is the center of each community Healthy diets begin with knowledge • A place where programs on good health practices can be taught and implemented to achieve behavioral changes at home.29 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Center Advantages of school-based programs vegetables + development • Promoting good health and nutrition before and during school age is essential to effective growth and developmentGood health and nutrition are prerequisites for effective learning • The pre-existing infrastructure of the educational system offers a cost- effective route for delivery of simple health interventions 30 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterPhilippine “Vegetable Gardens in Schools” Program vegetables + development• Establishment of vegetable gardens in all 42,076 public primary and secondary schools of the countryEarlier successful lessons of vegetable gardening have tobe re-learned by a new generation• To be complemented by home & community gardens31 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterStrategies for successful implementation vegetables + development• Successful school garden programs cannot be created in isolation, but have to be linked with education and environmental interventions• Communication and synergy between the health, agriculture and education sectors is indispensable32 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable CenterPromotion of vegetables… vegetables + development …. sanitation, and healthy lifestyles33 / www.avrdc.org
  • The World Vegetable Center vegetables + development AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center Prosperity for the Poor and Health for All34 / www.avrdc.org www.avrdc.org