Dairy cattle performance in
agro-pastoral production
systems of Uganda
Christina Johansson1, Denis Mpairwe2, Eva Spörndly1...
Background
Background
• 95 % of population within agriculture
• 85 % of meat and milk from livestock on rangelands
• Climate changes,...
Background
• 35% of Ugandas milk production from the southwest
• Pastoralists → agro-pastoralists
• Exotic breeds to impro...
Aim of projects
• Analyse factors of importance
to improve milk production
• Suggest management
improvements based on resu...
• Quantity and quality
of pasture during
rainy and dry season
• Animal management
routines
• Cattle performance
Study I
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
Protein(%)andEnergy(MJME/kgDM)
Pasture(kgDM/ha)
Pasture
...
• Calves born in early dry season
had low growth
• Cows calving in late and early dry
season had high loss in weight
• Mil...
• Cows in lactation 3 or higher had
higher milk yield (8.7 kg/day)
compared to cows in first lactation
(6.9 kg/day)
• Milk...
• Evaluate effect of protein-rich
(~ 17%) supplements to
calves in wet season
• A: pasture
B: pasture + lablab hay
C: past...
Supplementation of concentrates improved calf growth performance significantly
Treatment
Benefit per calf
and month
A: pasture 38 345 UGX (~98 SEK)
B: pasture + lablab hay 26 288 UGX (~67 SEK)
C: pastu...
Workshop and farm visit in Kazo, Uganda, November 2012
Dissemination
Future research/work
• Feed conservation techniques
• Possibilites to introduce milk
machines
• Farmers cooperatives
THANK YOU!
Dairy cattle performance in agro-pastoral production systems of Uganda, MSc. Christina Johansson
Dairy cattle performance in agro-pastoral production systems of Uganda, MSc. Christina Johansson
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Dairy cattle performance in agro-pastoral production systems of Uganda, MSc. Christina Johansson

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Reproduction is a key parameter determining the level of production and profitability in a dairy herd. Low fertility leads to productivity losses which can be directly translated into economic loss of great magnitude, and it is also the major reason for involuntary culling of dairy cows.

The project focuses on cows in the period around calving, a time associated with health disturbances that are decisive for the economy of dairy producers. Metritis, inflammation of the uterus, is common after calving with consequences for the cow’s future fertility and milk production level.

The main cause is lacking management and nutrition in this critical time period. Better knowledge of risk factors for metritis and their economic consequences is necessary for the motivation of farmers to adopt preventive measures.

Farms will be visited for gathering of information about management routines around calving. Newly calved cows will be examined for diagnosis of metritis. Practical recommendations will be suggested, adapted to prevailing circumstances. The aim is to keep the cows healthy through the calving process, during the transition from non-lactating to lactating state, for future successful breeding, optimized milk production and longevity.

Capacity-building activities like teaching of university staff (veterinarians) in diagnostic tools like gynecological ultrasonography for diagnosis of reproductive disorders will be performed. A course will be run for farmers on connection between nutrition and reproduction and management of the cow around calving. Workshops for researchers and stakeholders will be arranged.

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Dairy cattle performance in agro-pastoral production systems of Uganda, MSc. Christina Johansson

  1. 1. Dairy cattle performance in agro-pastoral production systems of Uganda Christina Johansson1, Denis Mpairwe2, Eva Spörndly1, Sylvester Katuromunda2, Elly Sabiiti2 & Ewa Wredle1 1 Dept. Animal Nutrition and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 2 Dept. Agricultural Production, School of Agricultural Sciences, College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala,
  2. 2. Background
  3. 3. Background • 95 % of population within agriculture • 85 % of meat and milk from livestock on rangelands • Climate changes, degradation, access to land, increasing population, changing eating habits • Feed shortage, especially during dry season
  4. 4. Background • 35% of Ugandas milk production from the southwest • Pastoralists → agro-pastoralists • Exotic breeds to improve milk yield - but their nutritional demand is higher • Pasture used as the only feed source, often low quality
  5. 5. Aim of projects • Analyse factors of importance to improve milk production • Suggest management improvements based on results
  6. 6. • Quantity and quality of pasture during rainy and dry season • Animal management routines • Cattle performance Study I
  7. 7. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Protein(%)andEnergy(MJME/kgDM) Pasture(kgDM/ha) Pasture Protein (%) Energy (MJ ME/kg DM)
  8. 8. • Calves born in early dry season had low growth • Cows calving in late and early dry season had high loss in weight • Milk yield decreased with days in dry season
  9. 9. • Cows in lactation 3 or higher had higher milk yield (8.7 kg/day) compared to cows in first lactation (6.9 kg/day) • Milk yield increased with degree of exotic breed • Milking twice per day gave +2 kg milk • Cows on pasture during night had higher milk yields
  10. 10. • Evaluate effect of protein-rich (~ 17%) supplements to calves in wet season • A: pasture B: pasture + lablab hay C: pasture + concentrate Study II
  11. 11. Supplementation of concentrates improved calf growth performance significantly
  12. 12. Treatment Benefit per calf and month A: pasture 38 345 UGX (~98 SEK) B: pasture + lablab hay 26 288 UGX (~67 SEK) C: pasture + concentrate -14 852 UGX (~38 SEK) Concentrate supplementation is not cost effective in the short run. UGX = Uganda shillings
  13. 13. Workshop and farm visit in Kazo, Uganda, November 2012 Dissemination
  14. 14. Future research/work • Feed conservation techniques • Possibilites to introduce milk machines • Farmers cooperatives
  15. 15. THANK YOU!

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