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 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
 Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa
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Africa’s response to large - scale land acquisitions Listening to different voices in Africa

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  • 1. Africa’s response to large-scale land acquisitionsListening to different voices in AfricaPeter Roberntz, WWF SwedenSIANI expert group on Chinese land investments - Seminar 9th May, 2012
  • 2. WWF & historyForests & ChinaVoices on BiofuelsBiofuel CasesReflections &questions
  • 3. Large Scale Land (Biofuel) Investmentsin South & East AfricaTheycontribute todevelopmentNo, it is landgrabbing
  • 4. Jakten på biobränslenHot eller hopp för Östafrika?
  • 5. Forests, illegal logging & China….
  • 6. Chinese investments & trade…http://www.commercialpressuresonland.org/press/expert-china-hungry-african-resourcesJanuary, 2010Dr George Jambija, from the UDSM Geography department;“…China has a strategy for Africa. Does Africa or Tanzaniahave a strategy for China? Corruption is a serious crime inChina. Why do Chinese investors become corrupt only afterinvesting in our countries?“The country is one of Tanzanias top five investors. TIC records indicatethat in 2007 alone, China invested $3 billion in ten African economies, ofwhich $111 million was invested in Tanzania. In the same year, the totaltrade volume between the two countries stood at $290 million, of whichChinas exports were $180 million and imports $110 million.
  • 7. Between July 2005 and January 2006, China accountedfor all indigenous hardwood log exports and three-quarters of sawn wood and raw material.Levels of legal compliance can also be interpreted interms of tax compliance, with no revenue collected forup to 96% of timber harvesting in southern Tanzaniaduring mid-2004.…Kilwa District Council …cautiously estimated thatunder-collection of natural forest product royalties atdistrict level during 2003 and 2004 resulted in up toUSD 58 million lost annually ….…http://wwf.panda.org/wwf_news/?uNewsID=204290http://www.illegal-logging.info/approach.php?a_id=71Tanzania; Forests & illegal logging…
  • 8. Mozambican law prohibits the export of primary logs, orunprocessed timber from a number of valuable species;the government hoped that this would force overseasbuyers (among which Chinese companies are significantplayers) to invest locally to develop a sustainable industry.However, the rules are often ignored and licensesgranted for logging and export do not guaranteelegality. Officials in the National Directorate of Lands andForests say they lack the resources to enforce the law.http://www.illegal-logging.info/approach.php?a_id=115Mozambique; Forests & illegal logging…
  • 9. Mozambique; Forests & illegal logging…Oct 2007“…Mozambique has adequate laws to address illegallogging but the income generated by the illegal logginghas created a system which will not be easilydismantled…”US Chargé daffaires Todd Chapmanhttp://www.cablegatesearch.net/cable.php?id=07MAPUTO1207
  • 10. Interview, Maputo Nov 2011• Mozambique is losing out large in tax revenue due to illegalactivities.• Government increasing taxes per cubic meter for those whohave legal harvesting.• Mozambique has a great regulatory framework but it is notimplemented!• Tax system and lack of imposing laws is undermining legalbusinesses and the establishment of value chains in the country.Mr Graeme White, , Dalman company with forest management of 26 000 haMiombo concession in Sofala Province, sawmill and furniture manufacturer andsales.Forests & illegal logging…
  • 11. http://www.globaltimber.org.uk/mozambique.htmMozambique; Forests & illegal logging…
  • 12. Back to biofuels…
  • 13. Tanzania; Voices about biofuel over time…Tanzania National Biofuel Taskforce (NBTF) Guidelines 2008:“In order to reduce the anticipated risks and capture theopportunities it will be necessary to take into consideration issuesof sustainability in tandem with principles of sustainabledevelopment…properly implemented biofuel projects will bringabout a win-win situation to all involved parties.”…. The potential benefits of biofuels are immense, and theyinclude among others, the following:…enhancing energy security,creation of employment, diversification of rural economy, marketfor agricultural energy crops, saving of foreign exchange equal tothe value of imports substituted,c ontribution to cleanerenvironment, halt deforestation and desertification, facilitatingtechnology transfer; enhancing food security…. “
  • 14. 2008“…I see it as a unique opportunity for the African continent …I havein mind the vast unoccupied land in Tanzania which can feed thewhole of East Africa without necessarily causing a glut if wellutilized…”Bernadina Kayumbe, The Citizen (Dar es Salaam)“No land is unused so the whole concept of compensation isflawed compensation for what – the potential the land holds? Theyare not aware of what they are letting go of. What the industry isreally doing is redistributing the benefits from the land, centralizingit, removing the benefits from the local populations and focusing itspotential through a few external investors…”Anonymous Voice in TanzaniaTanzania; Voices about biofuel over time…
  • 15. “…many foreign companies are coming to invest onbiofuels…. This is an opportunity in trade once Tanzaniamake land use plans for all villages before allocatingland for bioenergy supply crops. That is the only way tomeet requirements for villagers scientifically and findextra land for thebiofuels production…”Web site of National Land Use Planning Commission 20 thof April, 2009Tanzania; Voices about biofuel over time…
  • 16. Tanzania; Some voices over time…Village voices 2008“If Jatropha farming cost less labour and resources than Maize and at thesame time has greater cash than Maize, I will definitely turn my Maizefield into Jatropha, I know if many people do this, there will be afood shortage in our village but as long we have money we can buyfood somewhere else!”Mr. Mohamed Ali, Mavuji Village, Kilwa, Tanzania“…I sometime feel ashamed going to the biofuel office and asktheir help for my people; they have been so good to us and I nowfeel that it is too much! They have been involving us in every stepthey take in their farm, I just feel that, if they continues like this,our community will benefit so much from BioShape….”Mr. Yusuph Mohamed Tangi-Mavuji Village Chairman
  • 17. Mozambique; Legal framework of land aquisition
  • 18. Mozambique; Authority on biofuel investmentsMeeting with Josefa Jussar, Head of Environmental Licensing Departent,National Directorate of EIA, Ministry of Environment, 2010The following information was a received:- Process of developing sustainability principles & criteria has not beenvery clear.- The roles and mandate has not been very clear. Not until the end theNational Directorate of Environment Impact Assessments has beeninvolved.- Expected responsibility of the National Directorate of EnvironmentImpact Assessments. However, the transfer process is unclear.- Regarding maps the Agro-Ecological maps exits, but more detailed mapsare needed. Mapping should be satisfactory prior to land allocation bythe Ministry of Agriculture- Marginal land & food security is still a unclear area where developmentis needed.
  • 19. Some Biofuel Cases…Tanzania
  • 20. Some Biofuel Cases…Tanzania
  • 21. Some Biofuel Cases…
  • 22. Some Biofuel Cases…The Final;• In 2011. BioShape goes bankrupt• BioShape is accused of illegal logging• Community has lost land rights to TICSome Biofuel Cases…Tanzania
  • 23. ”New” Chinese Biofuel investors in Tanzania…??2012 – Information from WWF staff in TanzaniaA group Chinese investors are looking for land for investment inKilwa and Lindi. Already have advanced in their processes.Furthermore in February 2012, they organized a study tour orlearning trip for Regional and District authorities to China.WWF Field person in Kilwa claims that the Kilwa DistrictTechnicians already are in the field delineating and mappingVillage Land Use Plans (VLUPs). About 36,000 ha in Mitole, Kikole,and Miteja villages is earmarked for KADIL CHINESE LTD!They will be cultivating Sorghum, Maize and Cassava – as rawmaterial for energy production (Ethanol).
  • 24. Galp Energia began producing biofuels to protect theenvironment, comply with environmental specificationsand extend the energy sector’s value chainbúziBut….Some Biofuel Cases…Mozambique
  • 25. búzi
  • 26. búzi
  • 27. búzi
  • 28. búzi
  • 29. 0,010,020,030,040,050,060,070,080,090,016,2 18,276,57,9 8,380,1Númerodeprojectos(%)Áreapretendida(%)2010 2009 2008Número deprojectos6 6 13Áreapretendida38.909 65.906 191.053Source: CEPAGRIThe decline of biofuel investments…Mozambique
  • 30. Some reflections & questions…- The illegal logging and timber trade has been largely driven bythe Chinese market.- The inability of communities to realize the true value of forests& land is opening up for cheap land aquisition- Is logging a financial pre requisite behind land acquisitions?- To what extent are there ”hidden” drivers behind large scaleinvestment?- There is a big gap between CSR communication and what ishappening on the ground.
  • 31. Some reflections & questions…- So far the majority of biofuel investments have had EU origin,but many of these have been failing and interest has fallen.- As investments fail, communities are the big loosers- Are large scale land investments in countries like Tanzania andMozambique really a sustainable option?- Is there a new ”boom” of land investors coming in?- There is a fundamental difference between supporting largescale vis-à-vis working with mitigating measures to avoidnegative impact

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