Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Virgin Tropical Forests, Loathed Plantations and Everything Inbetween: Not Seeing the Alternatives for the Heat and the Smoke

134

Published on

This study was presented during the conference ““Production and Carbon Dynamics in Sustainable Agricultural and Forest Systems in Africa” held in September, 2010.

This study was presented during the conference ““Production and Carbon Dynamics in Sustainable Agricultural and Forest Systems in Africa” held in September, 2010.

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
134
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Virgin tropical forests, loathed plantations and everything in-between: Not seeing the alternatives for the heat and the smoke? Dpt of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Tropical Forestry Group – Professor Anders Malmer ABSTRACT: The development and future of tropical forest cover and its quality is discussed, from the perspective of REDD. Focus in the discussion is often on conserving natural forests as opposed to deforestation or conversion to (forest) plantations that contain less carbon. However, most forests are already affected by man or degraded to various extents and evidence is accumulating that just conserving or leaving them often leads to continued degradation in carbon storage, biodiversity, water conservation and other environmental services. The potential width of the concept of REDD is both its strength and its Achilles’ heel. Few things are more generalised than the problems of managing and conserving tropical forests. In contrast, the reality of the nature, status and role of forests and their place in national development is extremely varied and country-specific. This presentation purports that conservation of virgin forests is not the largest potential for REDD, but rather a broad range of forests used and affected in various ways. Conserved forest is, and will be, very vulnerable, except in well organised societies. On the other hand, improved management of more abundant secondary or degraded forests will increase their value against deforestation for other uses and improve their carbon content, water conservation, biodiversity etc. With examples and data from South America and Asia, explanation is given to recent findings that conserved tropical forests in the Amazon have a larger incidence of fire and continued degradation than other types of forest. Examples of the different development and forest management strategies in the various Brazilian states of the Amazon are also given. It is concluded that societal readiness (socioeconomic setting which favours investments by local people or other land owners in forests) is possibly the first criteria for expanding and improving forest sectors, but a “general policy disbelief” in sustainable forest management needs to change. In addition, there is a need for more technical research and development in forest restoration and management of “intermediate man made production forests” and to build understanding of the status in-between the perfect natural forest and the perfect industrial forest plantation. *** DISCUSSION: focused around the increasing attention finally being given to the role of forests now, after considerable time in the policy wilderness.
  • 2. Virgin tropical forests, loathed plantations and everything in-between; Not seeing the alternatives for the heat and the smoke? Swedish University of Agricultural Science Department of Forest Ecology and Management Tropical Forestry Group – Professor Anders Malmer
  • 3. What about the title - Contents • Current and future land use change – tropical forest focus • Vulnerable conservation and more secure forests under use? • Fire and the degradation process • Virgin forests or devastation – defenitions, common language and policy • Examples of strategies in the Amazon ?
  • 4. Today it is the forest landscapes in the tropical and near-tropical zone that is changing in peoples strive for a better life
  • 5. Looking ahead for land-use: • Now we are >6 billion on the planet, we will be another 3 billion by 2050 – these will mainy live in cities in the tropics? • Temperature will (only?) increase with 2 degr until 2050? • Much more food needed • Much more biofuels needed  Climate insecurity and very high demand for optimal production in agriculture & forestry
  • 6. Stable or % of changing forest cover can be different things in different countries and have very varied background
  • 7. Latest FRA concentrating on absolute deforestation, also implying where decreased deforestation would be most significant in a global perspective FAO Forest Resource Assessment 2010
  • 8. ...and forest cover change is not a globally homogenous process!
  • 9. Also Sweden has seen long periods of deforestation and degrading soils Report by Carl von Linné 1749
  • 10. Forest cover in province of Halland 1650 – 1920 (Carl Malmström, 1939) C:a 1650 C:a 1700 C:a 1850 C:a 1920 grazing broadleafed forest coniferous forest & agriculture
  • 11. Insecurity in conservation for REDD • ”In tropical forest countries, the allocation or effort between plantation silviculture and reduction of deforestation would be influenced by the stringency of requirements regarding certainty.” Philip M. Fearnside, INPA, Manaus, 2000 • Clearly illustrated 10 yrs later for the Aamazon
  • 12. Increased fire trend in landscapes with forest conservation 2000-2007 in the Amazon • A larger increase of fire in land with decreasing deforestation than in land with increasing deforestation Aragão and Shimabukuro in Science June 2010
  • 13. Many fires with expanding agriculture and with forests in mixed landscapes • Large increase in fire irrespective of type of agriculture established • Fire incidense remain high in landscapes with less managed/intensive land use irrespective of fraction used Aragão and Shimabukuro in Science June 2010
  • 14. Similar preliminary observations in Guatemala • More frequent fire in conserved forest than in managed forests • One fire often leads to another one on the same land and vegetation/carbon show a deteriorating trend 4321 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 4321 Lowland Fire history Carbon/hectare Mountain 144,344 371,348 61,053 216,254211,254 347,223 Panel variable: Stratum Carbon Desity in Different Strata 1: non affected, 2: >10years ago, 3: 5-10 years ago, 4: 0-5years ago Steffen Lackman, MSc thesis in prep
  • 15. This is how landscapes commonly appear today Dynamic mosaics of multiple extensive land uses with or without trees The forest has a marginal value in the extensive landscape use Open and fragmented forests are much more fire prone than old natural forests
  • 16. Mans’ memory is short – now > 10 yr since the last severe El Niño droughts and fire is marginal on the agenda... Natural forests with logging gaps and secondary forests are more prone to fire because they dry out even with annually occurring short dry periods (weeks) Explains high fire incidense in forest remaining even after hold in deforestation In longer droughts (months) with strong El Niño events the regional fire effects are catastrofic (eg. SE Asia, C America and the Amazon) Once burned, the new secondary vegetation is even more fire prone and fire is soon repeated and so on... Part of conceptual model on fire risk and land degradation, Malmer et al., 2005
  • 17. ”Yesterdays loss can be tomorrows’ gain – degraded, deforested and degraded areas can be restored for a multitude of benefits...” (World Resources Institute)
  • 18. Sandewall et al., Ambio in press The old forest is gone for a long time as is the secondaty forest increasingly. But in the villages the families economies are growing with a growing market for pulp- and fire wood. Vietnam is a country with increasing forest cover
  • 19. Defenitions, common language and policy • Strong northern/western opposition against use (logging) of humid tropical forests from the 1980’ies • Later recognition that development in a broad sense leads to deforestation • Today in Sweden; deforestation = devastation (avskogning = skövling, Wikipedia) (forest disturbance = devastation, national media) i.e. Also a vague or very varying societal appreciation of the problems which may lead to skewed policy development on suitable strategies for poor southern countries?
  • 20. ”Inappropriateness of forest management” and identification of other aspects (eg. Governance) as limiting has been leaving technical development in the south behind? • In the north technical development is leading for commersial and industrial life • Equal values to other benefits of forests has not come into legislation until 100 yrs after commersial forestry and when the landscape is already ”industrialized” • In the south industry themselves have been leading technical development, resulting in clonal plantation forestry the only viable alternative to often failing community forest initiatives • Options for the poorer land owners/users are often urbanisation, destructive charcoal production or insecure new markets for NTFP’s and tourism
  • 21. Examples of strategies from the Brazilian Amazon
  • 22. Examples of strategies from the Brazilian Amazon The Amazon state 1.54 milj km2 of forest – 92 % undisturbed 52 % of forests in conservation (Nature or Ethnic) Most people live in Manaus (70 %) – -an industrial city in the forest without forest based industry Forest strategy remain at tourism, conservation and ethnic reserves Forest police to curb illegal logging and illegal land immigrants
  • 23. The state of Mato Grosso
  • 24. The state of Mato Grosso 28 % of 900 000 km2 intensive agiculture converted from forests (soya, maize & cotton) 29 % pastures and 38 % ”other forest” (pastures – secondary forests – primary forests) 5 % protected land (2009) and ongoing riparian forest restoration Strategy for agribusiness to grow 50 % in 20 years and to conserve remaning primary forests Unused pastures and secondary forests seen as potential for development but not a main priority Bilateral ”REDD” agreement with the state of California, USA
  • 25. The state of Acre 1000 km from Manaus and 500 km from La Paz and Lima 92 % out of 154 000 km2 is forest 55 % in protected areas 30 % target for agriculture and forestry Small scale agriculture (micro loans) Sustainable logging, rubber and tourism in thew same forests Active and promoted research on additional products from forests
  • 26. Vast areas with large potensial for forests or trees in the landscapes Many types to suit landscapes and peoples needs Common generalisations does not hold for the jiggzaw puzzle that has to be laid
  • 27. Many more kinds of forests and trees in the landscape today, but with varying technical backing (FAO’s definitions) How do we fit suitable systems to local ecology, peoples needs and governance?
  • 28. Thank you Anders.Malmer@sek.slu.se

×