Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Assessing multi-functionality of agroforestry systems in Western
Ke...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Assessing multi-functionality of
agroforestry systems in W Kenya
Fo...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Outline
• Multi-functionality
• What is agroforestry?
• Aim of the ...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Ecosystem services and multi-functionality
• Multi-functional agric...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
What is agroforestry, and why?
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
• Integration of trees with
crops and/or livestock
on farms and in
...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Trees and shrubs for fodder, fruit, fuel, shelter,
construction, me...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Tree, crop and livestock products for the
household and for generat...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Overall aim
• Agroforestry is a promoted land use system in E
Afric...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
• Focus on productivity, nutrient cycling, soil
fertility, carbon s...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Chronosequence
From maize to agroforestry
Tranz Nzoia (Kitale)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Chronosequence
• Careful selection of on-farm fie
(6 ages 0-15 year...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Expected outcomes
Quantifications of the soil C and N stocks and so...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Adaptation/Coping strategies for
rainfall variability
• Focus group...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Expected outcomes
• Understand of how climate, agroforestry
advisor...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
The project is funded by Formas-Sida and SLU
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Overall aim
To improve agricultural productivity and livelihood
for...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
• Focus on productivity, nutrient cycling, soil fertility,
carbon s...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Studies planned/initiated
1. Pilot study: sugarcane vs agroforestry...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Field, farm and landscape scale -
modelling
• The WaNuLCas model (v...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
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Approaches for Assessing Multifunctionality of Agroforestry Systems in Western Kenya in Realtion to Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

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This study was presented during the conference “Production and Carbon Dynamics in Sustainable Agricultural and Forest Systems in Africa” held in September, 2010.

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Approaches for Assessing Multifunctionality of Agroforestry Systems in Western Kenya in Realtion to Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

  1. 1. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Assessing multi-functionality of agroforestry systems in Western Kenya. Food security, climate change adaptation and mitigation Ingrid Öborn, Ylva Nyberg, Mattias Jonsson, Fergus L Sinclair ABSTRACT: Agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa is stagnant or declining and the rural population is increasing which has resulted in land shortage and food insecurity. Increased pressure on natural resources is also increasing the vulnerability to climate change. Although Africa accounts for only 3 to 4 % of global carbon dioxide emissions, it will be among the regions of the world to be hardest hit by climate change. To be able to enhance productivity and improve the livelihood in the long-term the declining trend in soil fertility and tree cover has to be reversed and the resilience of farming systems enhanced. The overall aim of the project is to contribute this. This study focuses on carbon and nutrient fluxes and stocks, soil fertility and agricultural productivity in small-holder farming systems in Western Kenya combining crops and trees (agroforestry) with and without livestock. Field studies of fluxes and stocks of carbon and nutrients will be combined with simulation modelling at field (plot), farm and landscape scale. The study will cover a chronosequence of agroforestry farms in an area where trees have been promoted since 1995, a comparative study of farming systems with different level of integration between crops, trees and livestock, and development of a set of quick and easy field, farm and landscape level indicators of climate change adaptation potential. The research will be carried out by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) and the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) in collaboration with the NGO Vi Agroforestry (Vi-skogen). The newly initiated project funded by Formas and Sida includes senior scientists as well as students at PhD and MSc level. At present one PhD study and two Minor Field Studies are carried out within the project.
  2. 2. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Assessing multi-functionality of agroforestry systems in W Kenya Food security, climate change adaptation and mitigation Ingrid Öborna*, Ylva Nyberga,b, Mattias Jonssona, Fergus L Sinclairc a Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) *Email: ingrid.oborn@vpe.slu.se b Vi Agroforestry, Kisumu, Kenya c World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya
  3. 3. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Outline • Multi-functionality • What is agroforestry? • Aim of the project • Study areas and research plan
  4. 4. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Ecosystem services and multi-functionality • Multi-functional agricultural system - produce and provide multiple products and functions - food, other products and services • Ecosystem services - provisioning (food, fresh water, wood, fibre, fuel..), supporting (nutrient cycling, soil formation, primary production..), regulating (climate, flood, disease, water purification..), and cultural (aesthetic, spiritual, educational, recreational..) (MA, 2005)
  5. 5. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se What is agroforestry, and why?
  6. 6. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se • Integration of trees with crops and/or livestock on farms and in agricultural landscapes Agroforestry – trees on farms and in agricultural landscapes
  7. 7. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Trees and shrubs for fodder, fruit, fuel, shelter, construction, medicine, green manure, mulch etc
  8. 8. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Tree, crop and livestock products for the household and for generating income
  9. 9. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Overall aim • Agroforestry is a promoted land use system in E Africa to increase on-farm food production and income, generate tree products and provide environmental services (e.g. Amos Wafula Wekesa, Carbon Project) • The aim of the project is to assess and quantify some of the multiple functions and to identify potential synergies and goal conflicts at different scales.
  10. 10. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se • Focus on productivity, nutrient cycling, soil fertility, carbon stocks and biological pest control in small-holder agroforestry systems, as compared to crop based systems, in different landscapes • Identify coping strategies for climate adaptation, in particular to rainfall variability, in two contrasting areas in W Kenya • Combine on-farm biophysical and participatory studies with simulation modelling at different scales. The project will
  11. 11. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
  12. 12. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Chronosequence From maize to agroforestry Tranz Nzoia (Kitale)
  13. 13. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Chronosequence • Careful selection of on-farm fie (6 ages 0-15 years and 5 of ea age) • Sespania and/or Calliandra hedgerow systems with maize/beans as main crops • Representative soil samples fo bulk density and total organic- and N analyses. • If successful – more studies w carried out on these farms (nu cycling, productivity, income, biological pest control, etc.)
  14. 14. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Expected outcomes Quantifications of the soil C and N stocks and soil bulk density in c based and agroforestry systems of different ages Simulations of the development of C and N stocks over time in orde compare and contrast the field estimates with model predictions (understanding effects of water, nutrient and light competition betw trees and crops).
  15. 15. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Adaptation/Coping strategies for rainfall variability • Focus group discussions and questionnaires to identify and score strategies. • Semi-structured interviews with local advisers • Compare: – 2 climatic conditions (Trans Nzoia and Nyando) – Farmers receiving or not receiving agroforestry advisory services – Women and men perspectives
  16. 16. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Expected outcomes • Understand of how climate, agroforestry advisory services and gender affect the choice of strategies and their importance • A monitoring tool for assessment of households’ relative climate adaptation potential based on local and scientific knowledge
  17. 17. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se The project is funded by Formas-Sida and SLU
  18. 18. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Overall aim To improve agricultural productivity and livelihood for small-holder farmers in the long-term the declining trend in soil fertility and tree cover has to be reversed and the resilience of farming systems enhanced. The overall aim is to contribute to this. This study focuses on productivity, soil fertility, and carbon and nutrient fluxes and stocks, in small- holder agroforestry systems in W Kenya
  19. 19. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se • Focus on productivity, nutrient cycling, soil fertility, carbon stocks and pest control in small-holder agroforestry systems • Combine on-farm biophysical and participatory studies with simulation modelling at different scales. Specific objectives are to: • Quantify soil carbon stocks in a chrono-sequence where trees have been promoted since 1995 • Compare nutrient cycling and soil fertility in farming systems with different level of integration between crops, trees and livestock • Study biological pest control in maize in agroforestry and monoculture systems in different landscapes • Identify coping strategies for climate adaptation, in particular to rainfall variability, in two contrasting areas in W Kenya The project will
  20. 20. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Studies planned/initiated 1. Pilot study: sugarcane vs agroforestry (MFS Gustaf Magnusson Kroon & Ida Lindell, 1. 16.40) 2. Farmer adaptation/coping strategies for rainfall variability – climate, advisory, gender (PhD) 3. Soil C and N stocks, and bulk density, in a 15 (20) year chronosequence - from crop (maize) to agroforestry (mixed tree –crop) system (PhD) 4. Farm gate and field plot nutrient and carbon balances 5. Field, farm, landscape modelling (WaNuLCAS, NUANCES, Polyscape)
  21. 21. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Field, farm and landscape scale - modelling • The WaNuLCas model (van Noordwijk et al, 2004) will be parameterised and used to simulate the development over time of biomass and soil C and nutrient in the agroforestry plots in the chrono-sequence. Explore more/other options, O Andrén et al? • In the farm level study the NUANCES framework will be used to explore the effects on C and nutrient cycling of increased diversity/complexity starting with a maize-bean rotation (Wijk et al, 2009). Possible collaborations? S Dahlin et al? • For the landscape modelling, Polyscape will be used for exploring synergies and trade-offs amongst the impacts of trees on different ecosystem services depending on where and to what extent trees are established (Pagella et al., 2009). Explore links and joint interests with G Nyberg et al?
  22. 22. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se
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