Chapter 1-3 Notes

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APES Chapter 1-3 Notes

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Chapter 1-3 Notes

  1. 1. Chapters 1 - 3 Basic Issues in Environmental Science
  2. 2. Human activity is beginning to affect environment globally. <ul><li>1. Population growth = underlying cause </li></ul><ul><li>2. Industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>3. Unsustainable practices </li></ul>
  3. 3. Value of Environment? <ul><li>Utilitarian </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological justification </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Moral </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
  4. 4. Precautionary Priciple <ul><li>If there is a global threat of serious or maybe irreversible environmental damage, </li></ul><ul><li>we should not wait till all the scientific evidence is in before taking steps to prevent the potential problem from occuring. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Value of Coral Reefs?
  6. 7. Scientific Knowledge is Critical! <ul><li>Controlled Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Independent variable </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variable </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Data quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>qualitative </li></ul>
  7. 9. Environmental science in… <ul><li>The media </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul>
  8. 10. Environmental Systems Change <ul><li>Amboseli National Park (case study) </li></ul><ul><li>(What happened and whose fault?) </li></ul>
  9. 11. Systems <ul><li>Open </li></ul><ul><li>Closed </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>System responses: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Negative feedback – most common </li></ul><ul><li>(an increase in some </li></ul><ul><li>output will lead to an eventual decrease in that output - stabilizes) </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>b. Positive feedback – output increase leads to more output increase (problem intensifies) </li></ul>
  12. 15. Global Climate Change Which feedback system will dominate? <ul><li>+ Positive? </li></ul><ul><li>- Negative? </li></ul>
  13. 16. System Changes and Equilibrium <ul><li>Depletion : output larger than input </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Growth : output smaller than input </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: bans on harvesting: </li></ul><ul><li>Steady State : output = input </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: sustainable practices </li></ul>
  15. 18. Natural and Human Impacts on Systems <ul><li>Most natural disturbances tend to be in balance and life has often co-evolved with them. </li></ul><ul><li>Many important! </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul>
  16. 19. Delays in Response <ul><li>Responses to change not always immediate </li></ul><ul><li>May be non-linear, effects not seen for a while </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Once seen, may be difficult to correct </li></ul>
  17. 20. Residence Times <ul><li>Example: Pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Quick flow through (short A.R.T.) affects system quickly but recovers quickly if problem remedied </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Slow flow through (long A.R.T.) takes a longer time to show effects but longer to recover even after problem remedied. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Environmental Unity <ul><li>Everything affects everything else! </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in one part of system has multiple effects in that system and other systems. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Uniformitarianism <ul><li>Processes happening in the present were also happening in the past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The magnitude and frequency of events may vary over time, but the processes are the same </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Gaia <ul><li>Earth and all living things are part of a single system </li></ul><ul><li>Life greatly affects the system and regulates the planetary environment to help sustain life </li></ul>

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