Ch 13: Forests, Parks and
Landscapes
Forests are:
a. Economically important
1.
b. Ecologically important
1.
2.
3.
4.
Deforestation
1. One of the most crucial environmental
concerns of our times
2. Direct causes
• a.
b.
c. in developing wor...
Case Study:
Paper and Deforestation
1. U.S. and paper:
a. We (5% or world’s pop.) use 30%
of paper
b.
2. Global wood use
a...
3. Toxic Pollution and Waste
a.
b. Pollutants: Bleaching paper:
Chlorine
c. Paper is the dominant material in solid
waste!
4. Alternatives to wood in paper
a. Kenaf (from East Indies)
b. Hemp (first paper 105 A.D. - China)
One of world’s most
versatile fibers.
c. Wheat, sugar cane and other
agricultural straw(agricultural waste)
d. Flax (used for over 2000 yrs)
5. Recycled paper i...
Forest Management
1. Two types of forests:
a.
b.
2. Most logging is on private and U.S.
forest service lands
3. __________...
U.S.F.S. and multiple use policy:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e. conservationists call this policy
“multiple misuse”
3.Logging strategies:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
4.Effects of clear-cutting
a. Increased..
1.
2.
3. landslides likely on steep slopes
© 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers
Effects of
clearcutting
on forest
chemical
cycling.
5. Forests mgmt may also include
prescribed burning. (clear underbrush)
6. Plantation Forestry
a. also called
b. often pla...
Parks and Preserves
1. General info. (10% land set aside)
a. National and State Park Service
_____________________vs. Fore...
2. Parks and preserves as islands
a. park vs nature reserve/wilderness
1. park =
2. natl. reserve… =
b. island biogeograph...
3.Designing a preserve
a. larger, more varied habitats =
better
b. Connectivity –
c.
d.
© 2003 John Wiley and Sons
Park shapes
and island
biogeography. Good – large
area protects
many species
Small
areas but
ov...
4.Conserving Wilderness
a. Wilderness = undisturbed, roadless habitat
b. U.S. Wilderness Act of 1964 “Humans can
‘visit’, ...
Ch 14: Wildlife, Fisheries and
Endangered Species
Managing wildlife populations
a. Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY)
b.Minimum Viable Population
(endangered species)
c. Optim...
Over 70% global fishes considered
overfished
Fisheries
a. Wild fish harvests are declining
b. continental shelf = 95% harv...
An estimated 2 billion hooks are set
each year by longline fishing fleets,
killing 40,000 sea turtles, over
300,000 sea bi...
Gillnetting
Alaskan pink salmon
are evolving into
smaller fish, the ones
who make it through
the gill nets survive
to repr...
For every pound of shrimp caught,
10 - 20 lbs of bycatch “trawl
trash” is killed and discarded!
The area of the
seafloor t...
Aquaculture now accounts for about 1/3 of our
seafood.
Now due to environmental problems marine
aquaculture is being revis...
© 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers
The world’s major fisheries.
Red = upwelling and
high production
Yellow = moderate p...
Who’s being depleted?
Virtually every large fish in the ocean: Including,
but not limited to:
All have declined by 90% sin...
Fisheries in total collapse:
Oysters
Bluefin and Albacore Tuna
Sardines
Atlantic Cod
Anchovies from Peru
Salmon from Pacif...
World Fisheries Congress
1992 and 1996
Every major country discusses codes
of conduct/harvesting….
Established
Today: 80% of our fish must be
imported:
Case Study : Local
Depletion of Rock Fish
2nd
Case Study – Atlantic Cod
Fish caught are getting younger and younger.
Whales and Whaling
•11. Great whales and whaling
a. Subsistence vs. commercial whaling
b. heaviest losses in 20th century ...
2.Commercial value
a. much less $$ than fisheries
b. but a few crucial products (whale oil)
c. __________________________e...
Species depleted, in order, by
commercial whalers:
*Right Whales
Humpback Whales
Sperm Whales
Blue Whales
Fin Whales
Minke...
Who Violates Ban?
20000 have been slaughtered since the
ban in 1986
• (under guise of
“scientific research”)
• – says the ...
Dolphins, porpoises…
a. Commercial and accidental hunting
(tuna netting)
b. cooperation and boycotting
has helped establis...
Endangered Species
• Intl. Union of Concerned Scientists (IUCC) Red
List says, at risk of extinction are:
• of all known m...
Natural Causes of Extinction
• Population fluctuations (if pop is very low)
• Environmental Variations
• Natural Catastrop...
Ch 13 and 14 student template ppt  2010
Ch 13 and 14 student template ppt  2010
Ch 13 and 14 student template ppt  2010
Ch 13 and 14 student template ppt  2010
Ch 13 and 14 student template ppt  2010
Ch 13 and 14 student template ppt  2010
Ch 13 and 14 student template ppt  2010
Ch 13 and 14 student template ppt  2010
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Ch 13 and 14 student template ppt 2010

  1. 1. Ch 13: Forests, Parks and Landscapes Forests are: a. Economically important 1. b. Ecologically important 1. 2. 3. 4.
  2. 2. Deforestation 1. One of the most crucial environmental concerns of our times 2. Direct causes • a. b. c. in developing world = major source of fuel
  3. 3. Case Study: Paper and Deforestation 1. U.S. and paper: a. We (5% or world’s pop.) use 30% of paper b. 2. Global wood use a. Predicted to double by 2050 b.
  4. 4. 3. Toxic Pollution and Waste a. b. Pollutants: Bleaching paper: Chlorine
  5. 5. c. Paper is the dominant material in solid waste!
  6. 6. 4. Alternatives to wood in paper a. Kenaf (from East Indies)
  7. 7. b. Hemp (first paper 105 A.D. - China) One of world’s most versatile fibers.
  8. 8. c. Wheat, sugar cane and other agricultural straw(agricultural waste) d. Flax (used for over 2000 yrs) 5. Recycled paper into new a. Down from 10% (1990) to 5% today (consumer apathy) b. Not easily marketable.
  9. 9. Forest Management 1. Two types of forests: a. b. 2. Most logging is on private and U.S. forest service lands 3. ________________________________for “the greatest amount of good for the greatest amount of people”
  10. 10. U.S.F.S. and multiple use policy: a. b. c. d. e. conservationists call this policy “multiple misuse”
  11. 11. 3.Logging strategies: a. b. c. d. e. f.
  12. 12. 4.Effects of clear-cutting a. Increased.. 1. 2. 3. landslides likely on steep slopes
  13. 13. © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Effects of clearcutting on forest chemical cycling.
  14. 14. 5. Forests mgmt may also include prescribed burning. (clear underbrush) 6. Plantation Forestry a. also called b. often planted after clearcutting
  15. 15. Parks and Preserves 1. General info. (10% land set aside) a. National and State Park Service _____________________vs. Forest Service (______________________) b. Natl. Parks managed by ________________ . Each state manages own. c. First Natl. Park in US was Yellowstone in 1872
  16. 16. 2. Parks and preserves as islands a. park vs nature reserve/wilderness 1. park = 2. natl. reserve… = b. island biogeography 1. size and diversity of habitats affects # of species that may be maintained there
  17. 17. 3.Designing a preserve a. larger, more varied habitats = better b. Connectivity – c. d.
  18. 18. © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Park shapes and island biogeography. Good – large area protects many species Small areas but over more than one area can be better insurance Best – wildlife corridors connect
  19. 19. 4.Conserving Wilderness a. Wilderness = undisturbed, roadless habitat b. U.S. Wilderness Act of 1964 “Humans can ‘visit’, not machines!”
  20. 20. Ch 14: Wildlife, Fisheries and Endangered Species
  21. 21. Managing wildlife populations a. Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) b.Minimum Viable Population (endangered species) c. Optimum Sustainable Population d. Carrying Capacity
  22. 22. Over 70% global fishes considered overfished Fisheries a. Wild fish harvests are declining b. continental shelf = 95% harvesting (upwelling, nutrients, algae) Harmful commercial fishing techniques:
  23. 23. An estimated 2 billion hooks are set each year by longline fishing fleets, killing 40,000 sea turtles, over 300,000 sea birds and millions of sharks annually, to name a few.
  24. 24. Gillnetting Alaskan pink salmon are evolving into smaller fish, the ones who make it through the gill nets survive to reproduce.
  25. 25. For every pound of shrimp caught, 10 - 20 lbs of bycatch “trawl trash” is killed and discarded! The area of the seafloor trawled is equal to 150X the area of forests clear cut each year!
  26. 26. Aquaculture now accounts for about 1/3 of our seafood. Now due to environmental problems marine aquaculture is being revisited.
  27. 27. © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers The world’s major fisheries. Red = upwelling and high production Yellow = moderate production
  28. 28. Who’s being depleted? Virtually every large fish in the ocean: Including, but not limited to: All have declined by 90% since industrialized fishing after WWII.
  29. 29. Fisheries in total collapse: Oysters Bluefin and Albacore Tuna Sardines Atlantic Cod Anchovies from Peru Salmon from Pacific Northwest (Alaska is OK)
  30. 30. World Fisheries Congress 1992 and 1996 Every major country discusses codes of conduct/harvesting…. Established
  31. 31. Today: 80% of our fish must be imported: Case Study : Local Depletion of Rock Fish
  32. 32. 2nd Case Study – Atlantic Cod
  33. 33. Fish caught are getting younger and younger.
  34. 34. Whales and Whaling •11. Great whales and whaling a. Subsistence vs. commercial whaling b. heaviest losses in 20th century with high tech whaling equip
  35. 35. 2.Commercial value a. much less $$ than fisheries b. but a few crucial products (whale oil) c. __________________________established in 1946 set moratorium on commercial whaling in 1982 (very important!)
  36. 36. Species depleted, in order, by commercial whalers: *Right Whales Humpback Whales Sperm Whales Blue Whales Fin Whales Minke Whales More difficult to catch, not as valuable
  37. 37. Who Violates Ban? 20000 have been slaughtered since the ban in 1986 • (under guise of “scientific research”) • – says the “rats of the sea” are responsible for crash of fisheries! • IWC contemplating RMS
  38. 38. Dolphins, porpoises… a. Commercial and accidental hunting (tuna netting) b. cooperation and boycotting has helped establish measures to reduce bycatch mortality
  39. 39. Endangered Species • Intl. Union of Concerned Scientists (IUCC) Red List says, at risk of extinction are: • of all known mammals • of all known birds • of all known reptiles • of all known amphibians
  40. 40. Natural Causes of Extinction • Population fluctuations (if pop is very low) • Environmental Variations • Natural Catastrophes • Genetic changes (Small pops) Human Causes of Extinction
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