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Chapter 12 – Agriculture
and the Environment
Soil
 Texture
Soil Erosion
 O - organic material
 A –
 (top)
 minerals (bottom)
 E - zone of leaching
 B – high in leached
mineral...
Goals of sustainable farming
 1.
 2.
 3.
 4.
Sustainable farming practices
The following reduce soil erosion:
 Contour plowing:
 Terracing hill sides:
 Shelterbelts...
Crop Rotation (keeps nutrients)
Rotating heavy feeders, moderate
feeders with soil builders
Cover Crops
 Plant during fallow(off) season.
 Keep nitrates from leaching out of topsoil
 Also keep soil orgs healthy ...
Pest Management
 Broad spectrum
 Narrow spectrum
 Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Integrated Pest Management
Cranberry and damage:
black headed fireworm:
Seasonal flooding to
control it
Left photo: predat...
IPM
 Aims at control not elimination
 Uses a combo of methods incl:
 Biological control
 Certain insecticides
 Certai...
GM Crops
 Superhybrid?
 Terminator Gene
 Gene transfer (transgenic crops)
Desertification
 Some Causes of Desertification
 Poor farming practices
 Overgrazing
 Chemical poisoning of the soil
Kesterson Wildlife Refuge
 Artificial wetlands
 Early 1980s
received
agricultural
drainage water
 Was supposed to
drain...
 Normal embryo
 Classified a toxic
waste site
Looking at plans
to continue
drainage to sea
No eyesNo feet
Desertification
 Other Causes:
 Diverting water –
 Cutting trees –
 Mining –
 Changing weather patterns/ Global clima...
Desertification data
Who’s most immediately affected:
 70 percent of the world's drylands are degraded
 in the world are...
Important Legislation
 1985
 Conservation Research Program
 Food Securities Act
 1988
 Sustainable Agriculture Resear...
Factory Farming: Increasing
production
 Antibiotics are commonly used in animal
production
 Animals are bred to grow fas...
Beef Production
 Feedlots
 Fed corn instead of grass
 Confined in a small area
 Fecal material accumulates.
 Disease ...
Waste Production...
 Water contamination
 Treatment required
 Odor/airborne problems
 Waste treatment regulations are ...
Ch 12 ppt 2010
Ch 12 ppt 2010
Ch 12 ppt 2010
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Ch 12 ppt 2010

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Transcript of "Ch 12 ppt 2010 "

  1. 1. Chapter 12 – Agriculture and the Environment
  2. 2. Soil  Texture
  3. 3. Soil Erosion  O - organic material  A –  (top)  minerals (bottom)  E - zone of leaching  B – high in leached minerals from above  C – original parent material SOIL STRUCTURE
  4. 4. Goals of sustainable farming  1.  2.  3.  4.
  5. 5. Sustainable farming practices The following reduce soil erosion:  Contour plowing:  Terracing hill sides:  Shelterbelts:  Low or No Till Plowing (wind and water)
  6. 6. Crop Rotation (keeps nutrients) Rotating heavy feeders, moderate feeders with soil builders
  7. 7. Cover Crops  Plant during fallow(off) season.  Keep nitrates from leaching out of topsoil  Also keep soil orgs healthy and “fed”  Prevents excess N from runoff into water supplies
  8. 8. Pest Management  Broad spectrum  Narrow spectrum  Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  9. 9. Integrated Pest Management Cranberry and damage: black headed fireworm: Seasonal flooding to control it Left photo: predatory mite (IPM) devouring a thrips, an agicultural pest. Right photo: the thrips by itself.
  10. 10. IPM  Aims at control not elimination  Uses a combo of methods incl:  Biological control  Certain insecticides  Certain crop planting methods
  11. 11. GM Crops  Superhybrid?  Terminator Gene  Gene transfer (transgenic crops)
  12. 12. Desertification  Some Causes of Desertification  Poor farming practices  Overgrazing  Chemical poisoning of the soil
  13. 13. Kesterson Wildlife Refuge  Artificial wetlands  Early 1980s received agricultural drainage water  Was supposed to drain to sea, didn’t finish it (oops!)  Selenium accumulated in water  Over-irrigating to leach out salt buildup caused the problem
  14. 14.  Normal embryo  Classified a toxic waste site Looking at plans to continue drainage to sea No eyesNo feet
  15. 15. Desertification  Other Causes:  Diverting water –  Cutting trees –  Mining –  Changing weather patterns/ Global climate change
  16. 16. Desertification data Who’s most immediately affected:  70 percent of the world's drylands are degraded  in the world are affected to some degree by desertification.  Globally it is estimated that the annual income lost in the areas affected by desertification =
  17. 17. Important Legislation  1985  Conservation Research Program  Food Securities Act  1988  Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program UNCCD: 1996 UN Convention to Combat Desertification 100 nations ratified 500 million dollars to fund projects to stop it
  18. 18. Factory Farming: Increasing production  Antibiotics are commonly used in animal production  Animals are bred to grow faster and to be more desirable for market.  E.g chickens with more breast meat.  Synthetic hormones are approved for use  Growth hormones  Milk production hormones
  19. 19. Beef Production  Feedlots  Fed corn instead of grass  Confined in a small area  Fecal material accumulates.  Disease spreads readily  Chemicals used to control disease
  20. 20. Waste Production...  Water contamination  Treatment required  Odor/airborne problems  Waste treatment regulations are more lax than for waste from people.
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