Thermal Power Plant Safety

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Thermal Power Plant Safety

  1. 1. THERMAL POWER PLANT SAFETY SHIVAJI CHOUDHURY
  2. 2. TERRIBLE INCIDENTS <ul><li>FIXBOROUGH, BHOPAL,SEVESO,PIPER ALPHA AND MEXICO CITY. </li></ul><ul><li>THESE PLACES AND THEIR ASSOCIATED TERRIBLE INCIDENTS ARE ALL FAMILIAR TO EVERY ONE. </li></ul><ul><li>THEY WERE ALSO THE DRIVERS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF OSHA 1910.119 IN US AND SIMILAR SAFETY LAWS IN OTHER COUNTRY. </li></ul>
  3. 3. LAW & STANDARD <ul><li>THE ESTABILISHMENT OF THE AIChE CENTER FOR CHEMICAL PROCESS SAFETY AND DEVELOPMENT OF ANSI/ISA/IEC STANDARDS WERE ALSO DIRECT RESULTS OF TREGEDIES. </li></ul><ul><li>THE SAFETY STANDARD ARE COME OUT IN 1996 . </li></ul><ul><li>SO,WHY 12 YEARS LATER, DO WE STILL EXPERIENCE INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS. </li></ul>
  4. 4. CAUSE OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT <ul><li>UK HEALTH AND SAFETY AND EXECUTIVE (HSE) ANALYSED THE CAUSE OF A NUMBER OF FAILURES/ACCIDENT: </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFICATION-44% </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGES AFTER COMMISSIONING-2O% </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATION & MAINTANCE-15% </li></ul><ul><li>DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION-15% </li></ul><ul><li>INSTALATION & COMMISSIONING-6% </li></ul>
  5. 5. SPECIFICATION <ul><li>THE HSE STUDY SUGGESTS THE MOST FAILURES ARE RELATED TO INADEQUATE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION. THIS MAY BE DUE TO LACK OF PERSONNEL EXPERIENCE OR TRAINING OR SIMPLY DUE TO ERRORS MADE DURING THE ASSESSMENT OF THE FOLLOWING : </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESS HAZARDS </li></ul><ul><li>REQUIRED DEVICE FUNCTIONALLY </li></ul><ul><li>FAILURE MODES ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVICES USED TO IMPLEMENT THE PROTECTION LAYERS . </li></ul>
  6. 6. PROTECTION LAYERS <ul><li>PROCESS. </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROL AND MONITORING. </li></ul><ul><li>PREVENTION. </li></ul><ul><li>MITIGATION. </li></ul><ul><li>PLANT EMERGENCY RESPONSE. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNITY EMERGENCY RESPONSE. </li></ul>
  7. 7. SAFETY- PROCESS <ul><li>UK HEALTH AND SAFETY AND EXECUTIVE (HSE) ANALYSED THE MAIN CAUSE OF FAILURES IS SPECIFICATION. </li></ul><ul><li>ALL SPECIFICATION SHALL BE AS PER GOOD ENGINEERING PRACTICES. </li></ul><ul><li>ALL SYSTEM DESIGN SHALL AS PER NATIONAL/INERNATIONAL CODE /STANDARD-AS PER ASME,ASTM,DIN,BS ,IEC ,NFPA ,ISA,OSHA,EPA etc </li></ul><ul><li>ALL PIPING COMFORM TO ASME B 31.1. </li></ul><ul><li>ALL INSTALATION AND COMMISSIONING AS PER DESIGN. </li></ul>
  8. 8. CONTROL & MONITORING <ul><li>BASIC CONTROL SYSTEM. </li></ul><ul><li>MONITORING SYSTEM. </li></ul><ul><li>ALARM SYSTEM. </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD OPERATOR SUPERVISION. </li></ul>
  9. 9. PREVENTION <ul><li>MECHNICAL SAFETY VALVE/SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESS ALARM WITH OPERATOR ACTION </li></ul><ul><li>SAFETY INSTRUMENTED CONTROL SYSTEM. </li></ul>
  10. 10. MITIGATION <ul><li>MECHANICAL SAFETY VALVE/FAIL DEVICES /MITIGATION DEVICES </li></ul><ul><li>BURNER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS NFPA 85 </li></ul><ul><li>TURBINE PROTECTION </li></ul><ul><li>INTERLOCK & PROTECTION DESIGN AS PER ISA 84,IEC 61508,IEC 61511 </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATOR SUPERVISION & ACTION </li></ul>
  11. 11. PLANT EMERGENCY RESPONSE <ul><li>EVACUTION PLAN OR PROCEDURE FOR ACCIDENT LIKE FIRE OR GAS LEAKAGES. </li></ul>
  12. 12. COMMUNITY EMERGENCY RESPONSE <ul><li>COMMUNITY EMERGENCY RESPONSE FOR ACCIDENT LIKE THREE ISLAND NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ,USA( IN 1979) OR CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR PLANT ,USSR: </li></ul><ul><li>EMERGENCY BROADCASTING. </li></ul><ul><li>EVACUTE THE AREA. </li></ul>
  13. 13. TRAINING OF PERSONNELS <ul><li>IMPROPER OPERATIONAL OR MAINTENANCE ACTIVITY CAN COMPLETELY DISABLE AN SAFETY SYSTEM. </li></ul><ul><li>TO OVERCOME THESE ERRORS ,OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES SHOULD BE CLEAR AND CONSISTENT WITH OPERATOR OR MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN EXPECTATION TO REDUCE THE POTENTIAL FOR ERROR. </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD DESIGN PRACTICES & TRAINING CAN REDUCE OPERATOR OR MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN ERRORS THAT COULD POTENTIALLY LEAD TO FAILURE. </li></ul>
  14. 14. BOILER
  15. 15. MECHANICAL MITIGATION (SAFETY VALVE -500 MW) <ul><li>DRUM- 6 No </li></ul><ul><li>SUPERHEATER </li></ul><ul><li>SAFETY VALVE 2 No </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTROMATIC 5 No </li></ul><ul><li>REHEATER </li></ul><ul><li>CRH 4 No </li></ul><ul><li>HRH 4 No </li></ul>
  16. 16. INCIDENT REPORTS <ul><li>MOST INCIDENT REPORT INCLUDE A SENTENCE THAT STATES THAT THE INCIDENT WAS PREVENTABLE.IF COMPANIES PROPERLY USE THE AVAILABLE STANDARDS. </li></ul>
  17. 17. THE MOST EXPENSIVE SAFETY EQUIPMENT,YOU CAN BUY IS ONE YOU INSTALL AFTER THE CATASTROPHIC INCIDENT.
  18. 18. THANKS

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