Steam turbine losses

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  • Facts are not validated thermodynamically. Wet vapor at condenser inlet will increase thermal efficiency of the plant & that increase is more than reduction due to corrosion. In most cases, LP Turbine outlet steam is super heated, hence huge loss is occurring in condenser. Turbine's moving & stationary parts clearances losses are same as throttling loss so can't be avoided.
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Steam turbine losses

  1. 1. STEAM TURBINELOSSESSHIVAJI CHOUDHURY
  2. 2. Challenges Rising fuel costs which in most ofpower generating companies arepassed through to customer ,caughtthe attention to regulating agencies. Regulating agencies are now payingmore attention to efficiency of powerplants.
  3. 3. Heat Rate Definitions Heat rate is defined in units ofkJ/kWh and is simply the amount ofheat input into a system divided bythe amount of power generated by asystem. Less heat rate (less fuel) means moreefficient system.
  4. 4. BENEFIT -identification of losses Efficiency increase Green house gases emission decrease Particulate emission reduction Availability improvement Reduction in O&M cost Less capacity addition Increase profitability
  5. 5. Steam Turbine losses Symptoms HP/IP/LP section efficiency less thandesign. Causes (any one or more than one) Change in internal conditions of turbine 1.Mechanical damages 2.Flow area decreases 3.Flow area bypass 4.Flow area increases Change in inlet conditions
  6. 6. 1.MECHANICAL DAMAGES Symptoms Sudden change in section efficiency. Sudden change in section pressure ratio. Cause Metallurgical defects. Maintenance practice.
  7. 7. Mechanical damages
  8. 8. 2.FLOW AREA DECREASE Symptoms Increase in pressure ratio Decrease in section efficiency Increase in up stream pressure cause Mechanical blockage Sudden increase in pressure ratio Sudden decrease in section efficiency Sudden increase in up stream pressure Blade deposits Gradual increase in pressure ratio Gradual decrease in section efficiency Gradual increase in upstream pressure
  9. 9. Mechanical blockage
  10. 10. BLADE DEPOSIT
  11. 11. DEPOSIT IN SINGLE STAGECASING TURBINE
  12. 12. SOLUBILITY TRENDS THROUGHTURBINE
  13. 13. 3.FLOW AREA BYPASS Symptoms Decrease in section efficiency Decrease in pressure ratio Decrease in upstream pressure Cause Hp turbine bushing leakage Main steam stop valve leakage HP gland seal leakage IP stop/intercept valve leakage IP turbine bushing leakage
  14. 14. 4.Flow area increase Symptoms Decrease in pressure ratio Decrease in section efficiency Decrease in upstream pressure Cause Spill strip or packing leakage Erosion of turbine stages Solid particle erosion of nozzle block Blade mechanical damage
  15. 15. Spill strip or packing leakage Symptoms Increased down stream extraction temperatures Sudden decrease in stage efficiency Cause Thermal stress Rubbing Vibration Operating procedures
  16. 16. Solid particle erosion of nozzleblocks Symptoms Increase in pressure down stream of firststage Increase in ratio of first stage to throttle pressure Cause Cycling Exfoliation in boiler tubes1. Condenser tube leak2. Poor water chemistry
  17. 17. Erosion of turbine stages Symptoms Gradual decrease in pressure ratio Gradual decrease in section efficiency Gradual decrease in upstreampressure
  18. 18. Blade mechanical damages Symptoms Sudden decrease in pressure ratio Sudden decrease in section efficiency Sudden decrease in upstreampressure.
  19. 19. Cross section of turbine –showingefficiency loss due to leakageLeaking steam notcontribution to powergeneration (in RED)
  20. 20. SOLID PARTICLE EROSION
  21. 21. TURBINE EFFICIENCY AND SURFACE FINISH OFBLADE SURFACE
  22. 22. Impact of parameter deviation from designparameters on HEAT RATE (210 MW ,KWUTurbine )-operator controllable parameters..SN PARTICULAR UNIT DESIGNPARAMETERSINCREASE inHEAT RATE DUETO DEVIATIONfrom designparameter (INKCAL/KWH )MULTIPLICATIONFACTOR1 PARTIAL LOADING MW 210 24.7 PER 20 MW 1.2352 MS PRESS KG/CM2 150 25.5 PER 20KG/CM21.2753 MS TEMP AT HPT INLET DEG C 535 7.5 PER 10 DEGC0.754 HRH TEMP AT IPT INLET DEG 535 6.6 PER PER10 DEG C0.665 CONDENSER VACUUM mmHg 660 23.4 PER 10 mmHg2.346 FEED WATER TEMP DEG C 241 16 PER 20 DEGC0.87 RH ATTEMP FLOW T/HR 0 6.4 PER 10 T/HR 0.648
  23. 23. TurbinecylinderefficiencyTURBINE- 500 MW
  24. 24. Turbine cycle -500 mwControllablelossesImpact ofParameter deviation
  25. 25. LOSSES IN A THERMAL POWERPLANT (CEA)
  26. 26. HP CYLINDER EFFICIENCYKWU TURBINE 210 MWS.N DESCRIPTION UNIT DESIGN OPERATING1 POWER OUTPUT MW2102102 INLET PRESS TO HP CYLINDER KG/CM2 150 139.73INLET TEMP TO HP CYLINDER DEG C 535 537.84OUTLET PRESS FROM HPCYLINDERKG/CM2 38.1 38.95OUTLET TEMP FROM HPCYLINDERTEMP 334.8 361.36ENTHALPY OF INLET STEAM KCAL/KG 814.73 819.257ISENTROPIC ENTHALPY AFTER EXPANSION KCAL/KG 719.95 728.778ACTUAL ENTHALPY AFTER EXPANSION KCAL/KG 730.88 746.159 CYLINDER EFFICIENCY% 88.4780.9INCREASED
  27. 27. THANKING YOU

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