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Management bab 9
 

Management bab 9

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human resources management

human resources management

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    Management bab 9 Management bab 9 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 9
      • Managerial
      • Decision
      • Making
    • Decisions
      • Process of identifying problems and opportunities and resolving them
      • Is a choice made from available alternatives
      • My be difficult to make
      • Made amid changing factors
      • Information may be unclear
      • May have to deal with conflicting points of view
    • Types of Decisions
      • Decision making is the process of identifying problems and opportunities and then resolving them
      • Programmed decisions :
      • Situations that occur often enough to enable decision rules to be developed
      • Nonprogrammer decisions :
      • Are made in response to situations that are unique, are poorly defined and largely unstructured
      • Many involve strategic planning
    • Difference Between Programmed And Nonprogrammer Decisions
      • Certainty
      • - all the information the decision maker needs is fully available
      • Risk
      • decision has clear-cut goal
      • good animation is available
      • future outcomes associated with each alternative are subject to chance
      • Uncertainty
      • Managers know which goals they whit to achieve
      • Information about alternatives and future events in incomplete
      • Managers may have to come up with creative approaches to alternatives
      • Ambiguity
      • By far the most difficult decision situation
      • Goals to be achieved or the problem to be solved is unclear
      • Alternatives are difficult to define
      • Information about outcomes is unavailable
    • Selecting a Decision Making Model
      • Depends on the manger’s personal preference
      • Whether the decision is programmed or non-programmed
      • Extent to which the decision is characterized by risk, uncertainty, or ambiguity
    • Conditions That Affect The Possibility Of Decision Failure PepsiCo, Inc. serves consumers beverages and snack foods. Organizational Problem High Ambiguity Possibility of Failure Risk Uncertainty Low Certainty Programmed Nonprogrammed Decisions Decisions Problem Solution
    • Three Decision Making Models
      • Classical Model
      • Administrative model
      • Political model
    • Classical Model
      • Decision maker operates to accomplish goals that are known and agreed upon
      • The decision maker strivers for condition of certainty
      • Criteria for evaluating alternatives are known
      • The decision maker is rational and usus logic
    • Administrative Model
      • Managers actually make decisions in situations characterized by non-programmed decisions, uncertainty, and ambiguity
      • Managers are unable to make economically rational decisions even it they want to
      • Two concepts are instrumental in shaping the administrative model
      • Bounded rationality : means that people have limits or boundaries on how rational they can be
      • Satisfying : means that decision makers choose the first solution alternative that satisfies minimal decision criteria
      • Is considered to be descriptive, how managers
    • Political Model
      • Closely resembles the real environment in which most managers and decision makers operate
      • Useful in making non-programmed decisions
      • Decisions are complex
      • Disagreement and conflict over problems and solutions are normal
    • Characteristics of Classical, Political, and Administrative Decision Making Models Classical Model Clear-cut problem and goals Condition of certainty Full information about alternatives and their outcomes Rational choice by individual for maximizing outcomes Administrative Model Vague problem and goals Condition of uncertainty Limited information about alternatives and their outcomes Satisficing choice for resolving problem using intuition Political Model Pluralistic; conflicting goals Condition of uncertainty/ambiguous information Bargaining and discussion among coalition members
    • Six Steps In Managerial Decision Making Process Decision-Making Process Recognition of Decision Requirement Diagnosis and Analysis of Cause Development of Alternatives Implementation of Chosen Alternative Evaluation and Feedback Selection of Alternative
    • Personal Decision Framework
      • Situation :
      • Programmed /non - programmed
      • Classical, administrative, political
      • Decision steps
      • Personal decision style :
      • Directive
      • Analytical
      • Conceptual
      • Behavioral
      • Decision choice:
      • Best solution to problem
    • Participation in Decision
      • Vroom-Jaqo Model
      • helps gauge the appropriate amount of participation for subordinates
      • Participation Styles
      • employs five levels of subordinate
      • participation in decision making ranging from highly autocratic to highly democratic
      • Diagnostic Questions
      • decision participation depends on the responses to seven diagnostic questions
      • questions deal with the problem the required level of decision quality, and the importance of having subordinates commit to the decision
    • Seven Leader diagnostic questions
      • How significant is the decision?
      • How important is subordinate commitment?
      • What is the level of the leader's expertise?
      • If the leader were to make the decision alone at what level would subordinates be committed to the decision?
      • What level is the subordinates support for the team or organizations objectives?
      • What is the members level of knowledge or expertise relative to the problem?
      • How skilled or committed are group members to working together?
    • Participation in Decision
      • Vroom-Jaqo Model
      • helps gauge the appropriate amount of participation for subordinates
      • Participation Styles
      • employs five levels of subordinate
      • participation in decision making ranging from highly autocratic to highly democratic
      • Diagnostic Questions
      • decision participation depends on the responses to seven diagnostic questions
      • questions deal with the problem the required level of decision quality, and the importance of
    • New Approaches To Decision Making Engange in constructive conflict Build collective intuition Learn don’t punish Know when to bail Practice the Five Ways