Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch20


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Research Methods
William G. Zikmund

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Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch20

  1. 1. Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 20:Basic Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics
  2. 2. Descriptive Analysis• The transformation of raw data into a form that will make them easy to understand and interpret; rearranging, ordering, and manipulating data to generate descriptive information
  3. 3. Type of Type ofMeasurement descriptive analysis Frequency table Two Proportion (percentage) categories Nominal Frequency table Category proportions More than (percentages) two categories Mode
  4. 4. Type of Type ofMeasurement descriptive analysis Ordinal Rank order Median
  5. 5. Type of Type ofMeasurement descriptive analysis Interval Arithmetic mean
  6. 6. Type of Type ofMeasurement descriptive analysis Index numbers Ratio Geometric mean Harmonic mean
  7. 7. Tabulation• Tabulation - Orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format• Frequency table• Percentages
  8. 8. Frequency Table• The arrangement of statistical data in a row- and-column format that exhibits the count of responses or observations for each category assigned to a variable
  9. 9. Central Tendency Measure of Central Measure ofType of Scale Tendency DispersionNominal Mode NoneOrdinal Median PercentileInterval or ratio Mean Standard deviation
  10. 10. Cross-Tabulation• A technique for organizing data by groups, categories, or classes, thus facilitating comparisons; a joint frequency distribution of observations on two or more sets of variables• Contingency table- The results of a cross- tabulation of two variables, such as survey questions
  11. 11. Cross-Tabulation• Analyze data by groups or categories• Compare differences• Contingency table• Percentage cross-tabulations
  12. 12. Base• The number of respondents or observations (in a row or column) used as a basis for computing percentages
  13. 13. Elaboration and Refinement• Moderator variable – A third variable that, when introduced into an analysis, alters or has a contingent effect on the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable. – Spurious relationship • An apparent relationship between two variables that is not authentic.
  14. 14. Quadrant Analysis Tworatingscales 4 quadrants two-dimensional table Importance- Performance Analysis)
  15. 15. Data Transformation• Data conversion• Changing the original form of the data to a new format• More appropriate data analysis• New variables
  16. 16. Data Transformation Summative Score = VAR1 + VAR2 + VAR 3
  17. 17. Collapsing a Five-Point Scale• Strongly Agree • Strongly Agree/Agree• Agree • Neither Agree nor• Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree • Disagree/Strongly• Disagree Disagree• Strongly Disagree
  18. 18. Index Numbers• Score or observation recalibrated to indicate how it relates to a base number• CPI - Consumer Price Index
  19. 19. Calculating Rank Order• Ordinal data• Brand preferences
  20. 20. Tables• Bannerheads for columns• Studheads for rows
  21. 21. Charts and Graphs• Pie charts• Line graphs• Bar charts – Vertical – Horizontal
  22. 22. Line Graph
  23. 23. Bar Graph9080706050 East40 West30 North20100 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr
  24. 24. WebSurveyor Bar Chart How did you find your last job? 643 Netw orking 213 print ad Temporary agency 1.5 % 179 Online recruitment site 112 Placement firm 18 Temporary agency Placement firm 9.6 %Online recruitment site 15.4 % print ad 18.3 % Netw orking 55.2 % 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
  25. 25. Computer Programs• SPSS• SAS• SYSTAT• Microsoft Excel• WebSurveyor
  26. 26. Microsoft Excel -Data Analysis
  27. 27. The Paste Function ProvidesNumerous Statistical Operations
  28. 28. Computer Programs• Box and whisker plots• Interquartile range - midspread• Outlier
  29. 29. Interpretation• The process of making pertinent inferences and drawing conclusions• concerning the meaning and implications of a research investigation