Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch16


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Research Methods
William G. Zikmund

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Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch16

  1. 1. Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 16:Sample Designs and Sampling Procedures
  2. 2. Sampling Terminology• Sample• Population or universe• Population element• Census
  3. 3. Sample• Subset of a larger population
  4. 4. Population• Any complete group – People – Sales territories – Stores
  5. 5. Census• Investigation of all individual elements that make up a population
  6. 6. Stages in the Define the target populationSelectionof a Sample Select a sampling frame Determine if a probability or nonprobability sampling method will be chosen Plan procedure for selecting sampling units Determine sample size Select actual sampling units Conduct fieldwork
  7. 7. Target Population• Relevant population• Operationally define• Comic book reader?
  8. 8. Sampling Frame• A list of elements from which the sample may be drawn• Working population• Mailing lists - data base marketers• Sampling frame error
  9. 9. Sampling Units• Group selected for the sample• Primary Sampling Units (PSU)• Secondary Sampling Units• Tertiary Sampling Units
  10. 10. Random Sampling Error• The difference between the sample results and the result of a census conducted using identical procedures• Statistical fluctuation due to chance variations
  11. 11. Systematic Errors• Nonsampling errors• Unrepresentative sample results• Not due to chance• Due to study design or imperfections in execution
  12. 12. Errors Associated with Sampling• Sampling frame error• Random sampling error• Nonresponse error
  13. 13. Two Major Categories of Sampling• Probability sampling • Known, nonzero probability for every element• Nonprobability sampling • Probability of selecting any particular member is unknown
  14. 14. Nonprobability Sampling• Convenience• Judgment• Quota• Snowball
  15. 15. Probability Sampling• Simple random sample• Systematic sample• Stratified sample• Cluster sample• Multistage area sample
  16. 16. Convenience Sampling• Also called haphazard or accidental sampling• The sampling procedure of obtaining the people or units that are most conveniently available
  17. 17. Judgment Sampling• Also called purposive sampling• An experienced individual selects the sample based on his or her judgment about some appropriate characteristics required of the sample member
  18. 18. Quota Sampling• Ensures that the various subgroups in a population are represented on pertinent sample characteristics• To the exact extent that the investigators desire• It should not be confused with stratified sampling.
  19. 19. Snowball Sampling• A variety of procedures• Initial respondents are selected by probability methods• Additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents
  20. 20. Simple Random Sampling• A sampling procedure that ensures that each element in the population will have an equal chance of being included in the sample
  21. 21. Systematic Sampling• A simple process• Every nth name from the list will be drawn
  22. 22. Stratified Sampling• Probability sample• Subsamples are drawn within different strata• Each stratum is more or less equal on some characteristic• Do not confuse with quota sample
  23. 23. Cluster Sampling• The purpose of cluster sampling is to sample economically while retaining the characteristics of a probability sample.• The primary sampling unit is no longer the individual element in the population• The primary sampling unit is a larger cluster of elements located in proximity to one another
  24. 24. Examples of ClustersPopulation Element Possible Clusters in the United StatesU.S. adult population States Counties Metropolitan Statistical Area Census tracts Blocks Households
  25. 25. Examples of ClustersPopulation Element Possible Clusters in the United StatesCollege seniors CollegesManufacturing firms Counties Metropolitan Statistical Areas Localities Plants
  26. 26. Examples of ClustersPopulation Element Possible Clusters in the United StatesAirline travelers Airports PlanesSports fans Football stadiums Basketball arenas Baseball parks
  27. 27. What is the Appropriate Sample Design?• Degree of accuracy• Resources• Time• Advanced knowledge of the population• National versus local• Need for statistical analysis
  28. 28. Internet Sampling is Unique• Internet surveys allow researchers to rapidly reach a large sample.• Speed is both an advantage and a disadvantage.• Sample size requirements can be met overnight or almost instantaneously.• Survey should be kept open long enough so all sample units can participate.
  29. 29. Internet Sampling• Major disadvantage – lack of computer ownership and Internet access among certain segments of the population• Yet Internet samples may be representative of a target populations. – target population - visitors to a particular Web site.• Hard to reach subjects may participate
  30. 30. Web Site Visitors• Unrestricted samples are clearly convenience samples• Randomly selecting visitors• Questionnaire request randomly "pops up"• Over- representing the more frequent visitors
  31. 31. Panel Samples• Typically yield a high response rate – Members may be compensated for their time with a sweepstake or a small, cash incentive.• Database on members – Demographic and other information from previous questionnaires• Select quota samples based on product ownership, lifestyle, or other characteristics.• Probability Samples from Large Panels
  32. 32. Internet Samples• Recruited Ad Hoc Samples• Opt-in Lists