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BusinessResearch Methods  William G. Zikmund     Chapter 15:Questionnaire Design
“It is not every question that     deserves an answer.”                     Publius Syrus          (roman,1st century B.C.)
A QUESTIONNAIRE IS ONLY AS GOODAS THE QUESTIONS      IT ASKS
A Good Questionnaire Appears• As easy to compose as a good poem• But, it is usually the result of long,  painstaking work
The Major Decisions in        Questionnaire Design1. What should be asked?2. How should each question be phrased?3. In wha...
What Should Be Asked?• Questionnaire relevance• Questionnaire accuracy
Phrasing Questions• Open-ended questions• Fixed-alternative questions
Classifying Surveys   by Degree of Structure and Degree of Disguise                   Structured                        Un...
Developing a Questionnaire• No hard and fast rules• Only guidelines
• Avoid Complexity: use simple, conversational      language• Avoid leading and loaded questions• Avoid ambiguity: be as s...
1. Do you believe that private citizens have the right toown firearms to defend themselves, their families, andproperty fr...
2. Do you believe that a ban on the private ownershipof firearms would be significantly reduce the number ofmurders and ro...
1a. How many years have you been playing tennis on a regular basis?    Number of years: __________ b. What is your level o...
2a. Do you belong to a club with tennis facilities?   Yes . . . . . . .     -1                                            ...
Dear Passenger:American Airlines is pleased to have you on board today.To help us provide the best service possible, we ne...
1. Please indicate: Flight number ___________ Date_____________2a. At the city where you boarded this particular plane, di...
4. Please rate each of the following with regard to this flight, if applicable.                                           ...
Questionnaire Design• Question sequence  – Order bias  – Funnel technique  – Filter bias• Question layout
Pretesting is Important
Layout for Internet          Questionnaires• Graphical User Interface (GUI)• Paging layout going from screen to screen• Sc...
4 Common Question Displays       on a Computer Screen•   Radio button•   Drop-down box•   Check box•   Open-ended boxes
Software that Makes    Questionnaires Interactive• Boolean skip and branching logic  – hidden skip logic• Variable piping ...
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Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch15
Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch15
Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch15
Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch15
Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch15
Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch15
Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch15
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Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch15

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Research Methods
William G. Zikmund

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Transcript of "Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch15"

  1. 1. BusinessResearch Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 15:Questionnaire Design
  2. 2. “It is not every question that deserves an answer.” Publius Syrus (roman,1st century B.C.)
  3. 3. A QUESTIONNAIRE IS ONLY AS GOODAS THE QUESTIONS IT ASKS
  4. 4. A Good Questionnaire Appears• As easy to compose as a good poem• But, it is usually the result of long, painstaking work
  5. 5. The Major Decisions in Questionnaire Design1. What should be asked?2. How should each question be phrased?3. In what sequence should the questions be arranged?4. What questionnaire layout will best serve the research objectives?5. How should the questionnaire be pretested? Does the questionnaire need to be revised?
  6. 6. What Should Be Asked?• Questionnaire relevance• Questionnaire accuracy
  7. 7. Phrasing Questions• Open-ended questions• Fixed-alternative questions
  8. 8. Classifying Surveys by Degree of Structure and Degree of Disguise Structured Unstructured Example: Example: Typical descriptive survey Survey with open-endedUndisguised with straight-forward, structured questions questions to discover “new” answers or focus group interview Example: Example: Disguised Survey interview to measure Projection techniques used brand A’s image versus mostly for exploratory research competitive brands’ images or brand recall (unaided recall)
  9. 9. Developing a Questionnaire• No hard and fast rules• Only guidelines
  10. 10. • Avoid Complexity: use simple, conversational language• Avoid leading and loaded questions• Avoid ambiguity: be as specific as possible• Avoid double-barreled items• Avoid making assumptions• Avoid burdensome questions
  11. 11. 1. Do you believe that private citizens have the right toown firearms to defend themselves, their families, andproperty from violent criminal attack? Yes No Undecided
  12. 12. 2. Do you believe that a ban on the private ownershipof firearms would be significantly reduce the number ofmurders and robberies in your community? Yes No Undecided
  13. 13. 1a. How many years have you been playing tennis on a regular basis? Number of years: __________ b. What is your level of play?Novice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1 Advanced . . . . . . . -4Lower Intermediate . . . . . -2 Expert . . . . . . . . . -5Upper Intermediate . . . . . -3 Teaching Pro . . . . -6 c. In the last 12 months, has your level of play improved, remained the same or decreased?Improved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1 Decreased. . . . . . . -3Remained the same . . . . . -2
  14. 14. 2a. Do you belong to a club with tennis facilities? Yes . . . . . . . -1 No . . . . . . . -2 b. How many people in your household - including yourself - play tennis? Number who play tennis ___________3a. Why do you play tennis? (Please “X” all that apply.) To have fun . . . . . . . . . . -1 To stay fit. . . . . . . . . . . . -2 To be with friends. . . . . . -3 To improve my game . . . -4 To compete. . . . . . . . . . . -5 To win. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -6 b. In the past 12 months, have you purchased any tennis instructional books or video tapes? Yes . . . . . . . -1 No . . . . . . . -2
  15. 15. Dear Passenger:American Airlines is pleased to have you on board today.To help us provide the best service possible, we need to knowmore about you and your opinions of our service. If you areover 11 years old, we would appreciate it if you would completethis questionnaire.Your flight attendant will pick up your completed questionnaireshortly.Thank you.
  16. 16. 1. Please indicate: Flight number ___________ Date_____________2a. At the city where you boarded this particular plane, did you make aconnection from another flight? Yes, from American . . . . 1 Yes, from Other Airline . . 2 No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 b. Did you board this plane at the airport from which it just took off, orwere you a through passenger for which that was an intermediate stop? Boarded here . . . . . . . . . . 1 Through passenger. . . . . . 23. How would you rate the overall service from American for this flight,all things considered, from your arrival at the airport terminal until now? Excellent Good Fair PoorOverall Service . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 4
  17. 17. 4. Please rate each of the following with regard to this flight, if applicable. Excellent Good Fair Poor 1 2 3 4 Courtesy and Treatment from the: Skycap at airport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Airport Ticket Counter Agent . . . . . Boarding Point (Gate) Agent . . . . . Flight Attendants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your Meal or Snack. . . . . . . . . . . . . Beverage Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seat Comfort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carry-On Stowage Space. . . . . . . . Cabin Cleanliness . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video/Stereo Entertainment . . . . . . On-Time Departure . . . . . . . . . . . .
  18. 18. Questionnaire Design• Question sequence – Order bias – Funnel technique – Filter bias• Question layout
  19. 19. Pretesting is Important
  20. 20. Layout for Internet Questionnaires• Graphical User Interface (GUI)• Paging layout going from screen to screen• Scrolling layout gives the respondent the ability to scroll down• Push buttons• Status bar
  21. 21. 4 Common Question Displays on a Computer Screen• Radio button• Drop-down box• Check box• Open-ended boxes
  22. 22. Software that Makes Questionnaires Interactive• Boolean skip and branching logic – hidden skip logic• Variable piping software• Error trapping - forced answering software• Interactive help desks
  23. 23. WebSurveyor
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