BusinessResearch Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 14:Attitude Measurement
Attitude An enduring disposition toconsistently respond in a given matter
Attitudes as Hypothetical Constructs• The term hypothetical construct is used to describe a variable that is not directly observable, but is measurable by an indirect means such as verbal expression or overt behavior - attitudes are considered to be such variables.
Three Components of an Attitude• Affective• Cognitive• Behavioral
AffectiveThe feelings or emotions toward an object
The Attitude Measuring ProcessRanking - Rank order preferenceRating - Estimates magnitude of a characteristicSorting - Arrange or classify conceptsChoice - Selection of preferred alternative
Ranking tasks require that therespondent rank order a smallnumber of objects in overallperformance on the basis of somecharacteristic or stimulus.
Rating asks the respondent to estimatethe magnitude of a characteristic, orquality, that an object possesses. Therespondent’s position on a scale(s) iswhere he or she would rate an object.
Sorting might present the respondent withseveral concepts typed on cards and requirethat the respondent arrange the cards into anumber of piles or otherwise classify theconcepts.
Choice between two or more alternatives isanother type of attitude measurement - it isassumed that the chosen object is preferredover the other.
Physiological measures of attitudes providea means of measuring attitudes withoutverbally questioning the respondent. forexample, galvanic skin responses, measureblood pressure etc.
Simple Attitude Scaling• In its most basic form, attitude scaling requires that an individual agree with a statement or respond to a single question. This type of self-rating scale merely classifies respondents into one of two categories;
Simplified Scaling ExampleTHE PRESIDENT SHOULD RUN FOR RE-ELECTION_______ AGREE ______ DISAGREE
Category ScalesA category scale is a more sensitivemeasure than a scale having only tworesponse categories - it provides moreinformation.Questions working is an extremelyimportant factor in the usefulness of thesescales.
Example of Category ScaleHow important were the following in your decision to visit SanDiego (check one for each item) VERY SOMEWHAT NOT TOO IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANTCLIMATE ___________ ___________ ___________COST OF TRAVEL ___________ ___________ ___________FAMILY ORIENTED ___________ ___________ ___________EDUCATIONAL/HISTORICAL ASPECTS _________ ___________ ___________FAMILIARITY WITHAREA ___________ ___________ ___________
Method of Summated Ratings: The Likert Scale• An extremely popular means for measuring attitudes. Respondents indicate their own attitudes by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with statements.• Response alternatives: “strongly agree”, “agree”, “uncertain”, “disagree”, and “strongly disagree”.
Likert Scale for Measuring Attitudes Toward TennisIt is more fun to play a tough, competitive tennis match tan to play an easy one.___Strongly Agree___Agree___Not Sure___Disagree___Strongly Disagree
Likert Scale for Measuring Attitudes Toward TennisThere is really no such thing as a tennis stroke that cannot be mastered.___Strongly Agree___Agree___Not Sure___Disagree___Strongly Disagree
Likert Scale for Measuring Attitudes Toward TennisPlaying tennis is a great way to exercise.___Strongly Agree___Agree___Not Sure___Disagree___Strongly Disagree
Semantic Differential• A series of seven-point bipolar rating scales. Bipolar adjectives, such as “good” and “bad”, anchor both ends (or poles) of the scale.
Semantic Differential• A weight is assigned to each position on the rating scale. Traditionally, scores are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3.
Numerical Scales• Numerical scales have numbers as response options, rather than “semantic space’ or verbal descriptions, to identify categories (response positions).
Stapel Scales• Modern versions of the Stapel scale place a single adjective as a substitute for the semantic differential when it is difficult to create pairs of bipolar adjectives.• The advantage and disadvantages of a Stapel scale, as well as the results, are very similar to those for a semantic differential. However, the Stapel scale tends to be easier to conduct and administer.
A Stapel Scale for Measuring a Store’s Image Department Store Name +3 +2 +1Wide Selection -1 -2 -3
Select a plus number for words that you thinkdescribe the store accurately. the more accuratelyyou think the work describes the store, the largerthe plus number you should choose. Select aminus number for words you think do not describethe store accurately. The less accurately you thinkthe word describes the store, the large the minusnumber you should choose, therefore, you canselect any number from +3 for words that youthink are very accurate all the way to -3 for wordsthat you think are very inaccurate.
Behavioral DifferentialThe behavioral differential instrument has been developed formeasuring the behavioral intentions of subjects towards anyobject or category of objects. A description of the object tobe judged is placed on the top of a sheet, and the subjectsindicate their behavioral intentions toward this object on aseries of scales. For example: A 25-year old woman sales representativeWould ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Would Not Ask this person for advice.
Paired ComparisonsIn paired comparisons the respondents are presented with two objects at a time and asked to pick the one they prefer. Ranking objects with respect to one attribute is not difficult if only a few products are compared, but as the number of items increases, the number of comparisons increases geometrically (n*(n -1)/2). If the number of comparisons is too great, respondents may fatigue and no longer carefully discriminate among them.
Divide 100 points among each of thefollowing brands according to yourpreference for the brand:Brand A _________Brand B _________Brand C _________
Graphic Rating Scale StressingPictorial Visual Communications 3 2 1 Very Very Good Poor
Monadic Rating ScaleA Monadic Rating Scale asks about a single conceptNow that you’ve had your automobile for about 1 year, please tell us howsatisfied you are with its engine power and pickup.Completely Very Fairly Well Somewhat VerySatisfied Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Dissatisfied
A Comparative Rating ScaleA Comparative Rating Scale asks respondents to rate a concept bycomparing it with a benchmarkPlease indicate how the amount of authority in your present positioncompares with the amount of authority that would be ideal for this position. TOO MUCH ABOUT RIGHT TOO LITTLE
An Unbalanced ScaleAn Unbalanced Scale has more responses distributed at one end of thescaleHow satisfied are you with the bookstore in the Student Union? Neither Satisfied Quite VerySatisfied Nor Dissatisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied