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Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch09
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Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch09

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Research Methods …

Research Methods
William G. Zikmund

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  • 1. BusinessResearch Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 9: Survey Research
  • 2. SurveysSurveys ask respondents for informationusing verbal or written questioning
  • 3. RespondentsRespondents are arepresentativesample of people
  • 4. Gathering Information via Surveys• Quick• Inexpensive• Efficient• Accurate• Flexible
  • 5. Problems• Poor Design• Improper Execution
  • 6. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Random sampling errorTotalerror Systematic error (bias)
  • 7. Random Sampling Error• A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of change variation in the elements selected for the sample
  • 8. Systematic Error• Systematic error results from some imperfect aspect of the research design or from a mistake in the execution of the research
  • 9. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Administrative errorSystematicerror (bias) Respondent error
  • 10. Sample Bias• Sample bias - when the results of a sample show a persistent tendency to deviate in one direction from the true value of the population parameter
  • 11. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Nonresponse errorRespondenterror Response bias
  • 12. Respondent Error• A classification of sample bias resulting from some respondent action or inaction • Nonresponse bias • Response bias
  • 13. Nonresponse Error• Nonrespondents - people who refuse to cooperate• Not-at-homes• Self-selection bias • Over-represents extreme positions • Under-represents indifference
  • 14. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Deliberate falsificationResponsebias Unconscious misrepresentation
  • 15. Response Bias• A bias that occurs when respondents tend to answer questions with a certain slant that consciously or unconsciously misrepresents the truth
  • 16. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Acquiescence bias Extremity bias Interviewer bias Auspices bias Social desirability bias
  • 17. Acquiescence Bias• A category of response bias that results because some individuals tend to agree with all questions or to concur with a particular position.
  • 18. Extremity Bias• A category of response bias that results because response styles vary from person to person; some individuals tend to use extremes when responding to questions.
  • 19. Interviewer Bias• A response bias that occurs because the presence of the interviewer influences answers.
  • 20. Auspices Bias• Bias in the responses of subjects caused by the respondents being influenced by the organization conducting the study.
  • 21. Social Desirability Bias• Bias in responses caused by respondents’ desire, either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige or appear in a different social role.
  • 22. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Administrative errorSystematicerror (bias) Respondent error
  • 23. Administrative Error• Improper administration of the research task• Blunders • Confusion • Neglect • Omission
  • 24. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Data processing error Sample selection error Interviewer error Interviewer cheating
  • 25. Administrative Error• Interviewer cheating - filling in fake answers or falsifying interviewers• Data processing error - incorrect data entry, computer programming, or other procedural errors during the analysis stage.• Sample selection error -improper sample design or sampling procedure execution.• Interviewer error - field mistakes
  • 26. C L A S S IF Y IN G SU R VEY R ESEAR C H M ETH O D S M ETH O D STR U C TU R ED TEM PO R AL O F A N D D IS Q U IS E D C L A S S IF IC A T IO N SC O M M U N IC A T IO N Q U E S T IO N S
  • 27. Time Period for Surveys• Cross-sectional• Longitudinal
  • 28. Cross-Sectional Study• A study in which various segments of a population are sampled• Data are collected at a single moment in time.
  • 29. Longitudinal Study• A survey of respondents at different times, thus allowing analysis of changes over time.• Tracking study - compare trends and identify changes – consumer satisfaction
  • 30. Consumer Panel• A longitudinal survey of the same sample of individuals or households to record (in a diary) their attitudes, behavior, or purchasing habits over time.
  • 31. Total Quality Management and Customer Satisfaction Surveys• Total quality management - A business philosophy that emphasizes market-driven quality as a top organizational priority.
  • 32. Stages in Tracking Quality Improvement Initial ContinuousCommitment Bench- quality Qualityand marking improve- ImprovementExploration ment
  • 33. Commitment and Exploration Stage• Management makes a commitment to total quality assurance• Business researchers explore external customers’ needs and problems.• Business researchers explore internal customers’ needs, beliefs, and motivations.
  • 34. Benchmarking Stage• Research establishes quantitative measures as benchmarks or points of comparison• Overall satisfaction and quality ratings of specific attributes• Employees actual performance and perceptions
  • 35. Initial Quality Improvement Stage • Tracking wave 1 measures trends • Establishes a quality improvement process within the organization. • Translate quality issues into the internal vocabulary of the organization. • Establish performance standards and expectations for improvement.
  • 36. Continuous Quality Improvement• Consists of many consecutive waves with the same purpose—to improve over the previous period.• Quality improvement management continues.
  • 37. Determinants of the Quality of Goods• Performance• Features• Conformance with specifications• Reliability• Durability• Serviceability• Aesthetic design
  • 38. Determinants of Service Quality• Access• Communication• Competence• Courtesy• Reliability• Credibility

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