Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch09

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Research Methods
William G. Zikmund

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Research Methods William G. Zikmund, Ch09

  1. 1. BusinessResearch Methods William G. Zikmund Chapter 9: Survey Research
  2. 2. SurveysSurveys ask respondents for informationusing verbal or written questioning
  3. 3. RespondentsRespondents are arepresentativesample of people
  4. 4. Gathering Information via Surveys• Quick• Inexpensive• Efficient• Accurate• Flexible
  5. 5. Problems• Poor Design• Improper Execution
  6. 6. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Random sampling errorTotalerror Systematic error (bias)
  7. 7. Random Sampling Error• A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of change variation in the elements selected for the sample
  8. 8. Systematic Error• Systematic error results from some imperfect aspect of the research design or from a mistake in the execution of the research
  9. 9. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Administrative errorSystematicerror (bias) Respondent error
  10. 10. Sample Bias• Sample bias - when the results of a sample show a persistent tendency to deviate in one direction from the true value of the population parameter
  11. 11. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Nonresponse errorRespondenterror Response bias
  12. 12. Respondent Error• A classification of sample bias resulting from some respondent action or inaction • Nonresponse bias • Response bias
  13. 13. Nonresponse Error• Nonrespondents - people who refuse to cooperate• Not-at-homes• Self-selection bias • Over-represents extreme positions • Under-represents indifference
  14. 14. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Deliberate falsificationResponsebias Unconscious misrepresentation
  15. 15. Response Bias• A bias that occurs when respondents tend to answer questions with a certain slant that consciously or unconsciously misrepresents the truth
  16. 16. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Acquiescence bias Extremity bias Interviewer bias Auspices bias Social desirability bias
  17. 17. Acquiescence Bias• A category of response bias that results because some individuals tend to agree with all questions or to concur with a particular position.
  18. 18. Extremity Bias• A category of response bias that results because response styles vary from person to person; some individuals tend to use extremes when responding to questions.
  19. 19. Interviewer Bias• A response bias that occurs because the presence of the interviewer influences answers.
  20. 20. Auspices Bias• Bias in the responses of subjects caused by the respondents being influenced by the organization conducting the study.
  21. 21. Social Desirability Bias• Bias in responses caused by respondents’ desire, either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige or appear in a different social role.
  22. 22. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Administrative errorSystematicerror (bias) Respondent error
  23. 23. Administrative Error• Improper administration of the research task• Blunders • Confusion • Neglect • Omission
  24. 24. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Data processing error Sample selection error Interviewer error Interviewer cheating
  25. 25. Administrative Error• Interviewer cheating - filling in fake answers or falsifying interviewers• Data processing error - incorrect data entry, computer programming, or other procedural errors during the analysis stage.• Sample selection error -improper sample design or sampling procedure execution.• Interviewer error - field mistakes
  26. 26. C L A S S IF Y IN G SU R VEY R ESEAR C H M ETH O D S M ETH O D STR U C TU R ED TEM PO R AL O F A N D D IS Q U IS E D C L A S S IF IC A T IO N SC O M M U N IC A T IO N Q U E S T IO N S
  27. 27. Time Period for Surveys• Cross-sectional• Longitudinal
  28. 28. Cross-Sectional Study• A study in which various segments of a population are sampled• Data are collected at a single moment in time.
  29. 29. Longitudinal Study• A survey of respondents at different times, thus allowing analysis of changes over time.• Tracking study - compare trends and identify changes – consumer satisfaction
  30. 30. Consumer Panel• A longitudinal survey of the same sample of individuals or households to record (in a diary) their attitudes, behavior, or purchasing habits over time.
  31. 31. Total Quality Management and Customer Satisfaction Surveys• Total quality management - A business philosophy that emphasizes market-driven quality as a top organizational priority.
  32. 32. Stages in Tracking Quality Improvement Initial ContinuousCommitment Bench- quality Qualityand marking improve- ImprovementExploration ment
  33. 33. Commitment and Exploration Stage• Management makes a commitment to total quality assurance• Business researchers explore external customers’ needs and problems.• Business researchers explore internal customers’ needs, beliefs, and motivations.
  34. 34. Benchmarking Stage• Research establishes quantitative measures as benchmarks or points of comparison• Overall satisfaction and quality ratings of specific attributes• Employees actual performance and perceptions
  35. 35. Initial Quality Improvement Stage • Tracking wave 1 measures trends • Establishes a quality improvement process within the organization. • Translate quality issues into the internal vocabulary of the organization. • Establish performance standards and expectations for improvement.
  36. 36. Continuous Quality Improvement• Consists of many consecutive waves with the same purpose—to improve over the previous period.• Quality improvement management continues.
  37. 37. Determinants of the Quality of Goods• Performance• Features• Conformance with specifications• Reliability• Durability• Serviceability• Aesthetic design
  38. 38. Determinants of Service Quality• Access• Communication• Competence• Courtesy• Reliability• Credibility

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