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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION The presence of contaminants into the Natural Environment that has harmful or poisonous effects and causes adverse change in the Environment, is called Pollution. Dumping of Polluted Water in Water Bodies Air Pollution caused by Industries
  2. 2. Types Of Pollution According to the Worldwide Pollution Control Association, there are 4 main categories of Pollution. They are :Air Pollution Water Pollution Noise Pollution Soil Pollution
  3. 3. Sources and Effects of Air Pollution There are many sources of Air Pollution. Naturally, the sources of Air Pollution are Volcanic Eruptions, Forest Fires, Dust Storms. But, the main sources of Air Pollution is Human-made Sources, Smoke and Gases from the Factories and Thermal Power Plants, Exhaust from Automobiles, Suspended Particulate Matter from Mining, Power Plants and Agriculture.
  4. 4. 1. Exhaust from Combustion Engines While modes of transportation such as cars, ships and planes have made people’s lives easier, they are also some of the biggest causes of air pollution. Emissions from vehicular combustion engines contain gaseous oxide, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide, all of which contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer. With a thinner ozone layer, the earth will gradually succumb to sweltering heat. The melting of the polar ice caps and the rise of sea levels are just some of the jeopardizing effects of air pollution-induced global warming. Apart from environmental damage, air pollution also causes a variety of illnesses such as impaired vision, reduced brain function, lung cancer, and in some cases, death.
  5. 5. 2. Use of Coal and Fossil Fuels Factories, power-generating establishments, offices, even homes, utilize fossil fuels and coals for power or heat. Even though beneficial, coal and fossil fuels contribute to air pollution and smog. They also damage structures and hasten the oxidation of iron. Add to that, they can cause harm on plants, which significantly reduces oxygen supply on earth.Petroleum releases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide into the air, which, when inhaled, can lead to illnesses. It also contains hydrocarbons, which bind to nitrous oxide in the presence of sunlight to create ozone. While the ozone layer technically protects the earth from the ultraviolet rays of the sun, it also gives way to the production of smog
  6. 6. 3. Fertilizer Dust Fertilizers are useful for farmers as they accelerate the growth of crops and plants. Nonetheless, the accumulation of fertilizer dust (even those made from organic ingredients) can give way to the production of ammonia and nitrogen oxide, both of which contribute to global warming and harmful acid rain. Such pollution also yields methane, a greenhouse gas. With the presence of high amounts of methane in the atmosphere, the heat that should have been radiated back to the atmosphere are bounced back to earth, keeping the earth insulated.
  7. 7. 4. Mining Operations Operations, like mining and truck traffic, are some of the top causes of air pollution. These activities release carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide into the air, all of which contribute to development of smog and various health problems. Apart from these emissions, gold mines also release mercury particulates to the atmosphere. In excess amounts, mercury inhalation can lead to sensation disturbances, muscle weakness, respiratory problems, certain cancers, even death.
  8. 8. 5. Chemical Pesticides Pesticides are very helpful for farmers as they keep vermin, bacteria, and fungi that destroy their crops at bay. However, use of pesticides, especially those made from chemicals, also wreaks air pollution. Air pollution caused by pesticides can be fatal for animal, birds, even marine life, especially if the emissions already infiltrate their food sources. Apart from its contributory effects on air pollution, pesticides Actually damage plant’s health in the long run. Incessant use of chemical pesticides leads to decreased plant production and pollination, which then results in lower crop yields.
  9. 9. 6. Power Lines Just because power lines don’t emit visible smoke, it does not mean that they are not among the causes of air pollution. In fact, high voltage lines, especially those located near polluted cities, attract air that contains harmful particulates. The electricity running through the lines results in the charging or the ionization of the air. When inhaled by humans, ionized air significantly increases the level free radicals in the body. These free radicals in the body bring about tissue damage, aging, even the development of certain cancers.
  10. 10. 7. Radioactive Fallout Radioactive sources yield high amounts of energy, as well as harmful quantities of sulfur dioxide and several heavy metals into the air. In highly-industrialized cities, air pollution from radioactive fallout have been proven to create numerous environmental concerns, such as defoliation, deformation and undergrowth damage in trees, to name a few. Apart from its impact on the environment, , radioactive air pollution also endangers human health. Perhaps the most infamous case of radioactive fallout is that of Chernobyl in Ukraine, wherein the survivors of the nuclear meltdown developed cancers and a variety of respiratory ailments after inhaling emissions coming from the nuclear plant.
  11. 11. 8. Indoor Pollution Outdoor air pollution causes contribute to a number of contaminants in the Atmosphere. It should be noted though that indoor air pollution also plays a major role in the worsening air quality around the world. Urban infrastructures are usually afflicted with a condition Called “Sick Building Syndrome.” In this case, fumes from household chemicals, VOCs from paint, and other substances get trapped in the building because of the lack of ventilation. These fumes can cause a variety of health problems for its homeowners, tenants, or visitors. Televisions and Computer Screens emit certain harmful rays and vibrations, which also effects human health.
  12. 12. Sources and Effects of Water Pollution There are many sources of Water Pollution. There are many less Natural Sources, but mainly Human-made Sources. The main problem of Water Pollution is consumption of Polluted Water causes several diseases in Human Beings and Animals. The main sources of Water Pollution are Household Drains and Sewage, Industrial Waste, Offshore Oil Drilling, Thermal Pollution.
  13. 13. The different sources of Water Pollution
  14. 14. 1. Domestic Drain and Sewage Domestic household practices produce wastewater that can cause pollution of many lakes and rivers. The discharged water has many soluble and insoluble, organic and inorganic matter. This includes Detergents, Toxic Metals, Chemicals and even Pathogens. Sewage is the term used for wastewater that often contains faeces, urine and laundry waste. Untreated sewage water in areas can contaminate the environment and cause diseases such as Diarrhea and Typhoid. It is estimated that about 75%, Domestic Drain and Sewage are the main pollutants of Water.
  15. 15. 2. Industrial Waste The industrial wastes are the most harmful of all the water Pollutants, as they contain Toxic Metals like Lead, Mercury, Zinc, Copper, Chromium and Cadmium. They also contain Toxic NonMetals like Arsenic, Acids, Alkalis, Cellulose Fibers, Coloring and Bleaching Materials and Petrochemicals. This Pollutants are discharged continuously in the Water Bodies. The presence of the Industrial Waste in Water makes it unfit and harmful for Drinking, Bathing, Cooking, Irrigational Purposes and Industrial Purposes.
  16. 16. Effects of Toxic Metals and Non-Metals released in Industrial Waste TOXIC METALS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON HEALTH TOXIC NON-METALS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON HEALTH 1. Lead: Damages Nervous System, Kidneys, Liver and Brains. 1. Arsenic: Liver Cirrhosis, Lung Cancer, Kidney Damage, Gastrointestinal Disorder and Skin Problems. 2. Mercury: Abdominal Problems, Headache, Chest Pain and Diarrhea. 2. Asbestos: Asbestosis, Mesothelioma, Lung cancer, Intestinal cancer and Liver cancer. 3. Zinc: Renal Damage and Vomiting. 3. Nitrates: Eutrophication, Damage to Marine Life 4. Copper: Hypertension, Dizziness And Drowsiness. 4. Oils: It forms a thick layer on the water surface. This stops marine plants receiving enough light for photosynthesis. 5. Chromium: Cancer, Disorder of Nervous 5. Petrochemicals: This is formed from System. gas or petrol and can be toxic to marine life.
  17. 17. 3. Offshore Oil Drilling The beds of Oceans and Seas have reserves of Mineral Oil and Natural Gas. In the last 50 years, the pollution of Oceans and Seas have increased many times. The pollution is mainly due to the loss of Oil during off-shore exploration, Oil Drilling and Extraction of Mineral Gas, Oil from underwater pipelines, and Oil Spills from Oil Tankers. Oil spills make up about 12% of the oil that enters the ocean. The rest come from shipping travel, drains and dumping. Oil cannot dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge in the water. This suffocates fish, it gets stick to the feathers of marine birds, stopping them from flying and blocks light for photosynthesis of aquatic plants.
  18. 18. Case Study: IXTOC 1 OIL SPILL It was an oil platform called IXTOC 1 which was in the Gulf of Mexico about 600 miles south of Texas in the Bay of Campeche. The accident occurred June 3, 1979 when a two-mile exploratory well blew out. The IXTOC 1 accident is considered the world's second worst oil spill with 140 million gallons of oil released into the waters. The worst was the oil spill into the Persian Gulf as a result of the 1991 Gulf War against Iraq when Iraqi troops opened the Kuwaiti Oil Field Valves which allowed as much as an estimated 520 million gallons of crude to flow into the Gulf. It took nearly 10 months for the responders to stop the oil from flowing in the IXTOC 1 accident. And the well only about 164 feet of water. That allowed divers to be sent down to cap the well and stop the flowage of Oil. Volume 3 million barrels (130,000,000 US gallons; 480,000 [1] cubic meters) Area 2,800 km (1,100 sq mi) Shoreline impacted 261 km (162 mi) 2
  19. 19. Statistics On IXTOC 1 Oil Spill
  20. 20. 4. Agricultural Wastes The excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers and pesticides is very harmful for human beings due to high levels of nitrates and phosphates. They contaminate the water. This nutrients reach the Water bodies like Lakes and Ponds, and cause “Eutrophication”. Eutrophication is when the environment becomes enriched with nutrients. Fertilizers run-off into nearby water bodies cause an increase in nutrient levels. This causes phytoplankton to grow and reproduce more rapidly, resulting in algal blooms. This bloom of algae disrupts normal ecosystem functioning and causes many problems. The algae may use up all the oxygen in the water, leaving none for other marine life. This results in the death of many aquatic organisms such as Fish. The bloom of algae may also block sunlight from photosynthetic marine plants under the water surface.
  21. 21. 5. Thermal Pollution Most of the large-scale Industrial Unit, Thermal Power Plants, Nuclear Power Plants and Oil Refineries are located along the banks of Rivers. These Industries use large quantities of Fresh Water for cooling purposes. The hot water is generally discharged in the rivers. This increases the temperature of the river about 10 °C, and this leads to thermal pollution of water. The increase in temperature of river water also decreases the level of dissolved oxygen, resulting in release of foul and toxic gases.
  22. 22. Sources of Noise Pollution Sound is essential to our daily lives, but noise is not. Noise is generally used as an unwanted sound, or sound which produces unpleasant effects and discomfort on the ears. Sound becomes unwanted when it either interferes with normal activities such as sleeping, conversation, or disrupts or diminishes one’s quality of life. Not all noise can be called noise pollution. If it does not happen regularly, it may be termed as 'Nuisance' Scientists also believe that its not only humans who are affected. For example, water animals are subjected to noise by submarines and big ships on the ocean, and chain-saw operations by timber companies also create extreme noise to animals in the forests.
  23. 23. The annoyance due to Noise Pollution may not be related to the intensity of sound. Loud Music may be liked by some people, while even a feeble sound by irritate a sick person. Noise is mainly a feature of Modern Society and is a problem of City Dwellers and Industrial Workers. Noise (or sound) is measured in the units of decibels and is denoted by the ‘dB’. Noise which is more than 115 dB is intolerant. The industrial limit of sound in the industries must be 75 dB according to the World Health Organization. Noise is considered as environmental pollution, even though it is thought to have less damage on humans than water, air or land pollution. But people who are affected by severe noise pollution know that it is a massive issue that needs attention.
  24. 24. 1. Household Sources Gadgets like Food Mixer, Grinder, Vacuum Cleaner, Cooler, Air Conditioners, can be very noisy and injurious to health. Others include Loud Speakers of Sound Systems and TVs, iPods and Ear phones. Your neighbor’s dog barking all night everyday at every shadow it sees, disturbing everyone else in the apartment, is also a cause of noise pollution.
  25. 25. 2. Social Events Places of Worship, Discos and Parties and other Social Events also create a lot of noise for the people living in that area. In many market areas, people sell with loud speakers, others shout out offers and try to get customers to buy their goods. This is also a cause of Noise Pollution.
  26. 26. 3. Commercial and Industrial Activities Printing Presses, Manufacturing Industries, Construction Sites, contribute to noise pollutions in large cities. In many industries, it is a requirement that people always wear earplugs or noise-proof gadgets to minimize their exposure to heavy noise.
  27. 27. 4. Transportation Aero planes flying over houses close to busy airports like Heathrow (London) or O'Hare (Chicago) or Mumbai(India), over ground and underground trains, vehicles on road—these constantly make a lot of noise and people always struggle to cope with them.
  28. 28. Effects of Noise Pollution Generally, problems caused by noise pollution include stress related illnesses, speech interference, hearing loss, sleep disruption, and lost productivity. Most importantly, there are two major effects are: Hearing The immediate and acute effect of noise pollution to a person, over a period of time, is impairment of hearing. Prolonged exposure to impulsive noise to a person will damage their eardrum, which may result in a permanent hearing. Effects on general health Health effects of noise include anxiety and stress reaction and in extreme cases fright. The physiological manifestations are headaches, irritability and nervousness, feeling of fatigue and decreases work efficiency.
  29. 29. Sources and Effects of Soil Pollution During the last 50 years, the human activities such as the use of Agro-Chemicals, Dumping of Wastes, Urbanization, Industrialization and many more, have resulted in the degradation of Soil Fertility and its Composition. Soil Pollution is the decrease in Soil Quality and Fertility due to the presence of Toxic Chemicals from various sources. Some of the sources are: 1. Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides 2. Industrial Waste 3. Urban and Commercial Waste 4. Radioactive Sources
  30. 30. 1. Agricultural Wastes Plants on which we depend for food are under attack from insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses, rodents and other animals. To kill unwanted populations living on their crops, farmers use pesticides. The remnants of such pesticides used on pests may get adsorbed by the soil particles and contaminates soil. The consumption of such crops causes the pesticides remnants to enter human biological systems, affecting them adversely. Excessive use of Fertilizers reduces the fertility of the soil.
  31. 31. 2. Industrial Waste The Industrial Wastes are among the important causes of Soil Pollution. The Industrial Effluents discharged from the Industries are disposed by dumping in the Wastelands. The Industrial Waste is composed of Toxic Organic and Inorganic Chemicals and Heavy Metals. Most of the Industrial Waste is Non-Biodegradable, and thus remains in the soil for a longer period. They contaminate the soil, reduce the fertility of the Soil and change the Chemical Composition of the soil.
  32. 32. 3. Urban and Commercial Waste Urban activities generate large quantities of city wastes including several Biodegradable materials (like Vegetables, Animal Wastes, Papers, Wooden Pieces, Carcasses, Plant Twigs, Leaves, Cloth Wastes as well as Sweepings) and many non-biodegradable materials (such as Plastics, Glass, Stone/Cement Pieces). On a rough estimate Indian cities are producing solid city wastes of 50,000 - 80,000 metric tons every day. This waste are mostly Non-Biodegradable and don’t decompose in the Soil. They also harm the Soil Fertility.
  33. 33. 4. Radioactive Waste Ever since man discovered the Nuclear Power , it has been using it to consummate its need. But, the Nuclear Power has created Nuclear Waste. This Nuclear Waste is highly radioactive in nature. It can change the genetics of the Human Beings and the Animals. It emits certain radiations which damages the soil. If the Nuclear Waste is not disposed off correctly, then can cause dangerous consequences.
  34. 34. BIBLIOGRAPH Y 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. www.Wikipedia.com www.google.co.in/imghp www.water-pollution.org.uk www.eschooltoday.com Ratna Sagar’ ICSE Geography-IX
  35. 35. -By Mohamed Shafiq IX-C North Point School (ICSE)