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TaxonomyhistoryBy: Simon Galindo
Introduction TheTaxonomy is so important the early life because because it provides us with a way to classify, name and d...
 From   China One Emperator thanks to the Medicine herbal studies developled the first steps to identify,categorize and c...
“ The most important works are cited andthe progress of taxonomy (with the focus onbotanical taxonomy) are described up to...
 “Thedevelopment after Linnaeus is characterized by a taxonomy that increasingly have come to reflect the paradigm of evo...
 Theused characters have extended from morphological to molecular. Nomenclatural rules have developed strongly during the...
Taxonomy History EarliestTaxonomy. Herbalism. Early Taxonomists. Linnaen Era. Transforming botany and zoology into a ...
Definition of taxonomy Taxonomy   is the science of classificaying and also naming organism,following some rules develope...
EARLIEST TAXONOMY             By :             Mariana Bedoya             Matias Lopera
Earliest taxonomy    Taxonomy is as old as the language skill of    mankind. When we speak about ancient    taxonomy we us...
 However,  the earliest traces are not from the West, but from the East. Shen Nung, Emperor of China around 3000 BC He wa...
   Around 1500 BC medicinal plants were illustrated on    wall paintings in Egypt. The paintings gives us    knowledge ab...
 Inone of the oldest and largest papyrus rolls, Ebers Papyrus, plants are included as medicines for different diseases.
 1.2. The Greeks and Romans  Aristotle (384–322 BC)the Greek philosopher  was the first to classify all living things,  l...
   Carl Linnaeus accepted many of his generic    names.
 Theophrastus  (370–285 BC) was a student of Aristotle and Platon. He wrote a classification of all known plants, De Hist...
 Dioscorides (40–90 AD) was a greek physician, gathered knowledge about medicinal plants. Between 50-70 AD he wrote De Ma...
 Plinius (23–79 AD) He wrote many books, but  the only one that has survived is his Naturalis  Historia, a work of 160 vo...
 TheFather of Botanical Latin. Plinius died in Pompeii.
HerbalistBy: Simón Galindo Zuluaga
The Herbalists There  is usually not much of a  classification in the herbals, and the  earliest works were merely copyin...
Discorides Was a greek physician, who travelled widely in the Roman and Greek worldto gather knowledge about medicinal pl...
Discorides
Thephrastus was  a student of Aristotle and Platon. He  wrote a classification of all known  plants, De Historia Plantaru...
Thephrastus
Herbal medicine Called   botanical medicine or phytomedicin. Refersto using a plants seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark...
For what is good herbalmedicine? Herbal  medicine is used to treat many conditions, such as asthma, eczema, premenstrual ...
Benefits of herbal medicine The most beneficial contribution of Herbal Medicine to our body is the boosting up of its ene...
Bibliography http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/her bal-medicine-000351.htm
LINNAEANERABy: Sara Ferrer &Mikayla van den Brenk
STARTING POINT OF MODERNTAXONOMY     Fornomenclatural     reasons two works     of Carl Linnaeus     (1707–1778, Fig. 4) ...
 Theglobal flora Species Plantarum, publish ed in 1753 and the tenth edition of Systema Naturae in 1758 including global ...
 The  reason for this is that Linnaeus introduced in these books a binary form of species names called "trivial names" fo...
   For each species he    created an epithet    that could be used    together with the    genus name. The    trivial nam...
 The phrase names included a description of the species that distinguished it from other known species in the genus.
   With an expanded    knowledge of the    global fauna and    flora through 17th    and 18th century    scientific    ex...
 By the time of Linnaeus the situation was really bad. Linnaeus counted 8530 species of flowering plants in 1753.
Transforming botany and zoology           into a scienceCarl Linnaeus started his career by publishing a system of all liv...
Transforming botany and          zoology into a scienceIn a time when people debated whether plants had sexuality or not, ...
Transforming botany and zoology into a       scienceHowever, the practical use of thesystem and Linnaeus carefulobservatio...
Transforming botany and  zoology into a science                           1735   Carl Linnaeus                       Cam...
Transforming botany and zoology          into a scienceAfter a long life with a massive publication in the philosophyand p...
Post-LinnaeantaxonomyBy:Alberto AgudeloAlejandro CastañoDaniel Zapata
 The French scientific work, the development of anatomy and physiology and improved optical instruments made way for a ne...
  Natural system emerging in France One of the few countries in which the  Linnaean systematics did not make  success wa...
 TheFrench  stuck to Tournefourt and  continued to work on a development of  the natural system. Four French scientists ...
 Georges-Luise   Leclerc de Buffon (1707–1788) was a strong critic to Linnaeus work, and he found it wrong to impose an a...
 Hisapproach was to describe the world  rather than to classify it. His theories  touched upon development of  species, i...
 Michel  Adanson (1727–1806) wrote Familles des  Plantes already in 1763. He launched the idea that  in classification on...
 Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1748–1836) changed the system of plants with his Genera Plantarum in 1789, in which he launc...
 Hedivided the plants into acotyledons, monocotyledons and dicotyledons and established the family rank in between the ra...
 Jean-Baptistede Lamarck (1744–1829) launched an evolutionary theory including inheritance of acquired characters, named ...
 This     was foreboding the theory of  evolution presented by Charles Darwin  and Alfred Russel Wallace in 1858 in  Lond...
 Kuntzes         strict application of insufficient nomenclature laws and the nomenclatural mess he made triggered botani...
 In Europe this was decided on a botanical  congress in Vienna in 1905. During this  meeting the starting point for prior...
 In 1842 a British ornithologist Hugh Edwin  Strickland (1811–1853) elaborated the first  nomenclatural laws for zoology,...
 The latest botanical code decided upon in Vienna 2005 opens up for extended possibilities to reject or conserve plant na...
 Changes  in the zoological code are decided upon by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, elected by ...
By: paula castellanos,lauragomez y valentina molina
 Oneof the first attempts to create rules in botanical taxonomy was made by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778– 1841) in ...
 Therehe stated that published names should have priority according to the date of publication, starting with Linnaeus (w...
 TheEnglish did not follow that rule. On a congress in Paris, 100 botanists adopted the rules in a book by the son Alphon...
 Kuntzes         strict application of insufficient nomenclature laws and the nomenclatural mess he made triggered botani...
 In Europe this was decided on a botanical  congress in Vienna in 1905. During this  meeting the starting point for prior...
 In 1842 a British ornithologist Hugh Edwin  Strickland (1811–1853) elaborated the first  nomenclatural laws for zoology,...
 The latest botanical code decided upon in Vienna 2005 opens up for extended possibilities to reject or conserve plant na...
 Changes  in the zoological code are decided upon by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, elected by ...
phenetics tophylogeniesBy: MATEO ZULUAGA ANDJOHNATHAN LEON
 theory in 1858. However, this did not affect systematics in the beginning. Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919) and August Wilhelm ...
 The    systems of plants and animals were now huge, in flowering plants approaching a quarter of a million species.
The German biologist Willi   Hennig The German biologist Willi Hennig (1913– 1976) founded the cladistic era in 1966, by ...
 The new method, called cladistics, was controversial, and it took around 20 years before it started to become establishe...
 With the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which made it economically possible to amplify DNA- sequences...
References   http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/chinese/emperors.html   Picture of Ebers papyrus   http://www.ub.uni-    leipzi...
PhyloCode            By: Juan Gustavo Montoya
 With the breakthrough of cladistics analysis and constructions of phylogenetic hypotheses, the taxonomy built on the Lin...
 Two   zoologists from USA, Kevin de  Queiroz and Jacques  Gauthier, started the discussions in the  1990s and laid the t...
   The PhyloCode    reflects a    philosophical shift    from naming    species and    subsequently    classifying them  ...
 The   main idea with the PhyloCode is that  only species and clades should have  names, and that all ranks above species...
The   PhyloCode is still only a draft, it is controversial, and has led to a worldwide and very interesting debate.Its s...
Bibliography http://www.ohiou.edu/phylocode/
Taxonomy original
Taxonomy original
Taxonomy original
Taxonomy original
Taxonomy original
Taxonomy original
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  1. 1. TaxonomyhistoryBy: Simon Galindo
  2. 2. Introduction TheTaxonomy is so important the early life because because it provides us with a way to classify, name and describe all organisms. It also helps to determine which areas need protection based on its inhabitants.
  3. 3.  From China One Emperator thanks to the Medicine herbal studies developled the first steps to identify,categorize and classify the living things specially the plants.Following this ideas and with neweones Ancient Greeks and Romanas…….
  4. 4. “ The most important works are cited andthe progress of taxonomy (with the focus onbotanical taxonomy) are described up tothe era of the Swedish botanist CarlLinnaeus, who founded modern taxonomy.”
  5. 5.  “Thedevelopment after Linnaeus is characterized by a taxonomy that increasingly have come to reflect the paradigm of evolution.”
  6. 6.  Theused characters have extended from morphological to molecular. Nomenclatural rules have developed strongly during the 19th and 20th century, and during the last decade traditional nomenclature has been challenged by advocates of the Phylocode.
  7. 7. Taxonomy History EarliestTaxonomy. Herbalism. Early Taxonomists. Linnaen Era. Transforming botany and zoology into a science. Post-Linnaean taxonomy. Rules for nomenclature. From phenetics to phylogenies. Phylocode.
  8. 8. Definition of taxonomy Taxonomy is the science of classificaying and also naming organism,following some rules developed by Carl Linneus in a systematical order that indicate a natural relationship dividing in groups or categories,in a jerarchical order.
  9. 9. EARLIEST TAXONOMY By : Mariana Bedoya Matias Lopera
  10. 10. Earliest taxonomy Taxonomy is as old as the language skill of mankind. When we speak about ancient taxonomy we usually mean the history in the Western world.
  11. 11.  However, the earliest traces are not from the West, but from the East. Shen Nung, Emperor of China around 3000 BC He was a legendary emperor known as the Father of Chinese medicine and is believed to have introduced acupuncture.
  12. 12.  Around 1500 BC medicinal plants were illustrated on wall paintings in Egypt. The paintings gives us knowledge about medicinal plants in old Egypt and their names.
  13. 13.  Inone of the oldest and largest papyrus rolls, Ebers Papyrus, plants are included as medicines for different diseases.
  14. 14.  1.2. The Greeks and Romans Aristotle (384–322 BC)the Greek philosopher was the first to classify all living things, like the vertebrates and invertebrates, which he called animals with blood and without blood (such as insects, crustacea and testacea (molluscs).
  15. 15.  Carl Linnaeus accepted many of his generic names.
  16. 16.  Theophrastus (370–285 BC) was a student of Aristotle and Platon. He wrote a classification of all known plants, De Historia Plantarum, which contained 480 species. His classification was based on growth form, and we still recognise many of his plant genera, like Narcissus, Crocus and Cornus.
  17. 17.  Dioscorides (40–90 AD) was a greek physician, gathered knowledge about medicinal plants. Between 50-70 AD he wrote De Materia Medica, whichcontained around 600 species. The classification in his work is based on the medicinal properties of the species.
  18. 18.  Plinius (23–79 AD) He wrote many books, but the only one that has survived is his Naturalis Historia, a work of 160 voumes, in which he described several plants and gave them Latin names.
  19. 19.  TheFather of Botanical Latin. Plinius died in Pompeii.
  20. 20. HerbalistBy: Simón Galindo Zuluaga
  21. 21. The Herbalists There is usually not much of a classification in the herbals, and the earliest works were merely copying Theophrastos and Dioscorides. With time the herbals became more and more original with more elaborate woodcuts as illustrations.
  22. 22. Discorides Was a greek physician, who travelled widely in the Roman and Greek worldto gather knowledge about medicinal plants. Between 50-70 AD he wrote De Materia Medica, which contained around 600 species.
  23. 23. Discorides
  24. 24. Thephrastus was a student of Aristotle and Platon. He wrote a classification of all known plants, De Historia Plantarum, which contained 480 species. His classification was based on growth form, and we still recognise many of his plant genera, like Narcissus, Crocus and Cornus.
  25. 25. Thephrastus
  26. 26. Herbal medicine Called botanical medicine or phytomedicin. Refersto using a plants seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for medicinal purposes. Herbalism has a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine.
  27. 27. For what is good herbalmedicine? Herbal medicine is used to treat many conditions, such as asthma, eczema, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, migraine, menopausal symptoms, chronic fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, and cancer, among others.
  28. 28. Benefits of herbal medicine The most beneficial contribution of Herbal Medicine to our body is the boosting up of its energy and strengthening of the functions of the internal organ systems.
  29. 29. Bibliography http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/her bal-medicine-000351.htm
  30. 30. LINNAEANERABy: Sara Ferrer &Mikayla van den Brenk
  31. 31. STARTING POINT OF MODERNTAXONOMY  Fornomenclatural reasons two works of Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778, Fig. 4) are regarded as the starting points of modern botanical and zoological taxonomy.
  32. 32.  Theglobal flora Species Plantarum, publish ed in 1753 and the tenth edition of Systema Naturae in 1758 including global fauna.
  33. 33.  The reason for this is that Linnaeus introduced in these books a binary form of species names called "trivial names" for both plants and animals
  34. 34.  For each species he created an epithet that could be used together with the genus name. The trivial names were intended for fieldwork and education, and not to replace the earlier phrase names.
  35. 35.  The phrase names included a description of the species that distinguished it from other known species in the genus.
  36. 36.  With an expanded knowledge of the global fauna and flora through 17th and 18th century scientific expeditions, a large number of new species were found and named, and more terms had to be added to each phrase name.
  37. 37.  By the time of Linnaeus the situation was really bad. Linnaeus counted 8530 species of flowering plants in 1753.
  38. 38. Transforming botany and zoology into a scienceCarl Linnaeus started his career by publishing a system of all livingthings and minerals in 1735 called Systema Naturae. In this heintroduced the sexual system of plants, an artificial classificationbased on the sexual parts of the flower: The stamens and pistils. Carolus Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known as Carl von Linné or Carl Linnaeus. Swedish botanist, zoologist, and taxonomist.
  39. 39. Transforming botany and zoology into a scienceIn a time when people debated whether plants had sexuality or not, thissuggestion from an unknown person not belonging to any classical Europeanschool of natural sciences more or less shocked the scientific world.
  40. 40. Transforming botany and zoology into a scienceHowever, the practical use of thesystem and Linnaeus carefulobservations persuaded thecritics and Linnaeus sexual systemof plants became the highestfashion also outside the scientificcommunity. Linnaeuss sexual system for plants, based principally on the number of male and female sexual organs in flowering plants, where part a has one stamen (male) and one style (female), part b has two stamens and one style, and so forth. (Illustration by Georg Dionysius Ehret, 1736)
  41. 41. Transforming botany and zoology into a science 1735 Carl Linnaeus  Came Genera published Critica Plantarum with a list of Botanica, with rules all known genera. for the formulation of generic names. 1736 1751  rules for species Philosophia descriptions, terminolo botanica. gy, and even instructions on how to build a proper herbarium cupboard. Linnaeus established many of the rules taxonomists use today. Terms like corolla, stamen, filament and another were created by him, as well as well-known taxon names like Mammalia.
  42. 42. Transforming botany and zoology into a scienceAfter a long life with a massive publication in the philosophyand practicality of systematics, Linnaeus had laid out thefoundation for botany and zoology, and it was now time forsubsequent taxonomists to improve this newborn science. Carl Linnaeus was born in southern Sweden. His father was a gardening enthusiast, and this interest in plants seems to have rubbed off on the son.
  43. 43. Post-LinnaeantaxonomyBy:Alberto AgudeloAlejandro CastañoDaniel Zapata
  44. 44.  The French scientific work, the development of anatomy and physiology and improved optical instruments made way for a new era of taxonomy, which was trying to cope with an increasing number of species in a rapidly expanding flora and fauna of the world
  45. 45.  Natural system emerging in France One of the few countries in which the Linnaean systematics did not make success was France.
  46. 46.  TheFrench stuck to Tournefourt and continued to work on a development of the natural system. Four French scientists emerged that made an impact on future biological sciences.
  47. 47.  Georges-Luise Leclerc de Buffon (1707–1788) was a strong critic to Linnaeus work, and he found it wrong to impose an artificial order on the disorderly natural world.
  48. 48.  Hisapproach was to describe the world rather than to classify it. His theories touched upon development of species, infraspecific variety and acquired inherited characters in species, which opened up a pathway for an evolutionary theory.
  49. 49.  Michel Adanson (1727–1806) wrote Familles des Plantes already in 1763. He launched the idea that in classification one should not put greater emphasis on some characters than on others, but use a great range of characters He critized Linnaeus works, and considered Tourneforts classification far superior.
  50. 50.  Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1748–1836) changed the system of plants with his Genera Plantarum in 1789, in which he launched a natural system based on many characters that came to be a foundation of modern classification.
  51. 51.  Hedivided the plants into acotyledons, monocotyledons and dicotyledons and established the family rank in between the ranks "genus" and "class". acotyledon monocotyledo dicotyledon n
  52. 52.  Jean-Baptistede Lamarck (1744–1829) launched an evolutionary theory including inheritance of acquired characters, named the "Lamarckism".
  53. 53.  This was foreboding the theory of evolution presented by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in 1858 in London.
  54. 54.  Kuntzes strict application of insufficient nomenclature laws and the nomenclatural mess he made triggered botanists to create a code of botanical nomenclature.
  55. 55.  In Europe this was decided on a botanical congress in Vienna in 1905. During this meeting the starting point for priority of botanical names was set to 1753, the year of Linnaeus Species Plantarum.
  56. 56.  In 1842 a British ornithologist Hugh Edwin Strickland (1811–1853) elaborated the first nomenclatural laws for zoology, the "Strickland Code".
  57. 57.  The latest botanical code decided upon in Vienna 2005 opens up for extended possibilities to reject or conserve plant names to promote nomenclatural stability.
  58. 58.  Changes in the zoological code are decided upon by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, elected by the international society of zoologists.
  59. 59. By: paula castellanos,lauragomez y valentina molina
  60. 60.  Oneof the first attempts to create rules in botanical taxonomy was made by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778– 1841) in Théory élémentaire de la botanique in 1813.
  61. 61.  Therehe stated that published names should have priority according to the date of publication, starting with Linnaeus (withouth mentioning a particular year).
  62. 62.  TheEnglish did not follow that rule. On a congress in Paris, 100 botanists adopted the rules in a book by the son Alphons de Candolle (1806–1873), Lois de nomenclature adoptee from 1867
  63. 63.  Kuntzes strict application of insufficient nomenclature laws and the nomenclatural mess he made triggered botanists to create a code of botanical nomenclature.
  64. 64.  In Europe this was decided on a botanical congress in Vienna in 1905. During this meeting the starting point for priority of botanical names was set to 1753, the year of Linnaeus Species Plantarum.
  65. 65.  In 1842 a British ornithologist Hugh Edwin Strickland (1811–1853) elaborated the first nomenclatural laws for zoology, the "Strickland Code".
  66. 66.  The latest botanical code decided upon in Vienna 2005 opens up for extended possibilities to reject or conserve plant names to promote nomenclatural stability.
  67. 67.  Changes in the zoological code are decided upon by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, elected by the international society of zoologists.
  68. 68. phenetics tophylogeniesBy: MATEO ZULUAGA ANDJOHNATHAN LEON
  69. 69.  theory in 1858. However, this did not affect systematics in the beginning. Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919) and August Wilhelm Eichler (1839–18878) were two German biologists who started the construction of evolutionary trees. Haeckel established the term. "phylogeny"
  70. 70.  The systems of plants and animals were now huge, in flowering plants approaching a quarter of a million species.
  71. 71. The German biologist Willi Hennig The German biologist Willi Hennig (1913– 1976) founded the cladistic era in 1966, by stating that only similarities grouping species (synapomorphies) should be used in classification, and that taxa should include all descendants from one single ancestor (the rule of monophyly). Hypothesis on systematics could now be tested through cladistic methods.
  72. 72.  The new method, called cladistics, was controversial, and it took around 20 years before it started to become established. As earlier during the century, the reformation of systematics happened earlier among zoologists than botanists. The 1980s were a decade of great debates and discussions where scientists claimed themselves to be for or against cladistics.
  73. 73.  With the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which made it economically possible to amplify DNA- sequences for use in systematics, and the strong development of computer programs that could handle large data sets, cladistics became more or less the rule for systematic work.
  74. 74. References http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/chinese/emperors.html Picture of Ebers papyrus http://www.ub.uni- leipzig.de/site.php?page=die_ubl/sosa/rundgang/ebers&lang=de &stil=fc Materia Medica of Dioscorides at http://www.bnnonline.it/biblvir/dioscoride/dioscoride.htm Linné online http://www.linnaeus.uu.se/online/index-en.html International Code of Botanical Nomenclature http://ibot.sav.sk/icbn/main.htm International Code of Zoological Nomenclature http://www.iczn.org/ PhyloCode http://www.ohiou.edu/phylocode/
  75. 75. PhyloCode By: Juan Gustavo Montoya
  76. 76.  With the breakthrough of cladistics analysis and constructions of phylogenetic hypotheses, the taxonomy built on the Linnaean hierarchic system became a matter of intense discussion and criticism.
  77. 77.  Two zoologists from USA, Kevin de Queiroz and Jacques Gauthier, started the discussions in the 1990s and laid the theoretical foundation to a new nomenclatural code for all organisms, the PhyloCode. A meeting in Harvard in 1998 drew out the lines for a PhyloCode, and a first draft was published on the web in 2000.
  78. 78.  The PhyloCode reflects a philosophical shift from naming species and subsequently classifying them (i.e., into higher taxa) to naming both species and clades.
  79. 79.  The main idea with the PhyloCode is that only species and clades should have names, and that all ranks above species are excluded from nomenclature. The aim is to change current names as little as possible and to build the stability on clades rather than on ranks.
  80. 80. The PhyloCode is still only a draft, it is controversial, and has led to a worldwide and very interesting debate.Its success will depend on the number of taxonomists that will use it for their taxonomic work.
  81. 81. Bibliography http://www.ohiou.edu/phylocode/
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