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Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
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Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell

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  • 1. Why is groundwater neglected in watermanagement discussions? Anders Berntell Executive Director Stockholm International Water Institute
  • 2. Is it neglected?• Google hits: – River management 122 000 000 – Lake management 74 000 000 – Water management 47 500 000 – Freshwater management 6 700 000 – Surfacewater management 2 580 000 – Groundwater management: 576 000
  • 3. Precious resource• Distributed• Clean – compared to surface waters in most places• Relatively inexpensive to abstract• Relatively stable supply over time• Inexpensive storing• Supplies surface water• Water for the poor, in many developing countries
  • 4. Agricultural Agricultureproduction Number of wells
  • 5. Green revolution in India
  • 6. According to theInternational Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre http://www.igrac.nl/:
  • 7. Overexploitation
  • 8. India, traditional view
  • 9. Grace Tellus,satellite mapping
  • 10. An example• EU Framework Directive on Water, 2000
  • 11. Surface water quality objectives• Detailed annexes, chemistry and biology
  • 12. Groundwater quality objectives• “to reverse any significant and sustained upward trendin the concentration of any pollutant……….”Member states could not agree on detailed quality objectives, they could only agree to start developing them
  • 13. • New Groundwater Directive, 2006 – Quality standards – Methodology for setting national standards
  • 14. European Environment Agency• 136 maps on surface-water• 7 maps on groundwater
  • 15. Surface water monitoring stations
  • 16. Groundwater bodies - Aquifer type
  • 17. Nitrate in surface water
  • 18. Nitrate in groundwater
  • 19. Salt water intrusion, due to overexploitation
  • 20. Danger to groundwater from pesticides
  • 21. First classification of status,Framework Directive on Water Darker blue = higher risk of not reaching “good status”
  • 22. Getting better……
  • 23. Insufficient knowledge – Why?• Monitoring expensive• Mapping expensive• Characterisation expensive• Modelling complicated and expensive Few good examples (i.e. Rhine, Danube……)But more important: “Tragedy of the commons”• Private use – Common good• Diffuse pollution – Common good
  • 24. Countries where monitoring data is available
  • 25. • International collaboration often required – Many examples in developing countries are results of international projects
  • 26. The tragedy of the commons• Land – Land rights defined – Defined boundaries – Has a price – Visible• Groundwater – Public good – Water rights unclear – Is free – Flowing – Invisible/Unknown – Delayed response
  • 27. Legal regimes• UN Watercourses Convention, 1997 – No Groundwater• UN-Interational Law Commission – Committee on Groundwater• UN-ECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, 1992• SADC Protocol on Shared Watercourse Systems, 2001