Primera Reunión del SGLC. Daria Zimina

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Primera Reunión del Spanish Group for Lean Construction
www.leanconstruction.es

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Primera Reunión del SGLC. Daria Zimina

  1. 1. El Sistema de Entrega del Proyecto Lean   Daria Zimina, Universidad de Loughborough  
  2. 2. Contenido    ¿Qué es el “Lean Project Delivery System”?  Las oportunidades de reducir perdidas y aumentar el valor  Introducción al diseño Lean  Otros elementos del sistema   Colaboración   Términos comerciales  
  3. 3. Contenido    ¿Qué es el “Lean Project Delivery System”?  Las oportunidades de reducir perdidas y aumentar el valor  Introducción al diseño Lean  Otros elementos del sistema   Colaboración   Términos comerciales  
  4. 4. Lean Project Delivery System    Metodología de gestión   Basada sobre la filosofia Lean   Aumenta valor y reduce las perdidas en cada fase del proyecto – planificación emresarial, diseño, construción, aprovisionamientos, contratos.  No ofrece soluciones prefabricadas pero directrices de cómo abordar el gestión  Sigue en estado de progreso
  5. 5. Presentación gráfica del sistema  Fuente:  Glenn Ballard, 2008
  6. 6. Contenido    ¿Qué es el “Lean Project Delivery System”?  Las oportunidades de reducir perdidas y aumentar el valor  Introducción al diseño Lean  Otros elementos del sistema   Colaboración   Términos comerciales  
  7. 7. La importancia de las primeras fases delproyecto:  1)  El proceso de construcción lo podemos mejorar sólo hasta cierto punto antes que las restricciones se muevan hacia arriba.2)  El valor lo entregamos en el sitio de construcción, no obstante, lo hemos generado durante el proceso del diseño.
  8. 8. “Que es nuestro negocio no esta definido por el productor sinopor el consumidor[...]por la necesidad que el cliente satisfacecuando compra un producto o un servicio.Podemos responder a esta pregunta sólo al ver el negociodesde fuera, desde un punto de vista del cliente” Peter F. Drucker  
  9. 9. ¿Qué es el valor para los clientes?   •  Flujo de pacientes •  Reducir duración de •  Flujo de médicos estancia • Aprovisionamiento Operaciones •  Garantizar vuestros Clientes de la seguridad de materiales dentro   •  Mayor satisfacción del clientes   médicos los pacientes •  etc. •  Etc. medios/recursos   objetivos  
  10. 10. Las oportunidades para reducir las pérdidas yaumentar el valor en el diseño    Incidir en las consecuencias lejanas para el negocio del cliente   Diseñar la instalación   Diseñar la utilización de la instalación   Diseñar para satisfacer la demanda de las operaciones del cliente  Pensar el efecto de las decisiones hacia arriba de los procesos hacia abajo   Diseñar solamente lo que puede ser construido   Diseñar el sistema de gestión de obras  Utilizar un mejor razonamiento y mejores métodos para gestionar el mismo proceso del diseño
  11. 11. Contenido    ¿Qué es el “Lean Project Delivery System”?  Las oportunidades de reducir perdidas y aumentar el valor  Introducción al diseño Lean  Otros elementos del sistema   Colaboración   Términos comerciales  
  12. 12. Metodología de gestión    Target Value Design  Set-Based Design  El conjunto de las herramientas de control del sistema del diseño (e.g. Last Planner System, DSM)
  13. 13. Target Value Design   Es una práctica de gestión que busca hacer del valor, el coste, el programa y constructibilidad la principal via de conducción del diseño.
  14. 14. Resumen del proceso de TVD DEFINIFICIÓN DEL PROYECTO Marca el • Planificación empresarial Target   •  Estudio de viabilidad   DISEÑO Diseña •  Conceptual hacia el •  Detallado   Target   Construye CONSTRUCCIÓN hacia el Target   ACCIONAMIENTO/ CESIÓNFuente:  Glenn Ballard, 2008
  15. 15. Práctica Convencional vs. TVD  ¿Qué quiero?   ¿Qué quiero conseguir?  ¿Cuánto costará?   ¿Qué necesito para cumplir  ¿Puedo permitírmelo? mis propósitos?  ¿Puedo obtenerlo por   ¿Qué valor me aporta? menos dinero?   ¿Qué me puedo permitir pagar para conseguirlo? (el coste permisible)   ¿Qué precio espero pagar? El precio será inferior o igual al coste permisible?
  16. 16. Marcamos el Objetivo ¿Que quiero conseguir?   Coste Precio permisible   esperado  Fuente:  Glenn Ballard, 2008
  17. 17. Fijación del TargetPráctica Convencional vs. TVD  Proviene de estimación y   Proviene de la planificación experiencia previa de los empresarial del cliente estimadores.  Sirve para adivinar la oferta en   Sirve como el coste final del la licitación proyecto  Marcado por el cliente o sus   Marcado por el equipo formado consultores de coste. por los actores principales (cliente, diseñadores, constructores)
  18. 18. Objetivo como un desafío   Imposible   Descorazona   Desafiante Inspira   Fácil Empereza  
  19. 19. Resumen del proceso de TVD DEFINIFICIÓN DEL PROYECTO Marca el • Planificación empresarial Target   •  Estudio de viabilidad   DISEÑO Diseña •  Conceptual hacia el •  Detallado   Target   Construye CONSTRUCCIÓN hacia el Target   ACCIONAMIENTO/ CESIÓNFuente:  Glenn Ballard, 2008
  20. 20. Diseño hacia el Target  Colocar el Target del proyecto a los sistemas y subsistemas de la instalación  Información sobre coste y valor antes del diseño.  Rápida actualización.  Value management como un proceso continuo.  El Target nunca puede ser superado
  21. 21. Diseño hacia el Target   Target Cost   Un Target del Un Target del Un Target del Equipo 1   Equipo I1   Equipo n  
  22. 22. Diseño hacia el Target  Source:  Glenn Ballard, 2010
  23. 23. El Proceso de TVD Desarrollar un plan de negocios del propio proyecto Validar el plan de negocios del proyectoMarcar objetivos para valores y condiciones de satisfacción Adoptar el diseño a los objetivos Adoptar el proceso de construcción a los objetivos
  24. 24. Diseño Set-Based   Dimensiones   Localizaciones   Características de Materiales   operación en los Etc   puntos finales
  25. 25. Diseño Set-Based   “Evitar que los ingenieros hagan decisiones prematuras en el proceso de diseño es parte importante de mi trabajo” Encargado de Ingeniería de Productos en Toyota
  26. 26. El orden natural del diseñoDos características desafiantes del proceso del diseño:  Indeterminación incorporada (descubrimiento)  Interdependencia recíproca
  27. 27. Planificación    Las tareas en Diseño son diferentes a las de Construcción  Necesitamos adaptar los metodos de planificación que utilizamos en construción  Los métodos como Last Planner, los podemos aplicar, pero también necesitamos otros como, por ejemplo, Design Structure Matrixes
  28. 28. Un ejemplo de aplicación de LPS en Diseño  Fuente:  Boulder  Associate, 2009
  29. 29. Contenido    ¿Qué es el “Lean Project Delivery System”?  Las oportunidades de reducir perdidas y aumentar el valor  Introducción al diseño Lean  Otros elementos del sistema   Colaboración   Términos comerciales  
  30. 30. Tradi&onal  structures  create  waste  Courtesy  of  SSM  Cardinal  Glennon  Hospital  IPD  team  &  Tom  van  Landingham  AIA    
  31. 31. Fracaso en la Comunicación  Fuente:  Will  LichFg, 2005
  32. 32. OrganizaciónFuente: Will Ligtich, 2006  
  33. 33. El intercambio de información es esencial  
  34. 34. “Juntos, podemos seguir cambiando el destino” Pablo Picasso  
  35. 35. Contenido    ¿Qué es el “Lean Project Delivery System”?  Las oportunidades de reducir perdidas y aumentar el valor  Introducción al diseño Lean  Otros elementos del sistema   Colaboración   Términos comerciales  
  36. 36. ¿Porqué contratamos?    En el pensamiento lean, los términos comerciales están subordinados al sistema de producción.  Estimular la utilización de las metodologías y la cultura lean  Alinear los intereses comerciales de los participantes  Crear confianza entre las empresas y entre el mismo equipo  Crear un ambiente colaborativo
  37. 37. Algunas características de los contratos lean     Contratos relacionales multilaterales   Transparencia – libro abierto   Las situaciones de pérdida y ganancia se reparten   Flujo gratuito de fondos entre organizaciones   Promocionar el aprendizaje   Recompensa al obtener resultados más altos
  38. 38. ¿Entre quién y quién?  
  39. 39. Conclusión   Tres dominios  Fuente: Will Lichtig, 2008  
  40. 40. Gracias!  
  41. 41. Two outcomes of Target Value Design (TVD) that look to be repeatable 1.  Projects’ initial scope is completed below market cost —so far as much as 19% below. 2.  Expected cost falls as design develops.©2009 Glenn Ballard
  42. 42.   Plan in greater detail as you get closer to doing the work  Produce plans collaboratively with those who will do the Work  Reveal and remove constraints on planned tasks as a Team  Make and secure reliable promises  Learn from breakdowns  
  43. 43. Set-based design - 1a method of multiple hypotheses    The moment one has offered an original explanation for a phenomenon which seems satisfactory, that moment affection for [one’s] intellectual child springs into existence, and as the explanation grows into a definite theory [one’s] parental affections cluster about [the] offspring and it grows more and more dear …. There springs up also unwittingly a pressing of the theory to make it fit the facts and a pressing of the facts to make them fit the theory… The temptation to misinterpret results that contradict the desired hypothesis is probably irresistible. (Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin , 1897)  
  44. 44.   In a 2005 paper, Owen Matthews and Greg Howell, a Florida based constructor, listed four problems with the ‘traditional’ contractual approach:  ♣ Good ideas are held back – late involvement of specialist constructors deprives the design team of the opportunity to develop innovations with those who will deliver the project.  ♣ Contracting limits cooperation and innovation - … the system of subcontracts that link the trades and form the framework for the relationships on the project… detail exactly what each subcontractor [is] to provide…, rules for compensation, and sometimes useful, if unrealistic, information about when work [is] to be performed.The 20 to 30 page subcontracts mostly [deal] with remedies and penalties for noncompliance.These contracts [make] it difficult to innovate across trade boundaries even though the work itself [is] frequently interdependent. (It is hard to have a wholesome relationship … when you have a charge of dynamite around your neck and the other holds the detonator.) Of course, horse- trading always takes place…, but for “equal” horses.Trading a small increase in effort by one contractor for a big reduction for another, a horse for a pony, [is] almost impossible.  ♣ Inability to coordinate - … no formal effort to link the planning systems of the various subcontractors, or to form any mutual commitments or expectations amongst them. Project organizations looked like 20 or more rubber balls, representing subcontractors, all tethered to a single point by long elastic bands. When the connection point [is] jiggled, the balls jiggled in all random directions colliding with each other in unusual and unexpected ways.  ♣ The pressure for local optimization - each subcontractor fights to optimize their performance because no one else will take care of him.The subcontract …and the inability to coordinate drives us to defend our turf at the expense of both the client and other subcontractors. Remember that veryone on the project other than the prime contractor is a subcontractor.These subcontractors frequently, in their life outside of the subcontract, may be generous, caring and professional. However, since right or wrong is defined by the subcontract, moreoften than not, they take on a very legalistic and litigious stance becoming an army where the rules of engagement are “Every man for himself.”  
  45. 45. What underlies a Relational Contract?Ian Macneil  Relations of significant duration  Objects of “value” are not all easily measurable  Many individuals, collective poles of interest  Future cooperation anticipated  Benefits and burdens shared  Trouble is expected  Relations will vary as unforeseeable future unfolds
  46. 46. Sharing of Design Risk   Re-define basis of financial responsibility   Sutter takes first Insurance/ dollar risks Sutter   Designers negotiate level of risk (profit)   Fee informed by level IPD of care and quality required Sutter
  47. 47. Sharing Project’s Financial Success Savings $$ NTE 3-4% IPD Construction Contingency Budget Savings Owner = Incentive Cost of Pool = 50 % of Work 50 % of savings Savings savings
  48. 48. Como hemos llegado aqui  
  49. 49. Contenido    Origen del LPDS  Valor en los proyectos de construcción  ¿Que es el “Lean Project Delivery System”?  Elementos del systema  Collaboración  Contractos y incetivación  
  50. 50. Valor en los proyectos de construcción  
  51. 51. Key Features of Lean•  The larger system is the focus of   The rule followed for release of work management attention, not local between connected specialists is: Flow optimization where you can, Pull where you can’t, Push where you must•  Stakeholder interests are aligned through relational contracts   Activities are performed at the last responsible moment•  Necessity, the mother of invention, is self- Standards are the starting point for improving imposed to cause innovation and learning   how work is done•  All product life cycle stages are considered   Learning is continuous; learning from in design breakdowns and from experiments•  Downstream players are involved in upstream work, and vice-versa   Variation is attacked and reduced—variation in work load, in process durations, in product•  Product and process are designed quality, in plan reliability, … together; indeed, all design criteria are considered when generating and selecting   Inventory, capacity, schedule and financial from design options buffers are sized and located to perform their function of absorbing variability that cannot yet be eliminated
  52. 52. Setting the Target Cost1.  Assess the business case (demand, revenues), taking into account the cost to own and use the facility (business operations, facility operations, facility maintenance, adaptability, durability) as well as the cost to acquire it.2.  Determine minimum acceptable ROI or maximum available funds.3.  Answer the question: If we had a facility with which we could achieve our specific purposes, and if we could have that facility within our constraints of cost, location and time, would we do it?4.  If the answer is positive, and if project delivery is not considered risky, fund the project. If the answer is positive and project delivery is considered risky, fund a feasibility study to answer the question: Can we have the facility we have in mind, will it enable us to achieve our purposes, and can we acquire it within our constraints?5.  Start a feasibility study by selecting key members of the team that will deliver the project if judged feasible.6.  Determine and rank stakeholder values.
  53. 53. Setting the Target Cost7.  Explore how the facility will perform in use through process modeling and simulation.8.  Scope the facility that will deliver the values.9.  Determine the expected cost if the facility were provided at current best practice.10.  If expected cost exceeds available funds or violates ROI, attack the gap with innovations in product/process design, restructure commercial relationships, etc.11.  If expected cost still exceeds available funds or violates ROI, adjust scope by sacrificing lesser ranking values.12.  If the scope and values that support the business case can be provided within financial constraints, fund the project. Otherwise, kill the project.
  54. 54. Project Definition ProcessWhat’s Wanted (Ends) What Provides (Means) Purposes Operation Values Design Design Facility Design Criteria (s) Funds,Time, Location, Regulations Constraints
  55. 55. Designing to the Target Cost1.  Allocate the target cost to systems, subsystems, components, …2.  Form teams by facility ‘system’: substructure, superstructure, envelope, HVAC, lighting, etc.3.  Establish a personal relationship between designers and cost modellers/construction experts in each system team.4.  Have cost modellers/construction experts provide cost guidelines to designers up front, before design begins.5.  Require designers to consult cost modellers on the cost implications of design alternatives before they are developed.
  56. 56. Designing to the Target Cost 6.  Incorporate value engineering/value management tools and techniques into the design process. 7.  Periodically convene all teams together to make sure they are not sacrificing project-level value to local optimization. 8.  When previously agreed, by meeting or beating the target cost, release funds for adding back lower ranking values or other scope additions valuable to the client. 9.  Schedule cost reviews and client signoffs, but develop design and cost concurrently. 10.  Use computer models to automate costing to the extent feasible.
  57. 57. Traditional versus Lean•  Decisions are made •  Downstream players are sequentially by specialists involved in upstream and ‘thrown over the wall’ decisions, and vice-versa•  Product design is completed, •  Product and process are then process design begins designed together•  Not all product life cycle •  All product life cycle stages stages are considered in are considered in design design •  Activities are performed at•  Activities are performed as the last responsible moment soon as possible
  58. 58. Traditional versus Lean•  Separate organizations link •  Systematic efforts are made together through the to optimize supply chains market, and take what the •  Buffers are sized and located market offers to perform their function of•  Participants build up large absorbing system variability inventories to protect their •  Stakeholder interests are own interests aligned•  Stakeholder interests are •  Learning is incorporated not aligned into project, firm, and supply•  Learning occurs sporadically chain management
  59. 59. Business Planning1.  Assess the business case (demand, revenues), taking into account the cost to own and use the facility (business operations, facility operations, facility maintenance, adaptability, durability) as well as the cost to acquire it.2.  Determine minimum acceptable ROI or maximum available funds --set the allowable cost for the facility.3.  Answer the question: If we had a facility with which we could achieve our specific purposes, and if we could have that facility within our constraints of cost, location and time, would we do it?4.  If the answer is positive, and if project delivery is not considered risky, fund the project. If the answer is positive and project delivery is considered risky, fund a feasibility study to answer the question: Can we have the facility we have in mind, will it enable us to achieve our purposes, and can we acquire it within our constraints?
  60. 60. Shawano Clinic• Under Budget and Ahead ofSchedule•3.5 months ahead of schedule –70additional days of clinic revenuetranslating into nearly $1 mil. in theexpanded imaging service line functionsand additional revenue in the 2006 year.•below the budget in spite of additionalequipment costs and added service line
  61. 61. Design Performance Japan# USA#   Avg. Engineering Hours (millions) 1.7 3.1   Avg. Development Time (months) 46.2 60.4   # Employees in Project Team 485 903   # of Body Types per New Car 2.3 1.7   Supplier Share of Engineering 51% 14%   Ratio of Delayed Products 1 in 6 1 in 2   Prototype Lead Time (months) 6.2 12.4   Prod. Start to First Sale (months) 1 4   Return to Normal Quality (months) 1.4 11Source: The Machine that Changed the World by Womack, Jones & Roos Source: The Machine that Changed the World 
 by James P.Womack and Daniel T. Jones#
  62. 62. + Que hacemos hoy    the UK Emmerson Report of 1962 noted that “in no other industry was the responsibility for design so far removed from the responsibility for production”.  
  63. 63. TVD process overview  Source:  Glenn Ballard, 2008
  64. 64. Principles    Stimulating effect  Target is for the entire project  Define what is value – understand client´s business case  Distinguish between objective and subjective parametres ‘ Haatela approach    Target setting – basado en business planning of the client  Target cost must be based on the customer’s function(s) and performance  • The client must be involved to define the function of the building,  performance, values and the cost the client is willing to pay for functionality  and performance  • Target cost must use market cost data  • Target costing process must encourage cross-functional teams to co-operate in  designing to the target (project managers, architects, engineers, construction  managers, clients)  • Target cost must be achievable, not too low. Target cost must not be exceeded.  • Target cost must not be too high. Process should create intense but realistic  pressure on the designers.  • Target cost should be decomposed to the components, as cooling system,  frame and external wall.  • Rapid estimates should be available to help designing to the target.
  65. 65. Постановка  цели   Allowable Cost Expected cost TargetTeam experience   Cost Market benchmark $$Source:  Glenn Ballard, 2008
  66. 66. Haahtela’sTaku CostModel
  67. 67. Making a Virtue of Necessity  ‘Lower the river to reveal the rocks’   Systematically stress the production system to identify needed improvements   Buffer the production system so experiments can be performed without risk of violating commercial agreements  ‘Price – Profit = Cost   Artificially manipulate constraints to drive innovation
  68. 68. Features of traditionalconstruction management  Outcome costs are unpredictable—except that they will very likely be higher than estimated.  Budgets are committed without sufficient analysis of feasibility. Early back- of-envelope cost estimates never die.  Design is developed with insufficient regard to cost constraints and insufficient awareness of cost implications.  Cost estimates are done in big batches, increasing the time and cost of design, endangering design completeness and accuracy, and robbing time from downstream phases.  Cost estimates increase as design becomes more detailed.  The loss of client value from budget-driven cuts in facility functionalities and capacities is enormous.  A ‘gleam in the eye’ prompts the question “How much would it cost me to buy X?” rather than “What is X worth to me?”. Price obscures cost, and Cost obscures worth and value.
  69. 69. Set-based design - 1a method of multiple hypotheses    Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (September 25, 1843 – November 15, 1928) was an influential American geologist and educator.   “Multiple Hypotheses” method. A thumbnail sketch of Strong- Inference is: Identify a scientifically-interesting observation.   Enumerate all alternative hypotheses that can account for the observation, based on present knowledge.   Reject hypotheses by experimental observations until a single hypothesis remains that has survived an experimental test by which it could have been rejected. The remaining hypothesis is the “currently held view” of the “cause” of the observation.
  70. 70. Making Decisions at the LastResponsible MomentWhether or not one has the time to carry alternatives forward, would seem to be a function of understanding when decisions must be made lest we lose the opportunity to select a given alternative. We need to know how long it takes to actually create or realize an alternative. Understanding the variability of the delivery process, we can add safety-time to that lead-time in order to determine the last responsible moment. Choosing to carry forward multiple alternatives gives more time for analysis and thus can contribute to better design decisions.
  71. 71.   El control del proyecto tiene una función ejecutiva, en oposición a la clásica de detección a posteriori.  La optimización de esfuerzos se centran en conseguir un flujo de trabajo fiable, en contraste con el incremento de productividad.  Las técnicas “pull” (de empuje) se utilizan para manejar el flujo de información y de materiales a través de las redes de especialistas.  Los resguardos de capacidad y de almacén se utilizan para absorber variaciones.  
  72. 72. Tools  Feasibility Study With Detailed Budget (Target)  Engage all parties at earliest possible time  Scheduling (At SRMC the end users were divided into clear groups for SD’s and beyond)  Use a room data sheet  Full engagement from the Affiliate  Estimating at the design table  Empowerment to declare a breakdown  Clear conditions of satisfaction to teams  Willingness to say no (need to have or want to have)  Target team matrix (Organize Teams)  Adopt a Budget Realignment Approach and Tool

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