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Jean-Baptiste THOMAS Advisor at the Nuclear Energy Division at CEA (Atoms for the Future 2013)



Jean-Baptiste THOMAS, Advisor at the Nuclear Energy Division at CEA explained the how the nuclear fleet is a decisive enabler to integrate a share of Renewables with the topics of NPP flexibility and ...

Jean-Baptiste THOMAS, Advisor at the Nuclear Energy Division at CEA explained the how the nuclear fleet is a decisive enabler to integrate a share of Renewables with the topics of NPP flexibility and need for electricity storage.



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Jean-Baptiste THOMAS Advisor at the Nuclear Energy Division at CEA (Atoms for the Future 2013) Jean-Baptiste THOMAS Advisor at the Nuclear Energy Division at CEA (Atoms for the Future 2013) Presentation Transcript

  • The nuclear fleet : a decisive enabler to integrate a share of Renewables. (in the framework of a comprehensive system solution) ATOMS FOR THE FUTURE SFEN - october 21 - 2013 H. GRARD (CEA), J.-B. THOMAS (CEA) V- 6 : 18/10 – 13h30 1 - System effects; production & storage back-up 2 - Flexible base-load fleets (coal, nuclear) + storage & cogeneration as IREN integration enablers : a win-win deal 3 - Yes, NPP are flexible enough, if system effects are dealt with in a synergistic system solution framework 4 - An overview of storage back-up contribution 5 - Going on with NPP improvements : some innovation and R&D issues 1
  • Summary (1/2) • • • An efficient and clean base-load production fleet complemented with a powerful, 6 to 12 h. (typically) discharge duration storage back-up, is the backbone of the mix. The IREN are a (disruptive) « winger », up to 20% of total power production. They need a large flexible baseload protecting the grid, the consumer, the production fleet itself. Baseload generation plants need a high capacity factor (low variable cost / high capital cost). A « win–win » deal is thus mandatory. Flexible but lower merit order fleets (gas, excepting domestic shale gas) are receding (Spain, Germany) because of a pincer movement made by IREN on one side and by coal or by nuclear and hydro on the other side, and thus of a letal fall-back of their capacity factor. 2
  • Summary (2/2) • Baseload plants (coal, nuclear) need to keep a large installed power to deliver the required power ramping capacity (LF + IREN). This requirement would be contradictory with a high kp if smart storage could not help (in France, currently, hydro dams and Pumped Hydropower Storage (STEPS)). • Intermittency is a system issue and will be dealt with using system solutions, involving primarily storage back-up. • Beyond the ultimate grid and plants adaptation effort, toxic surpluses must be « stored or dumped » by the producer (detrimental production of a commodity : no value). 3
  • The main IREN Drawbacks 1 - Week-long, “pan-European” failure : winter solar hibernation, wind “naps” IREN can’t remove more than 3 to 4 % of their installed power (for a typically balanced fleet). France – 2030 : ~ 3 GW (not 20) 4 4% of the installed power means ~ 20% of their mean power.
  • The main IREN Drawbacks 2 – Threatening thermal commercial plants (gas, coal, nuclear) kp and flexibility France–2030 : Prod # 550 TWh; Pi (IREN) = 70 GW, Pmean ~14 GW Power prod. (IREN) # 120 TWh (not all dispatchable), “Commercial thermal Production back-up” kp decrease : • little Pi reduction (3 to 4% Pi IREN), • But minus 100 to 120 TWh production (under “fatal” IREN assumption). From Wagner : capacity factor as a function of IREN energy production/annual demand 5
  • The main IREN Drawbacks 3 – Summer “pan-European” solar flares (even without DESERTEC) Le solaire Allemand, préfiguration du solaire Français de 2030 ? L’Allemagne possède un parc de production d’énergies intermittentes avec en puissance installée, 33000 MW de solaire et 30000 MW d’éolien. Production solaire Heure/heure du 16/06 Pic de production de la journée : 20000 MW 14 15 6
  • Transposing to the French 2030 prospective 16/06/2013 : consommation vs, solaire et éolien "2030" Killing the base-load fleet “softly” Threatening the grid 50000 40000 Remedies ? 30000 MW Consommation éolien 2030 20000 solaire Ge Flexible base-load (N/C)PP 10000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Flexible hydropower dams Cogeneration -10000 n°de quart d'heure Smart* (see below) Storage back-up base résiduelle en été en 2030 (données du 16 06 2013 Fce et Ge) Reducing drastically the need for “production back-up” 50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 MW consommation 25000 Fatal total QSP base 20000 15000 Making solar and wind energy useful, by IREN production time-shift, at the right location Plus air conditioning and efficient heat pump winter heating growth 10000 5000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 n° de quart d'heure 60 70 80 90 100 7
  • “It’s the air conditioning, stupid !” 8
  • Typical anticipated German patterns (with storage) - Wagner 9
  • “The power flows from North to South through lines of least resistance, causing parallel flows in Benelux countries in the West (2006) and in Poland and the Czech Republic in the East”. + Limitless exchanges between Germany and Austria. Europhysics News (2013) 10
  • The main IREN Drawbacks 4 – The “regular” wind intermittency 11
  • The main IREN Drawbacks 5 – Challenging the multi-scale space – time control of frequency and voltage, supported by the patiently built consistency : production, transmission and distribution. The breaking down threshold is probably lower than in the previous sections devoted to “scalar” issues 12
  • The main IREN Drawbacks 6 - Intermittency induced volatility Towards restored margins through (much) higher prices for the consumer. Challenging the availability + affordability criteria (WEF) A panel of helpers (to be coupled with a power production fleet), including P2G There is no clear cut between storage and cogeneration, either. 13
  • “Wind Dumping” from “The limits of wind penetration” (USA). “Excessive wind dumping imposes an upper economic limit on wind power”. Toxic surpluses call for a dedicated regulation : “store or dump”. Taking off around 20/30%. (see Wagner : 30/40% : “optimized” IREN mix) 14
  • Yes, NPPs are flexible enough. Implementation level variable, depending on past needs, culture, improvements (hard, soft). Related Requirements : EUR ; ALWRs : URD from EPRI. Supporting (any time - any location) : frequency, voltage, through : • Contracts (down to a few hours); • Automatic control on flexible reserves 15
  • New “ramping” challenges from massive IREN penetration LF requires fast and deep ramping up/down. In winter, between 6h and 7h (a.m.), + 7 GW can be required in 1 h., and the total ∆P can be ~ +18 GW in 3 h. The present French mix can deal with such steps and ramping rates, every morning. The IREN hibernation (solar) and “naps” (wind) make it impossible to shrink the nuclear base-load component (at most – 2 to GW around 2030). Moreover, due to the intermittency, keeping a large nuclear installed power is necessary. Dedicating 40% of the fleet to a 50% of its rated power “step” at 1%/mn means + 12 GW in 1h. Adding 25% interruptible cogeneration (long term energy time-shift : G2P ?), leads to + 18GW in 1h. Supported by hydro dams and STEPS, this “enabler” can withstand a significant level of IREN penetration before coming in trouble. Anyway, this time might come sooner than expected. The toxic system effects from intermittency are highly non-linear with IREN installed power (see above : “dumping take-off point”). A system solution involving a broader synergy between flexible production, cogeneration and storage capacities, must be devised before over-investing in the grid (but strengthening some transport lines will be unavoidable). 16
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  • STORAGE Who ? How ? When ? Where ? Electric Energy Storage Applications (SANDIA report) Renewables Integration : • Renewables Energy Time-shift ; (in the US : “buy low, sell high”) • Renewables Capacity Firming; Players : • Solar and wind power producers (farms; residential & commercial) • “utilities”; • “grid”; • “Consumers”; • Private investors Main parameters • The discharge duration : excepting Short Term wind support (10 s. to 15 mn.), the typical discharge duration of interest ranges from 1 to 6 h Obvious as for solar; helps also for wind. • The unit power capacity involved. “Smart storage” will probably be modular / distributed (1 MW to 100 MW), with a few high concentration sources (~ 0.5 / 1GW). 19
  • STORAGE Who ? How ? When ? Where ? Where ? Close to : • Some wind (solar) farms : at the source of the intermittent supplies, for various reasons : upstream grid protection; “capacity firming”, “polluter/payer” or “pirate/corsair” mode; depending on the global regulation framework and on the game played by the main actors; • The main base-load plants, as auxiliary tools; • The main consumption sites; • The most fragile locations on the grid. • The only locations where the implementation is easy, accepted, efficient and low cost. How (and how much – money - ?). Highly dependent on the way it is used, as well as on potential synergies with other applications. 20
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  • Monotone éolien 40 GW 35 000 30 000 Store or dump 25 000 24 GW : 60% (Pinst.) ½ welcome / ½ undesirable MW 20 000 creative solutions (cogeneration) 16 GW : 40% (Pinst.) 15 000 ~ 10 TWh Pumped Turbined ~ 7 TWh 10 000 Mean value Direct use (simplified) 5 000 0 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 7 000 8 000 9 000 10 000 heures 22
  • Solaire et STEP 25000 More Air Conditioning ? (with HP – power – heating in winter and a leverage ratio of 2.5 to 3 ?) 20000 15 GW : 50% (Pinst.) MW 15000 Pumped ~ 5 TWh 10000 5000 Mean value (kp # 14%) Turbined ~ 3.5 TWh Direct use (incl. Air Cond.) 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 heures Start from typical patterns of cooperation between a flexible production fleet and an auxiliary storage “pool” dedicated to the grid optimisation. 23
  • CAES 24
  • STORAGE Who ? How ? When ? Where ? For solar, peak storage during “summer sonny afternoons” means about the same capital cost than building the solar plant. It makes solar power dispatchable and useful, thus defining its very value. Massive air conditioning : a profitable opportunity given by solar “pushers” Compressed Air Energy Storage, High Temperature Stimulated Geothermal Storage (with cogeneration) : specific SWOTs; a limited but valuable potential. The best suited tool seems to be the extension of Pumped Hydropower Storage. France disposes of around 5 GW of STEP power production potential (efficiency : about 70%), less than Germany, and Japan disposes of around 25 GW. In Germany, about 50 GWh are installed and about 20 GWh are in construction. In France, a few more GW (before 2025) could be beneficial to the grid. In summary, storage increases the value of IREN by energy time-shift and it curtails the LF burden for base-load workhorses. Up to 20% of IREN power production (?), it enables : • IREN firming by “filling” the dips during the production drop; • Protecting the grid from failure or from huge irrational over-costs (grid wizard); • protecting nuclear and coal from over-ramping (up/down) as well as of shutting down during wind storms and solar flares. 25 • avoiding (partly) dumping toxic surpluses.
  • The continuous improvement process is going on. Application to Gen-2, Gen-3, Gen-3+; to the SMR, then to Gen-4 prospective. Specifications and related R&D topics 1 – Defining the “flight envelope” useful improvement criteria 2 – Some related R&D topics could be : • Improving the knowledge of the physical state of the core, of the fuel : coupling the instrumentation to “numerical core simulation”, plus real time optimisation of core control “planning” by advanced algorithms. • Ageing : technology, materials; anticipation thanks to the “virtual reactor” monitoring and to extended operation feedback knowledge bases • Flexible, interruptible cogeneration : open questions about operation and compatibility, about cogeneration process ramping rate capability, about capacity factor (kp) and capital cost balance, etc. 3 – SMR; small core control, without boron; dedicated fuel … 4 - Gen-4. 26