TECHNOLOGICAL
BREAKTHROUGHS AND
ELECTRICITY OF
TOMORROW

Atoms for the future 2013 | Christophe Béhar

OCTOBER 21st, 2013
...
THE ENERGY ISSUES

Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013
| PAGE 2
A VERY SIGNIFICANT INCREASE OF THE WORLD ENERGY
NEEDS IN THE NEAR-FUTURE

*

Forecast : world Energy mix up jusqu'en
Proje...
THE SITUATION OF EUROPE
EUROPA ENERGY POLICY CRITERIA

Energy Policy Criteria
• Lowering CO2 emission
• Lowering Cost
• De...
LOWERING CO2 EMISSIONS

• Nuclear and Hydraulic Energy are the most efficient as regards to CO2
Emissions
• They will keep...
LOWERING COST
Rapport Energies 2050

Nuclear Energy is set to remain competitive in the long term
Christophe Béhar | Octob...
DECREASING ENERGY DEPENDANCE RATE

by 2035 over 80% of our energy will be imported

Herman Van Rompuy
European business Su...
TWO PILLARS OF THE ENERGY MIX IN FRANCE IN 2020
RENEWABLE AND NUCLEAR ENERGY
France keeps heading fixed by the European Cl...
GEN IV SFR : A MAJOR
TECHNOLOGICAL BREAKTHROUGH

Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013
|9
NUCLEAR SYSTEMS

1950

1970

1990

2010

2030

2050

2070

2090

Generation I
UNGG

CHOOZ

Generation II
LWR 900
LWR 1300
...
FAST REACTOR AND ASSOCIATED FUEL CYCLE ARE A
KEYSTONE OF SUSTAINABLE NUCLEAR ENERGY

FAST REACTOR INDISPENSABLE FOR



MA...
TWO TYPES OF FNR UNDER STUDIES

1 - Sodium Fast Reactor, the reference option :
[ASTRID, the integrated technology demonst...
DERIVING THE R&D FROM THE FEEDBACK OF
EXPERIENCE 1/2
Feedback of previous SFRs

R&D directions

ASTRID Orientations

Core ...
DERIVING THE R&D FROM THE FEEDBACK OF
EXPERIENCE 2/2
Feedback of previous SFRs
Sodium fire
 Safety

R&D directions
Innova...
ASTRID ORIENTATIONS TO REDUCE THE SODIUM WATER
RISK

Recall : the first measure of prevention is the presence of the
inter...
DECAY HEAT REMOVAL

•

2 direct reactor cooling systems:
•

•
•
•
•

•

Na/Na in the main vessel
air as cold source,
Redon...
FROM LWRs RECYCLING TO FRs RECYCLING
Pu stored in MOX Spent
Fuel recycled in MOX
SFR to start the SFRs
deployement

Scenar...
FUEL CYCLE FACILITIES FOR ASTRID
ASTRID Fuel Fabrication Facilities
AFC Project (# 10 t/y), several scenarios under assess...
SEPARATION PROCESSES STUDIED BY THE CEA

3 separation processes are
studied for the different
transmutation options under
...
DIFFERENT TRANSMUTATION ROUTES FOR THE
MINOR ACTINIDES
Several approaches can be considered:
 Homogeneous

transmutation ...
CONCLUSION

The challenge is : to produce a free carbon electricity at reasonable coasts,
while ensuring energy independen...
THANK YOU FOR
YOUR ATTENTION

Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | 22
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Christophe BEHAR Director of the Nuclear Energy Division CEA (Atoms for the Future 2013)

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Christophe BEHAR, the CEA Director of the Nuclear Energy Division reminded the energy issues (increasing world energy needs, reduction of CO2 emissions, energy dependence rate…) before explaining the ongoing technological breakthroughs of GENIV reactors with in particular the Sodium Fast Reactor ASTRID.

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Christophe BEHAR Director of the Nuclear Energy Division CEA (Atoms for the Future 2013)

  1. 1. TECHNOLOGICAL BREAKTHROUGHS AND ELECTRICITY OF TOMORROW Atoms for the future 2013 | Christophe Béhar OCTOBER 21st, 2013 Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 1
  2. 2. THE ENERGY ISSUES Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 2
  3. 3. A VERY SIGNIFICANT INCREASE OF THE WORLD ENERGY NEEDS IN THE NEAR-FUTURE * Forecast : world Energy mix up jusqu'en Projection : bouquet énergétique mondial to 2050 *2050 MTep par year MTepper an 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Source AIE (2006) Charbon Oil Pétrole Coal Gaz Gaz Other Autres énergiesenergy renewable renouvelables Nucléaire Nuclear Hydraulique Hydraulic Whatever the scenario, the world energy needs is set to increase significantly, mostly driven by non OECD countries development * References : WORLD ENERGY OUTLOOK 2012 Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 || PAGE 3
  4. 4. THE SITUATION OF EUROPE EUROPA ENERGY POLICY CRITERIA Energy Policy Criteria • Lowering CO2 emission • Lowering Cost • Decreasing Energy Dependance Rate Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 4
  5. 5. LOWERING CO2 EMISSIONS • Nuclear and Hydraulic Energy are the most efficient as regards to CO2 Emissions • They will keep the bigger share of low carbon energy in 2035, whatever the scenario (world energy outlook 2012) Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 5
  6. 6. LOWERING COST Rapport Energies 2050 Nuclear Energy is set to remain competitive in the long term Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 6
  7. 7. DECREASING ENERGY DEPENDANCE RATE by 2035 over 80% of our energy will be imported Herman Van Rompuy European business Summit/May 2013 The awareness of the Europe Energy Dependency on Europe competitivity is rising among European leaders TRADE BALANCE FOR FRANCE millions of euros Fossil fuel imports represents over 95% of France’s trade deficit in 2012- (69 billions €) Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 7
  8. 8. TWO PILLARS OF THE ENERGY MIX IN FRANCE IN 2020 RENEWABLE AND NUCLEAR ENERGY France keeps heading fixed by the European Climate-Energy Package in 2020 Reduction by 20% of the overall consumption of primary energy Reduction by 20% of emissions of greenhouse gases (compared to 1990) With a 20% share of renewable energy in the energy mix Nuclear and Renewable : Two pillars of the 2020 French energy mix:  Renewable: intermittent supply  Nuclear energy: base-load supply  preserve the use of fossil energies for necessary needs Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | 8
  9. 9. GEN IV SFR : A MAJOR TECHNOLOGICAL BREAKTHROUGH Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 |9
  10. 10. NUCLEAR SYSTEMS 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050 2070 2090 Generation I UNGG CHOOZ Generation II LWR 900 LWR 1300 N4 1450 Generation III EPR LWR (2030-2040) Flamanville ASTRID DESIGN OPERATION OF ASTRID EXPERIENCE Generation IV ASTRID Construction & Operation of Fast Reactors FEEDBACK Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 10
  11. 11. FAST REACTOR AND ASSOCIATED FUEL CYCLE ARE A KEYSTONE OF SUSTAINABLE NUCLEAR ENERGY FAST REACTOR INDISPENSABLE FOR  MASTERING PLUTONIUM STOCKPILE IN SPENT FUELS  USING THE TOTAL POTENTIAL ENERGETIC OF NATUREL URANIUM  MINIMISING VOLUME AND RADIOTOXICITY OF NUCLEAR WASTE Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 11
  12. 12. TWO TYPES OF FNR UNDER STUDIES 1 - Sodium Fast Reactor, the reference option : [ASTRID, the integrated technology demonstrator] - maturity, possible further improvments (safety, operability, economics) - developped with industrial and international partners 2 - Gas-cooled Fast Reactor, a long-term option: the Allegro project - Contribution of CEA to the V4G4 consortium (Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia) - attractive potentialities but heavy challenges… Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013
  13. 13. DERIVING THE R&D FROM THE FEEDBACK OF EXPERIENCE 1/2 Feedback of previous SFRs R&D directions ASTRID Orientations Core Sodium voiding reactivity  Safety Optimization of core design to CFV core (Patented in 2010): improve natural behavior innovative approach, very low during abnormal transients. or negative overall sodium voiding reactivity Exploration of heterogeneous Better natural behavior of the cores core, for instance in case of loss of flow (e.g. due to loss of supply power) Sodium-Water interaction  Safety - Availability Modular Steam Generators Limitation of total released energy in case of sodium-water interaction Inverted Steam Generators (sodium in tubes) Limitation of wastage propagation Gas Power Conversion System (nitrogen in place of steam/water) Design studies conducted by ALSTOM. No show stopper. Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 13
  14. 14. DERIVING THE R&D FROM THE FEEDBACK OF EXPERIENCE 2/2 Feedback of previous SFRs Sodium fire  Safety R&D directions Innovative Sodium leak detection systems R&D on Sodium aerosols ASTRID Orientations Improving detection (Patent of detection system integrated in the heat insulator) Close containment (inert gas + restriction of available oxygen) Severe accidents  Safety Core catcher Research on corium and sodium-corium interaction Core catcher. Several possible locations (in vessel, ex-vessel or between the two vessels). Decay heat removal  Safety Reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (scaling rules) Combination of proved Decay Heat Removal systems and Vessel Natural Air draft cooling In-Service Inspection and Repair  Safety – Availability Simplification of primary system design ISI&R taken into account from the design stage New techniques : Acoustic Detection, Laser, CRDS Signal processing Ultrasound at high temperature, High temperature fission chambers, Optical Fibers, Flow meters for subassembly Remote handling for inspection or repair Under-sodium viewing Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 14
  15. 15. ASTRID ORIENTATIONS TO REDUCE THE SODIUM WATER RISK Recall : the first measure of prevention is the presence of the intermediate and no radioactive sodium circuit to separate chemical risk and radiological risk. 2 ways to reduce the SWR risk: To review the SG design of the steam PCS (Rankine cycle) in order to : - reduce the risk of SWR occurrence - limit the consequences of an hypothetical violent reaction To move to a gas PCS (Brayton cycle with pure nitrogen at 180 bar) in place of steam cycle to eliminate de facto the SWR risk Feasibility to be demonstrated. Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 15
  16. 16. DECAY HEAT REMOVAL • 2 direct reactor cooling systems: • • • • • • Na/Na in the main vessel air as cold source, Redondancy : 2 ou 3 trains per system (2*100% ou 3*50%) System n°1 : natural convection System n°2 : forced convection 1 complémentary system (mitigation) : • Through the Primary Vessel Reactor • Cold source to be confirmed (water / air)
  17. 17. FROM LWRs RECYCLING TO FRs RECYCLING Pu stored in MOX Spent Fuel recycled in MOX SFR to start the SFRs deployement Scenario can be flexible Both systems can coexist during a transition phase RNR merits as regards to fuel cycle No front end steps and no enrichment technology Use depleted U; Use Pu included in MOX Spent Fuel Multi-recycling of Pu Possible recycling of Minor Actinides Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 17
  18. 18. FUEL CYCLE FACILITIES FOR ASTRID ASTRID Fuel Fabrication Facilities AFC Project (# 10 t/y), several scenarios under assessment SFR closed cycle demonstration (U and Pu multi-recycling): ATC, a Specific Engineering Scale Facility, or adaptation of the La Hague Head End (shearing and dissolution) M.A. transmutation demonstration: Extension of the AFC RECYCLING Waste Assemblies The ASTRID Fuel Cycle Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 18
  19. 19. SEPARATION PROCESSES STUDIED BY THE CEA 3 separation processes are studied for the different transmutation options under consideration:  SANEX (Selective minor ActiNide EXtraction) : the aim is to recover americium and curium after the conventional reprocessing step EXAm (Extraction of Americium) : the aim is to recover americium alone after conventional reprocessing  GANEX (Group ActiNide Extraction) : the aim is to recover plutonium together with all minor actinides The EXam separation is retained Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | 19
  20. 20. DIFFERENT TRANSMUTATION ROUTES FOR THE MINOR ACTINIDES Several approaches can be considered:  Homogeneous transmutation : recycling of minor actinides by « dilution » in the fuel of neutron power reactors Heterogeneous transmutation : recycling of minor Actinides in power reactors at higher concentrations in a limited number of dedicated elements  Transmutation by dedicated systems The heterogeneous transmutation is now retained Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 20
  21. 21. CONCLUSION The challenge is : to produce a free carbon electricity at reasonable coasts, while ensuring energy independence and security of supplies In this context, nuclear energy is indispensable: it is the only energy able to produce baseload electricity massively and competitively without greenhous gas emissions To preserve these assets, it is essential to keep on innovating Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | PAGE 21
  22. 22. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Christophe Béhar | October 21st, 2013 | 22
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