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Chart during reading strategies


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  • 1. CONNECTIVES<br />DEFINITION FUNCTIONTYPES OF CONNECTIVESEXAMPLELos conectores son palabras y frases que conectan las ideas en una oración con la idea de otra oración. Lustran el movimiento entre las oraciones y demuestran las relaciones. Esto disminuye los errores del lector. Función: las conexiones entre oracionesUn buen párrafo tiene unidad: Todas las oraciones tienen una interrelación una a otra con la idea principal. La conexión entre oraciones en un párrafo se puede mostrar en diferentes formas, pero principalmente por el uso de palabras de transición y frases.Añadir otra idea: furthermore, in addition, also, moreover, likewise, similarly.Arreglar ideas en orden ó tiempo: first, finally, meanwhile, eventually, next, subsequently, ultimately, at the same time.Añadir un ejemplo ó explicación: for example, for instance, in other words.Concluir o resumir: hence, therefore, thus, accordingly, in brief, in conclusion, consequently.Conectar dos ideas contrastantes; diferenciar ideas: on the other hand, however, yet, conversely, nonetheless, nevertheless, rather, although, on the contrary.Enfatizar o confirmar: indeed, naturally, of course, certainly, undoubtedly, admittedly, plainlyCONNECTIVES. Read the text and underline the connectives from the text. <br />TRANSITIONS<br />DEFINITION FUNCTIONTYPES OF TRANSITIONSEXAMPLELas transiciones, o palabras señal, pueden ayudar al lector a localizar la idea principal de un párrafo. La idea principal es única, es el punto más importante el cual el escritor desea transmitir al lector. Las palabras de transición y frases pueden ser conjunciones, tales como and, but, and however, or explanatory expressions, such as for instance, on the other hand, y así sucesivamente.Las palabras de transición y frases actúan como señales. Ellas dan orientación. Ellas dicen donde va el párrafo. En éste sentido, las palabras y frases de transición también actúan para concatenar oraciones juntas, logrando la unidad.Estas palabras y frases se utilizan generalmente para clarificar la interrelación entre los diferentes partes de un párrafo: for example, on the other hand, in comparison, in contrast, first, second, third, one, another, finally, some, others, but, still, yet, then, and now.Las transiciones (Transitions) aparecen en forma de palabras solas, frases, oraciones, y aún párrafos completos. Ellas ayudan a establecer la interrelación entre ideas en un párrafo y a crear una progresión lógica de aquellas ideas en un párrafo. Sin transiciones, el párrafo no estará unificado, coherente, ó bien desarrollado.To Add InformationTransitions that add information:  and,furthermore, also/too,additionally,as well,in addition, To Show an Effect or Result Transitions that indicate an effect or result: so, as a consequence, therefore, as a result, consequently, thus,To Give an ExampleExamples connect one idea to a fact or illustration. Transitions: for example, to illustrate, one/an example, for instance.To Contrast IdeasWhen we want to indicate that one idea is opposite another, we use these transitions. But,yet, though.....,however, although...., nonetheless, Even though....,on the other hand.To Summarize IdeasThese transitions indicate that a paragraph or essay is about to reach a conclusion. to sum up,in conclusion,in brief,in Summary,in short,to summarize,<br />PARAGRAPH:<br />DEFINITIONELEMENTS OF A PARAGRAPHTYPES OF PARAGRAPHSEXAMPLEPRACTICEEs una estructura lingüística que expresa el desarrollo de una idea central que presenta una información de manera organizada y está formado por una o varias oraciones. Los párrafos se utilizan para separar ideas principales. Aun párrafo nuevo le señala al lector que una nueva idea se discute. La separación entre los párrafos le da al lector tiempo para tomar cada idea.Una oración asunto(Topic sentence) motiva al lector a querer leer más. The First main point- prueba,respalda, o explica la oración asunto. The Second main point- normalmente ofrece información para el primer punto realizado.  The Third main point- puede ayudar a probar la oración asunto o respaldar el primer o segundo punto principal del párrafo. The Conclusion- resume los puntos principales o las ideas y ésta generalmente complementa el tema o asunto. TIPOS DE PÁRRAFOS SEGÚN EL PROPÓSITO;The narrative paragraph: tells a storyThe persuasive paragraph. tries to convince the audienceThe descriptive paragraph: describes somethingThe expository or explanatory paragraph: gives information or explains something<br />DEFINITIONTYPESEXAMPLEPRACTICEUn pronombre es una palabra que toma el lugar de un sustantivo y funciona como lo hace un sustantivo. Por lo tanto, un pronombre puede ser sustituido por cualquier sustantivo.AntecedentUn antecedente es un sustantivo ó una frase nominal a la cual un pronombre se refiere. Aunque casualmente un antecedente puede seguir el pronombre, la mayoría de los antecedentes preceden al pronombre. Todos los pronombres deben corresponder o coincidir su antecedente en número, persona, y género. Los pronombres pueden ser de distintos tipos incluyendo los pronombres personales (I, you, me, she, he, they); indefinite (somebody, anyone); reflexive (myself, himself, themselves); and possessive (his, theirs, ours).Cada pronombre debe tener un antecedente claro y explicito.DEBES INVESTIGAR TODOS LOS TIPOS DE PRONOMBRES.DIRECTIONS: PRONOUNS AND THEIR REFERENTS. In this article, the pronouns are underlined. Read the text all the way to the end. Then write the pronouns and their referents on the lines below. PlanningPlanning involves determining overall company objectives and deciding how these can best be archieved. Managers evaluate alternative plans before choosing a specific course of action and then check to see that the chosen plan fits in the objetives established at higher organizational levels. Planning is listed as the management function because the others depend on it. However, even as managers move on to perfom other managerial functions, planning continues as goal and alternative are further evaluate and revised.PRONOUNLINE NUMBERREFERENTThese 2ObjetivesDIRECTIONS: In this article, the pronouns are underlined. Read the text all the way to the end. Then write the pronouns and their referents on the lines below. Management Functions.Management plays a vital role in any business or organized activity. Management is composed of a team of managers who have charge of the organization at all levels. Their duties include marking sure company objetives are met and seeing that the business operate efficiently. Regardless of the specific job, most managers perform four basic fuctions. These management fuctions are planning, organizing, directing and controlling.PRONOUNLINE NUMBERREFERENT<br />TEXT STRUCTURE<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSEORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTUREEXAMPLEPRACTICEText structure refers to the internal organization of a text.As authors write a text to communicate an idea, they will use a structure that goes along with the idea (Meyer 1985).Text structure refers to the semantic and syntactic organizational arrangements used to present written information. For example, arguments in a sequence are constructed in a chain, while arguments in a well-constructed compare-contrast text are linked back and forth from one object of comparison to the other. The visual markers of a text that show a sequence (e.g., numbers, a timeline) are different from those of a comparison (e.g., a table, columns).Different structures may have specific key words/phrases that signal their presence (e.g., "first, second, …" or "as a result…"). Texts that are constructed according to text structure conventions are easier to read, understand, and remember. Knowing how a piece of text is organized helps the reader to make better sense of the information. Each organizational structure suggests questions which readers should consider as they are reading and be able to answer once they've finished reading the passage.Looking for signal words can help students to determine a text's organizational structure.Chronological/Sequence: (Time/Order) Chronological articles reveal events in a sequence from beginning to end. Words that signal chronological structures include: first, then, next, finally, and specific dates and times.Cause/Effect: Informational texts often describe cause and effect relationships. The text describes events and identifies or implies causal factors.Problem/Solution: The text introduces and describes a problem and presents solutions.Compare/Contrast: Authors use comparisons to describe ideas to readers. Similes, metaphors, and analogies are used in compare/contrast organizational structures.Description: Sensory details help readers visualize information.Directions: How-To texts frame the information in a series of directions.<br />UNFAMILIAR KEY WORDS/Palabras DesconocidasSTEP FOR UNFAMILIAR KEY WORDSEXAMPLEPRACTICELas palabras claves desconocidas requieren ser enseñadas a los estudiantes antes de la lectura ya que son palabras nuevas, información previa, y la comprensión puede mejorar al conocer su significado.Escribe el vocabulario importante de la lectura y busca su significado si no lo sabes Primero haz hipótesis de su significado en el contexto del texto antes de buscarlo en el diccionario. Busca palabras cognadas. Observa y analiza los prefijos, raíz y sufijos de las palabras. Enumere todas las palabras en las asignaciones que pueden ser importantes para que los alumnos comprendan. Ordene las palabras para mostrar la relación con el aprendizaje de la tarea. Agregue palabras a los estudiantes que probablemente ya comprenden para conectar la relación entre lo que se conoce y lo desconocido. Comparta la información con los estudiantes. Interrogue a las estudiantes sobre la información antes asignadas al comienzo de la lectura. <br />CONCLUDING SENTENCES:<br />DEFINITIONFUNCTIONUNDERSTANDING CONCLUDING SENTENCESEXAMPLEPRACTICEIn formal paragraphs you will sometimes see a sentence at the end of the paragraph which summarizes the information that has been presented.  This is the concluding sentence.You can think of a concluding sentence as a sort of topic sentence in reverse.-The topic sentence and concluding sentence "hold" the supporting sentences in the paragraph. To round off what you have said so far in your paragraphTo qualify the views expressedTo link the current paragraph to the next paragraph-Concluding sentences link one paragraph to the next and provide another device for helping you ensure your text is cohesive. While not all paragraphs include a concluding sentence, you should always consider whether one is appropriate. -Concluding sentences have three crucial roles in paragraph writing. -They draw together the information you have presented to elaborate your controlling idea by:-summarizing the points you have made.-Repeating words or phrases (or synonyms for them) from the topic sentence.-Using linking words that indicate that conclusions are being drawn, for example, therefore, thus, resulting.They often link the current paragraph to the following paragraph. They may anticipate the topic sentence of the next paragraph by: -Introducing a word/phrase or new concept which will then be picked up in the topic sentence of the next paragraph.-Using words or phrases that point ahead, for example, the following, another, other.They often qualify the information or perspectives developed in the elaboration. They may qualify this information by:-Using concessive conjunctions to foreground the importance of some perspectives and background others.making comparisons and contrasts between perspectives.using other language that clearly indicates the perspective they favourDIRECTIONS: Read the paragraph and, if there is a concluding sentence, observe its relationship to the other parts of the paragraph.Re-read the paragraph and look carefully at the way the writer has used the concluding sentence to link that paragraph to the next. Underline to highlight the linkage between the concluding sentence and the next paragraph.Directions :CONCLUDING SENTENCE. Look for a sentence for concluding some particular topic about the text.<br />CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH<br />DEFINITIONSTRUCTURE STEPS FOR  CONCLUDING PARAGRAPHEXAMPLEPRACTICEAunque las conclusiones no suelen causar los estudiantes tantos problemas como la introducción, son casi tan difícil hacerlo bien. Contrariamente a la creencia popular, las conclusiones no se limitan a reafirmar la tesis, y nunca debe comenzar con "En conclusión ..." Ellos representan la última oportunidad de decir algo importante para sus lectores, y se pueden utilizar para algunos o todos.-Although conclusions generally do not cause students as much trouble as introductions, they are nearly as difficult to get right. Contrary to popular belief, conclusions do not merely restate the thesis, and they should never begin with "In conclusion…" They represent your last chance to say something important to your readers, and can be used for some, or all, of the following tasks: Emphasizing the purpose and importance of your essay Explaining the significance or consequences of your findings Indicating the wider applications of the method developed in your essay Establishing your essay as the basis for further investigation To show other directions of inquiry into the subject Exactly which tasks your conclusion fulfills will vary according to your subject, your audience, and your objectives for the essay. Generally, conclusions fulfill a rhetorical purpose—they persuade your readers to do something: take action on an issue, change a policy, make an observation, or understand a topic differently.Conclusions vary widely in structure, and no prescription can guarantee that your essay has ended well. If the introduction and body of your essay have a clear trajectory, your readers should already expect you to conclude when the final paragraph arrives, so don’t overload it with words or phrases that indicate its status. Below is an outline for a hypothetical, abstract essay with five main sections: Conclusion Transition from last body paragraph Sentences explaining how paper has fit together and leads to a stronger, more emphatic and more detailed version of your thesis Discussion of implications for further research 1-Other areas that can use the same method 2-How your finds change the readers’ understanding of the topic 3-Discussion of areas in need of more detailed investigation Final words 1-Why the essay was important or interesting 2-Any other areas in which your essay has significance: ethics, practical applications, politics Haciendo hincapié en la finalidad y la importancia de su ensayo. Explicar el significado o las consecuencias de sus hallazgos. La indicación de la aplicación más amplias del método desarrollado en su ensayo.El establecimiento de su ensayo, como base para una mayor investigación. Para mostrar otras direcciones de la investigación sobre el tema. DIRECTIONS: CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH. Read the article. Does the final paragraph identify some main ideas in the article? What are they?DIRECTIONS: CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH. Does the final paragraph identify some main ideas in the article? What are they?<br />SENTENCES STRUCTURE<br />DEFINITIONPARTS OF SENTENCESKINDS OF SENTENCESPRACTICE-Una oración es un grupo de palabras que forman una declaración ó mandato. Cada oración debería tener un sujeto y un verbo. El sujeto y el verbo deben “concordar”.ORACIÓN: Es un conjunto de palabras que se unen para expresar un pensamiento completo. Sujeto: Los sujetos de las oraciones son sustantivos ó pronombres.Verbo: El verbo una acción del verbo ó un verbo de ayuda ( helping verb).Predicado: Los predicados son palabras que dicen algo acerca de los sujetos, son verbos.ORACIONES SIMPLES Son aquellas oraciones que solo tiene un verbo en forma personal, es decir, un sujeto y un predicado. (Subject + verb + complement). ORACIONES COMPUESTAS Son aquellas que tiene dos o más verbos en forma personal. (Subject + verb + complement + Conjunction + subject + verb + complement). ORACIONES COMPLEJAS Están conformadas por una oración simple mas una clausula dependiente, y no se pueden separar porque perdería sentido la oración. (Subject + verb + complement + dependent clause + subject + verb + complement).EXAMPLES: SIMPLE SENTENCES…..COMPOUND SENTENCES…..COMPLEX SENTENCES…..DIRECTIONS: RECOGNIZE THE STRUCTURE SIMPLE SENTENCES, COMPLEX SENTENCES AND COMPOUND SENTENCES. .       Use complete and correct sentences of various structures and lengths (e.g., simple, compound, complex ) to enhance meaning throughout a piece of writing; apply unconventional sentence structures.<br />TOPIC <br />DEFINITIONHow to find the topic EXAMPLEPRACTICEUn tópico es una palabra ó frase (pocas palabras) dice lo que trata algo. El tópico es la clave para la comprensión de lo que lees. Este también ayuda a recordar. Un buen lector siempre pregunta, “De que trata esto? Cúal es el tópico?Ask yourself the question:What (who) is this paragraph or essay about?-Think of the paragraph as a wheel with the topic being the hub - the central core around which the whole wheel (or paragraph) spins. -Your strategy for topic identification is simply to ask yourself the question:-"What is this about?" Keep asking yourself that question as you read a paragraph, until the answer to your question becomes clear. Sometimes you can spot the topic by looking for a word or two that repeat. Usually you can state the topic in a few words. - Before you begin reading, it is important for you to know what you will be reading about. To find the topic skim through the reading selection, underlining repetitive words or ideas. Usually, these repetitive words or ideas will be the topic. By establishing the topic before you read, you are allowing your brain to connect with the idea you are going to be reading about, making comprehension easier.-DIRECTIONS; FINDING THE TOPIC. In the groups of words in the following example, one of the words is the topic for all the others words. You will choose which word is the topic. You may not know the meaning of all the words, but don´t use a dictionary when you work on these exercises.Read the following passsages. Look for repetitive words in each to help you determine the topic.Many of us think of ourselves as consumers only when we purchase a product or utilize a service. If we buy a suit or dress, we are part of the large mass of clothing consumers. If we sit down and eat a hamburger, we are consumers of fast foods. For most people, the concept of "consumerism" is fairly narrow. As a consequence of this limited focus, many people fail to understand that their individual decisions and actions affect other people. They become concerned about consumer issues only when they must deal directly with consumer problems. All too often, by the time they realize that they are not equipped to handle a consumer problem, it is too late. They have already become victims.Directions: Think of words for these topics. Write the words on the lines below. TOPIC:______________________ <br />TOPIC SENTENCES:<br />DEFINITIONHow to find the topic EXAMPLEPRACTICEThe main idea of the paragraph is expressed in a single sentence called the topic sentence, which is often the first sentence of the paragraph. All other sentences in the paragraph relate to the ideas of the topic sentence, as well as to each other.Identify the TOPIC:The topic is identified as either a word or phrase which best describes what the reading selection is about. The topic should not be too broad (covering more than what is discussed in the selection) or too narrow (not covering everything discussed in the selection).Q: "Who or what have I just read about?“Clues for determining the topic of a selection: A word, name, or phrase that appears as a heading or title. A word, name or phrase that appears in special type such bold print, italics, or color. A word, name or phrase that is repeated throughout the paragraph. A word, name, or phrase that may appear at the beginning of the paragraphand is then referred to throughout the paragraph by pronouns (or other words). <br />CONTEXT CLUES<br />DEFINITION PURPOSESTYPES OF CONTEXT CLUESEXAMPLEPRACTICEContext refers to the words that come before and/or after an unfamiliar word. Sometimes when an author is introducing a concept, she will use synonyms (words that have similar meanings) to help readers make connections. Sometimes when an author is introducing a concept, she will use antonyms (words that have opposite meanings) to help readers make connections. Context may include a definition provided within the article. Examples are often provided to give readers clues about a concept. Authors often help readers visualize story ideas with descriptive details. The picture painted by the author’s description may provide clues to an unfamiliar word. If context does not provide sufficient clues, readers use reference materials to define words. Readers use information from text to decipher unfamiliar words. They examine clues from the selection to define unfamiliar words and phrases.Questions that help students use context clues to decipher unfamiliar words:What do you think the word means?Which clues did you use to help you predict the meaning of the word?How did the author help you understand new words?What synonyms or antonyms help you define new words from the selection?What examples did the author write to help readers understand new ideas?Did the author use comparisons to help describe new ideas?<br />DISTINGUISH FACTS FROM OPINIONS<br />DEFINITIONSQuestions that help students distinguish facts from opinions:Facts are statements that can be proven true. Opinions are statements that describe someone’s judgment, belief, feelings or way of thinking about a topic. Readers sort out facts and opinions from a selection. Readers check a variety of sources to support statements of fact. Opinions are sometimes supported by facts or authority. These statements are defined as valid opinions. What facts were presented in the article?What evidence did the author include to support statements of fact?What hypotheses did the author present in the selection?What opinions were revealed in the selection?Can (this statement) be proven true or false?How did the author convey the validity of the information?What words and/or phrases did the author use to let readers know that an idea was a fact or an opinion?<br />Active Reading Strategies<br />Choose the strategies that work best for you or that best suit your purpose. You do not need to use them all every time you read.<br />Ask yourself pre-reading questions.  For example:  What is the topic, and what do you already know about it?  Why has the instructor assigned this reading at this point in the semester?<br />Identify and define any unfamiliar terms.<br />Bracket the main idea or thesis of the reading, and put an asterisk next to it. Pay particular attention to the introduction or opening paragraphs to locate this information.<br />Put down your highlighter.  Make marginal notes or comments instead. Every time you feel the urge to highlight something, write instead. You can summarize the text, ask questions, give assent, protest vehemently. You can also write down key words to help you recall where important points are discussed. Above all, strive to enter into a dialogue with the author.<br />Write questions in the margins, and then answer the questions in a reading journal or on a separate piece of paper.  If you’re reading a textbook, try changing all the titles, subtitles, sections and paragraph headings into questions.  For example, the section heading “The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro” might become “What are the gas laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro?”<br />Make outlines, flow charts, or diagrams that help you to map and to understand ideas visually.  (See below for examples).<br />Read each paragraph carefully and then determine "what it says" and “what it does.” Answer “what it says” in only one sentence. Represent the main idea of the paragraph in your own words. To answer “what it does,” describe the paragraph’s purpose within the text, such as “provides evidence for the author’s first main reason” or “introduces an opposing view.”<br />Write a summary of an essay or chapter in your own words. Do this in less than a page. Capture the essential ideas and perhaps one or two key examples. This approach offers a great way to be sure that you know what the reading really says or is about.<br />Write your own exam question based on the reading.<br />Teach what you have learned to someone else! Research clearly shows that teaching is one of the most effective ways to learn. If you try to explain aloud what you have been studying, (1) you’ll transfer the information from short-term to long-term memory, and (2) you’ll quickly discover what you understand — and what you don’t.<br />Activate Prior Knowledge<br />Readers have personal experiences, knowledge of the world, and previous experiences with text. They bring this prior knowledge to the text to help them understand. Readers connect new information to their existing knowledge base. <br />Readers activate relevant prior knowledge before, during and after reading. They decide if they need additional information about the topic, format, or language of the text they will be reading. They use their knowledge as a framework for learning new information. Readers add to or change their thinking as they discover new ideas and/or information in their reading.<br />Prior knowledge is a combination of the reader’s preexisting attitudes, experiences, and knowledge:<br />Attitudes include a reader’s beliefs about themselves as learners/readers, an awareness of their interests and strengths, and their motivation to read a particular text.<br />Experiences include any activities that provided a reader with a base of understanding. <br />Knowledge includes that of the reading process, content, topics, concepts, text structures, text styles, and reading goals.<br />Questions to help students activate their prior knowledge:<br />What knowledge will help you understand the information in this selection?<br />Which details from the text connected to your life experiences?<br />What background knowledge would help a reader to understand this text?<br />Would you recommend this article to readers? Why? Whynot?<br />What connections did you make with the information revealed in this selection? <br />What other selections did this article remind you of? (Text-to-Text Connections)<br />What personal connections did you make with the information? <br />What did you learn about the world from this article?<br />Where would you find additional information for the topic of this article?<br />Based on the topic, what information would you expect to read in this selection?<br />What details did you add to your knowledge of this topic based on this article?<br />How are the events described in this article related to your life? Are there similarities? Are there differences? How are the events similar or different to the life of people you know?<br /><br />Ask Questions: Before, During, and After Reading<br />Readers generate questions before, during and after reading. Questions pertain to the text’s content, structure and language. They ask questions for different purposes including those that clarify their own developing understanding. Readers wonder about the choices the author made when writing. <br />Questions to use BEFORE reading:Activate topic specific knowledge, general world knowledge, text organization or structure knowledge, and author knowledge:<br />What clues does the title/subtitle reveal?<br />What genre of writing does this article represent? Fiction? Nonfiction? Poetry?<br />Based on the genre of writing, how will you read this selection? <br />What expectations do you have when you read nonfiction? Fiction? Poetry?<br />What information do you know about this topic?<br />What information could be researched to deepen your understanding of the text?<br />Why are you reading this article? What is your goal? (Set a purpose for reading.)<br />What information do you hope this article will include?<br />What questions do you hope this article will answer?<br />Do you know this author’s work? Have you read other pieces written by this author? What do you know about the kinds of writing this author has composed?<br />Why do you think the author wrote this article?<br />When you scan the text features (title, subtitle, headings, illustrations, captions, bold print, italicized phrases), what details can be collected to help you prepare for reading?<br />Questions to use DURING reading:Monitor level of comprehension; Apply problem-solving strategies when comprehension breaks down:<br />What do you understand from the paragraph you just read?<br />Could you summarize its key ideas?<br />What three words represent key ideas? What clues in this paragraph will help you understand that unfamiliar word?<br />Do you need to reread the paragraph to understand what the author is saying?<br />Do you need to slow down your reading in order to understand the ideas? What strategies can you use to unlock the meanings in this text?<br />What images can you visualize using text details in order to build your understanding?<br />Do you need to stop and check the dictionary for an unfamiliar word? Is it essential to know its definition in order to understand the main ideas of the article? Or can youreadon?<br />Questions to use AFTER reading:Respond, Make Connections, Extend Comprehension, Analyze and Evaluate Ideas, Read Between and Beyond the Lines, Assess Literal and Interpretative Comprehension:<br />Which pre-reading questions did this article answer?<br />Which pre-reading predictions were confirmed?<br />Whichpredictionswererevised?<br />What are the main ideas of this article?<br />What generalizations can be made using the details from the text? <br />What conclusions can be made from the details described in the selection? <br />What cause and effect relationships were revealed?<br />How did the author reveal descriptive information?<br />What is the overall theme of this article?<br />What connections did you make with the information in this article? <br />Would you recommend this article to other readers? Whyorwhynot?<br />Identify and Analyze Text Structure<br />Back to20 Best-practices Reading Strategies<br />How is the information organized? Authors make decisions about how to present information to readers. They choose from a variety of structures to organize the information for readers: <br />Chronological/Sequence: (Time/Order) Chronological articles reveal events in a sequence from beginning to end. Words that signal chronological structures include: first, then, next, finally, and specific dates and times.Cause/Effect: Informational texts often describe cause and effect relationships. The text describes events and identifies or implies causal factors.Problem/Solution: The text introduces and describes a problem and presents solutions.Compare/Contrast: Authors use comparisons to describe ideas to readers. Similes, metaphors, and analogies are used in compare/contrast organizational structures.Description: Sensory details help readers visualize information.Directions: How-To texts frame the information in a series of directions.<br />Readers experience a variety of text structures. Identifying the structure of a text helps readers read efficiently. Readers select specific comprehension strategies that fit a particular text based on knowledge of how the information is organized. Readers can anticipate what information will be revealed in a selection when they understand text structure. Understanding the pattern of the text helps readers organize ideas for synthesizing and summarizing.<br />Questions that help readers use text structures to aid comprehension:<br />Skim the article for titles, subtitles, headings, and key words. After scanning the text, how do you think the author organized the information?<br />Which framework did this author use to organize the information? Chronological? Cause/Effect? Problem/Solution? Compare/Contrast? Description? Directions? <br />Does the author use a combination of structures?<br />How did the author organize the text to be “reader-friendly”? <br />Which text features helped you collect information from the article?<br />Let us try this topic-finding strategy. Reread the first paragraph on this page - the first paragraph under the heading.<br />PREFIX<br />A prefix is a letter or a group of letters that has special meaning and appears in front of a word. Prefixes are added to some root words to create new words. Words do not always have a prefix. By learning some key prefixes you will learn the meanings of many words without using a dictionary. Sometimes you may recognize a letter or group of letters as a prefix, but find that it does not carry the meaning of the prefix. For instance, look at the word internal. It has nothing to do with the prefix "inter," which means between. <br />Pick a controversial issue - something people clearly agree or disagree with it strongly.<br />Decide which side you will take - do you agree or disagree with it? This will be your opinion.<br />Get as much information as you can in order to defend your point of view - you will need facts to support your point, examples of why your opinion is the correct one.<br />Find out as much as you can about opinions that are different from yours - get as much information about the other side as you can.<br />Be ready to change your main idea if your research shows you that your thoughts were not correct to begin with!<br /> <br />