DEFINITIONTYPES PURPOSEEXAMPLEPRACTICE  ASKING QUESTIONSAsking Questions helps students read for different purposes: clari...
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
Chart 2 pre  reading strategies
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Chart 2 pre reading strategies

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Chart 2 pre reading strategies

  1. 1. DEFINITIONTYPES PURPOSEEXAMPLEPRACTICE ASKING QUESTIONSAsking Questions helps students read for different purposes: clarification, to create meaning, make predictions, to wonder about what the author is trying to tell the reader.  As students become more and more proficient in asking questions, they develop a deeper understanding of the text they read.  Thick Questions:Address large concepts Don't have just one answer Can begin with Why, How come, and I wonder Require evidence to support the answer completely Thin Questions: Have one correct answer Can be answered with yes/no Clarify confusion Locate specific content To establish and clarify the purpose for reading a particular text. Asking questions about a text helps a learner to establish their purpose for reading that text and to monitor how far their reading of the text is achieving that purpose. Asking themselves questions as they read also helps the learners to engage with a text and to monitor their use of reading strategies. After reading, the learners can generate and respond to questions to demonstrate that they have comprehended the text. ASK QUESTIONS TO GUIDE READINGGood readers generate questions before, during and after reading to clarify meaning, make predictions and focus their attention on what's important. Why, what, where, who and how?  Questioning during reading will allow students to better understand the material. What does this text seem to be about? What do I already know about this subject? What do the subheadings tell me about the topic? What kind of text is this? What do the highlighted words/phrases tell me? Good readers generate questions before, during and after reading to clarify meaning, make predictions and focus their attention on what's important. Why, what, where, who and how?  Questioning during reading will allow students to better understand the material. Directions: read the text and answer the questionsWhat does this text seem to be about? _What do I already know about this subject? What do the subheadings tell me about the topic? _What kind of text is this? What do the highlighted words/phrases tell me? <br />ASKING QUESTIONS<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR PRE-QUESTIONINGEXAMPLEPRACTICE Pre-questioning involves presenting students with a set of written questions (Royer et. al., 1983) or having students generate their own questions on the topic of the reading passage (Taglieber et.al., 1983).” (Grellet 1981:62). Pre-questioning also “functions to get students to predict within a context area what the text will be about” before studying the text (Carrell 1988:247). They make students “aware of what they wish to learn about the topic” (Grellet 1981:62), since these questions set purposes for reading.The aim of the activity is two-fold. As Carrell (1988:247) points out, “pre-questioning functions to motivate students to read what follows for a purpose, that is, to gain the requisite information to answer the question. Being motivated is one of the most important factors that can help students in the process of reading”. “The more students look forward to reading and anticipate in their minds what the text could hold in store for them, the easier it will be to grasp the main points of the passageYou can also write out a series of questions you expect to be answered when reading:Examples:Definition What is....?Where does ... fit?What group does ... belong to?Characteristics How would I describe...? What does ... look like? What are its parts?Examples What is a good example of ...?What are similar examples that share attributes but differ in some way?ExperienceWhat experience have I had with ....?What can I imagine about ...?1. What is the text related to?a-Accounting b) Administration c) Human Resource Managament 2. What does the text concentrate on?a) Recruitmentb) employees c) other__________3. What type of reader was this text written for?a) Scientistsb) studentsc) employeesd) professionalsDIRECTIONS: Read the text and answer the following questions.<br />PRE-QUESTIONING <br />PREDICTION<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR PREDICTINGEXAMPLEPRACTICE ASKING QUESTIONS- Predicting is guessing the content of a text based on your knowledge of the subject, the author's area of expertise and opinions, and the context. You can do this by asking yourself 'journalistic questions' about the topic before reading.- Predicting is using the text to guess what will happen next. Then the reader confirms or rejects their prediction as they read. Predicting is a reading strategy that done before and during reading. A technique to apply to this reading strategy is to use the Think, Pair, Share method. Have the students form predictions, share with a partner, and then participate in class discussion.. Predicting lets you:􀁸 Think about a topic before reading in greaterdetail.􀁸 Identify what you already know about a topic􀁸 Keeps your mind focused as you read-In order to make quality predictions, a reader must first preview the text to be read.  (S)he uses the text features to identify key ideas about characters and plot, if the text is fiction.  If the text is non-fiction, the preview provides small pieces of information that lead to the main idea to be learned.Once the student has previewed the text, (s)he can make an educated guess as to what the text will teach.  A specific preview coupled with a student's background knowledge outlines the reading task, and makes it easier for a student to successfully read the text.-Making predictions keeps the students actively engaged in the reading process, and being engaged is key to comprehension. By constantly thinking about their predictions to confirm or revise them, readers remain motivated and focused1-You need to understand the organization of a text at 2 levels, at the paragraph level and at the whole text level. The paragraph level means understanding the organization of the sentences in a paragraph, and the links between them.2-Establish a purpose for reading. This should be done with every piece of text read. You need determine what the primary outcome of reading the text should be. To provide information? To provide entertainment? To gain understanding as to how something works? It is helpful if you, the teacher, establish the purpose for reading and then guide your students to that outcome. 2) Pick a few key words from the text. (7-10 is usually a good number.) 3)You need share their stories and discuss briefly any words .3) You need to know the name of the text you will read.Also for predicting:1. Skim the text, and note any headings; graphics; boldedtext, etc.2. Stop. Write a few guesses. You may use a few promptsto get you started:“I think this text is about….”“Something that likely happens in this text is…”3. Begin the text.􀁸 Check at your guesses. Are they correct?􀁸 Change your predictions as you read.DIRECTIONS:Predict:From the title, predict what you think this will be about. Read a portion of the text and decide where to stop.- Did the things you predicted from the title happen? If not, what happened instead?Before reading more, make further predictions about what will happen next. -Pick a place to stop. -Did the things you predictedhappen? If not, what happened instead?DIRECTIONS:PredictThink what might happen in the paragraph, what words may be used, or what information the text might contain.􀁸 What is this text about?􀁸 What clues suggest the topic?􀁸 What likely happens in this text?<br />MOTIVATION TO READ<br />DEFINITIONTYPES MOTIVATIONTIPS for motivating students to read!EXAMPLESPRACTICELa motivación es definida por los teóricos como "lo que mueve a las personas a actuar" (HYPERLINK "file:///E:RED%20Websitemcitations.htm"Eccles, Wigfield, & Schiefele, 1998; Pintrich & Schunk, 1996).  Hay indicadores conductuales de motivación los cuales incluyen "selección de actividades a realizar, persistencia en estas actividades, y el nivel de esfuerzo disipado" (HYPERLINK "file:///E:RED%20Websitemcitations.htm"Wigfield, 1997). Al mantenerse en línea con las creencias de los teóricos, la motivación a la lectura es entonces definida como " las metas y creencias propias con miras a la lectura" (HYPERLINK "file:///E:RED%20Websitemcitations.htm"Guthrie et al., 1999).  Esto influye directamente en las actividades personales, interacciones, y aprendizaje del texto.Intrinsic MotivatorsCuriosity Self-Efficacy: The learner's perception that he/she can successfully complete the taskAesthetic involvement: The enjoyment of experiencing a literary textChallengeExtrinsic MotivatorsRecognition: The gratification in receiving a tangible form of reward for success in readingGradesAs a student becomes a more active readers, extrinsic motivators will be less important to the reader.1-Proponer actividades motivadorasPuede usar cualquier actividad que genere interés en los estudiantes por el texto y que los motive a leerlo. 2-Crear motivación e interés.3-Incentivar a los estudiantes a establecer metas individuales y mejorar actuaciones pasadas. Esa forma en la que los estudiantes compiten con sus propias ganas más que competir con otros estudiantes quienes lean mejor, o no.4-Permita a los estudiantes seleccionar o que ellos lean tanto como sea posible. Cuando los estudiantes tienen libertad, ellos están más comprometidos en el proceso de aprendizaje. 5-Incentive a los estudiantes a encontrar tópicos interesantes y a seleccionar materiales de lectura apropiados. Si los tópicos son aburridos o muy complejos, los estudiantes no estarán motivados a aprender. DIRECTIONS:"Discuss the text." On a scale from 1 to 10, how motivated were you to read this text? (1=not at all motivated; 10=really motivated) Discuss why you were or were not motivated to read the text. Did the purpose for reading ("Be ready to discuss the text .") make you more or less motivated to read the text? DIRECTIONS: Read the text then:IMPROVE MOTIVATION TO READ BY DECIDING WHY THE MATERIAL IS IMPORTANT AND VALUABLE.<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR SETTING A PURPOSEEXAMPLEPRACTICE ASKING QUESTIONS-- Setting a purpose for reading means formulating and articulating the reason for reading. There are many different reasons for reading including: -For enjoyment-To perfect oral reading performance or use of a comprehension strategy-To increase knowledge about a topic by linking new information to that already known-To obtain information for an oral or written report-To confirm or reject predictions-To perform the steps in a scientific experiment or to follow a set of instructions-To learn about the organizational patterns and authors' techniques To answer specific questions. Setting a purpose provides focus for the reader. -Students then need to determine why they are being asked to read. -Students who read with a purpose tend to comprehend what they read better than those who have no purpose. This result may occur because the students are attending to the material rather than just decoding words. -Purpose-setting activities can help students activate their existing background knowledge about the topic of the material. Providing specific purposes avoids presenting students with the insurmountable task of remembering everything they read and allows them to know whether they are reading to determine main ideas, locate details, understand vocabulary terms, or meet some other well-defined goals. As a result, they can apply themselves to a specific, manageable task.-Determine a purpose for reading and use a range of reading comprehension strategies to better understand text.-Apply reading comprehension strategies to understand grade-appropriate textSET A PURPOSE FOR READING.  For reading by asking questions about what they want to learn during the reading process. What is the material about? What type of material is this? Why am I reading this material? Set a Purpose: The purpose is to read the passage, predict what will happen next, and answer the question:<br />SETTING A PURPOSE<br />PREVIEWING<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR PREVIEW TEXTEXAMPLEPRACTICE ASKING QUESTIONSPreviewing a text means gathering as much information about the text as you can before you actually read it. You can ask yourself the following questions:What is my Purpose for Reading?What can the Title Tell Me About the Text?Who is the Author?How is the Text Structured? To determine how long an assigned reading is (and how much time and energy, as a result, it will demand from you). But you can learn a great deal more about the organization and purpose of a text but taking note of features other than its length. Previewing enables you to develop a set of expectations about the scope and aim of the text. These very preliminary impressions offer you a way to focus your reading. For instance: -What does the presence of headnotes, an abstract, or other prefatory material tell you? -Is the author known to you, and if so, how does his (or her) reputation or credentials influence your perception of what you are about to read? If unknown, has an editor helped to situate the writer (by supplying brief biographical information, an assessment of the author’s work, concerns, and importance)? -How does the disposition or layout of a text prepare you for reading?- Is the material broken into parts--subtopics, sections, or the like? -Are there long and unbroken blocks of text or smaller paragraphs or “chunks” and -what does this suggest?- How might the layout guide your reading? -Does the text seem to be arranged according to certain conventions of discourse? Newspaper articles, for instance, have characteristics that you will recognize; textbooks and scholarly essays are organized quite differently from them, and from one another. Texts demand different things of you as you read, so whenever you can, register the type of information you’re presented with. Read the Title: Think about what you already know about the topic. Read all the headings and subheadings and bold print. Scan the whole text to see how long it is and what it covers. Read the introductory sentence or paragraph. Look at all the pictures, graphs, and charts. Read all the captions. Make note of words that are unfamiliar. Read the chapter review summary and review questions. DIRECTIONS: Before you read, look over the article Selection criteria very quickly. What are the four main topics? (Hint: look for subheads) DIRECTIONS: Previewing ANY assigned text:Read the title. Read the headings. Look at the visuals. Scan for special terms. Skim the review questions.<br />SCANNING<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR SCANNINGEXAMPLEPRACTICE ASKING QUESTIONS-Scanning is a reading technique that is reading quickly to locate specific information. You can first introduce skimming and scanning by brainstorming a list of textual clues that will help students, such as bold-face type, capital letters, dates, key words, etc. Practice skimming and scanning can be practiced with short passages to gain mastery.-Scanning means moving your eyes quickly down the page,to find one specific detail.Scanning lets you:􀁸 Find a single fact, date, name or word in a text􀁸 Find information that you may need-looking through a text to find keywords and phrases that are likely to indicate the specific information that you are seeking, then reading just this piece of the text.Why? To determine which areas of the text are relevant to your needs, to ascertain the style and level of difficulty of the reading, and to establish the structure of the text.When? Can be done after or while previewingWhat? Selective fast reading. It is active and purposeful. It requires concentration because you are gleaning the author’s ideas from headings, diagrams, sentences and summaries. This is easier when the content is familiar and the text is well organised. It can require practice.How? With a clear idea of your purpose, (for example, the question(s) arising from your assignment topic) and with pen/pencil in hand, skim the following:the titlethe abstract (if there is one)the introductionthe conclusionmain headingssub headingschapter summariesthe first sentence in each paragraphhighlighted textgraphs, tables or diagramsFirst:􀁸 Think where in your text you might find theinformation you need.Second:􀁸 Check how the information is placed on the page.-Look for headings, diagrams, or boxed/highlighted items that might help you find the information.Look for key words, or words that are repeated.Look for definitions.Look for highlighted words, eg words in bold or italic.Look for numbers, eg dates and statistics.Look for examples, including diagrams.Scanning is very fast reading. When you scan, you look for information as quickly as you can..Scanning can help you improve your reading. Many students try to read every word in passage, so they read very slowly. When you scan, you can’t read every word. You have to skip many wordsDIRECTIONS:-- Jot down the main ideas from your skim reading and note any passages that are particularly relevant to your purpose. Label these notes noting their source (details of author, title, date, pages) to assist with your referencing. Find specific points that you want to learn about or you can use for your career._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________DIRECTIONS: Scan the passage and ask yourself questions like the following as the first step to understanding the passage.Preview the Passage:- What do you see? -How is the passage organized? -What kind of type do you see? --What kind of punctuationis used? -What is in bold, and what is not?- What do these things tell you about how you are supposed to read this passage?<br />SKIMMING<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR SKIMMINGEXAMPLEPRACTICE SKIMMINGSkimming is a reading technique that is used to get a quick “gist” of a section or chapterSkimming lets you:􀁸 Read quickly to get an overall sense of the mainideas in the text􀁸 Decide before you read for detail if you can usethe text for your purposes􀁸 Decide if you should read it more carefully formore details.-read just those parts of a text that are most likely to indicate what the authors are talking about at different points in order to gain an overview of the content. Read for main ideas only (not details).Read the introduction.Read topic sentences (usually the first sentence in a paragraph).Read the conclusion.Read any headings.Also you have :First:􀁸 Read the first few paragraphs, a few paragraphs inthe middle, and the final paragraph of the textOR􀁸 Read the first and last sentence of each paragraph(topic sentence/concluding sentence)Second:􀁸 Glance through any graphics and their captions (textaround the graphic to explain it)Write down the title, the introductory sentence of each paragraph, the important points and the concluding sentence of the last paragraph of the text.Title___________________________________________________________Introductory paragraph______________________________________________________Important points:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Concluding sentence _____________________SKIMMING is a useful way to get an overview of a reading selection. It is different from scanning. You can scan for specific facts or details. You skim for general ideas. To skim, move your eyes quickly through the whole reading. Do not stop for details or worry about words you don’t understand. Keep going like a fast-moving train from beginning to end. Afterward you will have a general idea of the contents. Then you can read the selection again with better comprehension. What’s the topic of the text?__________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />INFERRING<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR INFERRINGEXAMPLEPRACTICE Inferring is giving a logical guess based on facts or evidence presented using prior knowledge to help the reader understand the deeper meaning of a text. This reading strategy is conducted during reading. An activity to practice inferring with students is to take a sentence from a text. Then, have students state the explicit meaning of the sentence as well as the inferential meaning.- Inferring means using content in a text, together with existing knowledge, to come to a personal conclusion about something that is not stated explicitly in the text. When the author provides clues but not all the information, we read “between the lines” to make predictions, revise these, understand underlying themes, hypothesise, make critical judgments, and draw conclusions. Inferring involves synthesising information, sometimes quite simply and sometimes at complex levels.Readers comprehend better when they make connections and construct their own knowledge (using prior experiences, visualizing, predicting and synthesizing) to interpret the "big idea." It is like a mental dialogue between the author and the student.-Teachers can help students to make inferences by asking inferential questions during shared reading or during discussion in guided reading. Or teachers may pause, when reading a text with students, to draw out clues from the text and prompt the students to make connections between different parts of the text in order to reach a conclusion.-Ask them:     * How did you know that?    * Why did you think that would happen?    * Look at the cover and pictures and then make a prediction.    * Discuss the plot and theme. What do you think this paragraph is about?    * How do you think the character feels? Does it remind you of anything? DIRECTIONS:DIRECTIONS<br />DRAWING CONCLUSIONS<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR DRAWING CONCLUSIONSEXAMPLEPRACTICE ASKING QUESTIONSDrawing conclusions is a reading strategy that is done after reading. To draw conclusions means the student uses written or visual clues to figure out something that is not directly stated in the reading. Teachers can facilitate this reading strategy by creating leading questions that relate to a reading. Students then respond with their own opinions, thoughts, or ideas that is based on information from their reading material.-Drawing conclusions refers to information that is implied or inferred. This means that the information is never clearly stated. -Readers draw conclusions based on the ideas and information that they read from one or more sources.Providing a graphic organizer before reading helps students to organize their thinking during reading in order to analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions after reading.-Actively use prior knowledge and experiences when reading.-Despite being aware of how often you draw conclusions in daily life, you might not realize how frequently you do it when you read. For instance, authors don't always state the point or main idea of a paragraph in a topic sentence. Sometimes, they imply, or suggest, a main idea through a series of specific statements that combine to suggest one general thought, leaving it to readers to draw the appropriate conclusion based on the paragraph's content and language. To draw a conclusion about implied main ideas in paragraphs, you need to do the following: 1Consider what each sentence says about the common topic. 2 Ask yourself what general thought or idea emerges when you put all of those individual pieces of information together. Here it helps to ask yourself what common thread the individual sentences seem to share. In the case of the sample paragraph, the sentences all help build the contrast between Bligh's actual behavior and his movie image. 3. Think of the idea that emerges as the author's implied main idea and the purpose of the passage. What conclusion can you draw?Read the selection and answer the questions.1. You can conclude that;<br />ACTIVATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR ACTIVATING PRIOR KNOWLEDGEEXAMPLEPRACTICE Activating prior knowledge is a reading strategy that occurs before the student is introduced to reading material. The teacher uses a prereading activity, which can be done in the form of a journal or class discussion. This enables the reader to make connections between something they already have knowledge of and the new knowledge from the text.According to Helping Middle and High School Readers (Riggs & Gil-Garcia, 2001), "three types of prior knowledge are considered especially important for students as they read content-area texts: (1) knowledge about the topic, (2) knowledge about the structure and organization of the text, and (3) knowledge about vocabulary" (quoted in Frank, Grossi, & Stanfield, 2006, p. 12). If students approach a text with large gaps in any (or all) of these areas, it will be a struggle to read the text. Recognizing where these gaps lie is crucial in planning the prereading stage.- In How the Brain Learns, David Sousa (2001) notes that "past experiences always influence new learning. What we know acts as a filter, helping us attend to those things that have meaning and discard those that don't" (p. 49). When we read something new, we are much more likely to understand it if we see connections that make it relevant. When these connections are murky or unseen, reading comprehension gets cloudy.Ask questions such as these to begin a reading assignment:What do I already know about? Have any of you ever experienced? What have you read before about? BUILD BACKGROUND by activating appropriate prior knowledge through self-question ing about what they already know about the topic, the vocabulary, and the form in which the topic is presented Background the subject.Activate/Build from Prior Knowledge: From reading the title, what do you already know about the topic of the passage? Haveyou ever read a play before<br />MARGINAL NOTES<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS EXAMPLEPRACTICE FOR MARGINAL NOTESMarginal annotations are simple pencil notes in the blank spaces of the text that promote interactive reading. Reading comprehension research is clear that internal dialogue with the text improves understanding and retention. “Talking to the text” makes reading comprehensible and memorable. Try using the following marginal annotation tips with your next article or text.Marginal Note taking is a learning strategy that helps students understand better by writing down the main idea, questions that they have, unfamiliar words, and important details in the margins of the text.Students will use a highlighter and pen or pencil to interact with the text in order to increase their comprehension of the text. Students begin by highlighting the main ideas of the text following the guidelines listed. Next, students underline important details. Last, students record their reactions and understanding of the text using one or more techniques including: summarizing the text, making a graphic organizer, starring important ideas.H: Highlight the main ideas of the reading-- o Maximum 20% of text or 8 lines average on a page o Key concepts only o This information is determined to be worth re-reading U: Underline important details-- o Key words o Steps in a process o Definitions o Names/Dates G: Write in your own words-- o List important points o Create chart o Identify location of definitions, examples, names/dates o Star important ideas o Number steps o Summarize text in margin Read the text. Then Write out definitions List examplesWrite a question mark for confusing passages or sections to review.Write comments. Personalize your reading with criticisms, praises, and insights.Write out questions. Reader-generated questions significantly increase reading comprehension.Summarize reading sections.Write down predictions as to where the author will go next or what conclusions will be drawn.Draw arrows in the margin to connect related ideas.Number key details that the author provides.Write a check mark in the margin when a key new term is introduced.<br />Source:http://web001.greece.k12.ny.us/academics.cfm?subpage=930&adminActivate=0.487337360925<br />** Practice, practice, practice these skills on a daily basis so that the student will be able to transfer them to a test taking situation without thinking about them.<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR ANNOTATINGEXAMPLEPRACTICE Annotating is an important skill to employ if you want to read critically. Successful critical readers read with a pencil in their hand, making notes in the text as they read. Instead of reading passively, they create an active relationship with what they are reading by "talking back" to the text in its margins.-Whatever your purposes are for reading a particular piece, you have three objectives to meet as your read: to identify the author’s most important points, to recognize how they fit together, and to note how you respond to them. . So you will probably need to annotate the text, underlining or highlighting passages and making written notes in the margins of texts to identify the most important ideas, the main examples or details, and the things that trigger your own reactions. Devise your own notation system- Annotation helps you to think more critically (that is, to evaluate, refute, or contest the claims of an author) as you read. Moreover, depending on how detailed your notes are, your annotations may save you from having to reread the entire document at a later time. You may want to make the following annotations as you read:Mark the Thesis and Main Points of the PieceMark Key Terms and Unfamiliar WordsUnderline Important Ideas and Memorable ImagesWrite Your Questions and/or Comments in the Margins of the PieceWrite any Personal Experience Related to the PieceMark Confusing Parts of the Piece, or Sections that Warrant a RereadUnderline the Sources, if any, the Author has UsedRead the text carefully and annotate directly on the page: underlining key words, phrases, or sentences; writing comments or questions in the margins; bracketing important sections of the text; constructing ideas with lines or arrows; numbering related points in sequence; and making note of anything that strikes you as interesting, important, or questionable.DIRECTIONS:USE MARGINAL NOTES TO HIGHLIGHT KEY WORDS<br />ANNOTATING<br />BRAINSTORMING<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR BRAINSTORMINGEXAMPLEPRACTICE ASKING QUESTIONS“Brainstorming.” Students are given a particular key word or key concept and then invited to call out words and concepts they personally associate with the key words or words provided by the teacher. It has many advantages, since it requires little teacher preparation, allows learners freedom to bring their own prior knowledge and opinions to bear on a particular topic, and involves the whole class. No one need feel threatened when any bid is acceptable and can be added to the framework. -Brainstorming is a process one goes through in an effort to generate ideas, let the creative juices flow, and problem solve. It can be applied to a variety of activities including conflict resolution, writing, developing a search on the Internet, and figuring out math problems.Brainstorming allows students to share their knowledge and experiences related to a topic, creating interest in the text. The strategy facilitates comprehension by activating prior knowledge. Begin by listing words or concepts that will be in the text. You might use a KWL chart, a concept map, or just a simple brainstorm list. Then ask students to identify what they already know about these words or concepts—in writing or orally. This can be done individually, in small groups, or in a large group. Share the information with the entire class before reading the text.Brainstorming is an effective way to think of new ideas individually or within a group. First, the steps are outlined with a group in mind. Second, ideas for brainstorming are presented with an individual in mind. Follow the steps in the group strategy, but use the individual strategies to widen your scope for ideas, creativity, and solutions<br />TYPOGRAPHICAL CLUES<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS EXAMPLEPRACTICE Esta estrategia proviene de la diagramación de textos. Se refiere especificamente a:-Uso de mayúsculas y minúsculas, letras negritas, resaltadas,subrayadas, en diferentes.-Títulos y párrafos resaltados o encuadrados.-Uso de signos, llamadas, notas y aclaratorias.Los textos didácticos facilitan la lectura y permiten organizar los contenidos, con diferentes grados de atención, para lo que el autor o autores consideran importantes.Buscar palabras en negrita o itálicas.Muchos autores científicos, editores, o revisores de estilo ponen las palabras clave en negrita, o itálica esto permite conocer los puntos importantes de la lectura, aunque no es suficiente para conocer el contenido total de los textos científicos, si te permite tener el concepto sobre el que caminan las ideas y te permitirá hacer lo que llamamos razonamiento inductivo y deductivo, que son herramientas del método científico.-Utilice un texto científico, solicite a los lectores encontrar palabras en negritas, subrayadas,cursivas. -Permita a los estudiantes compartir lo que ya conocen sobre las palabras así como registrar sus respuestas en sus cuadernos. 1-Lea una oración o párrafo en el cual una palabra en negrita, cursiva,etc donde esta localizada y entonces solicite a los lectores determinar el significado de las palabras. 2-Compare los registros realizados y realice los cambios necesarios. 3-Solicite a los estudiantes trabajar con compañeros o en pequeños grupos para repetir el proceso con otras claves tipográficas, entonces comparta sus experiencias en la claseDIRECTIONS: IDENTIFYING TYPOGRAPHICAL CLUES. Read through the passage without a dictionary. As you read, highlight important details, bold type words, italicized words, title, subtitles, with a felt-tip pen. Highlight important vocabulary with a different color.DIRECTIONS:Read through the passage without a dictionary. As you read, highlight important details, bold type words, italicized words, title, subtitles, with a felt-tip pen. Highlight important vocabulary with a different color.TYPOGRAPHICAL CLUESItalics Bold-faced words Parentheses Graphs and charts Pictures GlossaryCommas and dashes<br />MAIN IDEA<br />DEFINITIONSTEPS IN READING TO FIND THE MAIN IDEAEXAMPLEPRACTICE The main idea of a piece of writing is the central point the author tries to make. This can be an opinion, argument, or a general idea. Most of the time, but not always, the main idea is stated in a topic sentence. This sentence is usually near the beginning and sets up what the rest of the writing will be about, although authors may chose place the main idea in the concluding sentence in a paragraph. The topic sentence not only sets up the thesis, but it also sets up tone, voice, and style. Main Ideas can be… STATED : A stated main idea is a sentence found in the reading passage which states the topic and the main point or points being made about that topic. This sentence is referred to as the TOPIC SENTENCE. IMPLIED: An implied main idea means that the author has chosen not to use a statement in the selection or passage to tell the reader the topic and main idea. The reader must read the passage and determine the main idea from the information that is presented. The READER is responsible for composing a statement of the main idea. No topic sentence exists. The main idea in a piece of writing is the point the author is making about a topic. Use the following steps to find the main idea.PreviewLook for meaning clues in introductions, titles, chapter headings, subheadings, bold words, boxed information, pictures, charts, and graphs. This will help you discover the topic being discussed (what the writing is about), the author's "slant" or perspective on the topic how the material is organized, and what's more and less important. During previewing you may also form questions about the topic. Having questions in mind as you read will help you establish a purpose for reading, and you will be more involved as you read, which will help you absorb new information.Read:Read the entire text, looking for the general idea or ideas being presented. Re-read to find and highlight key words and concepts.Focus;Focus on individual paragraphs within the text, starting at the beginning. Generally, each paragraph in a piece of writing about a topic is a group of sentences dealing with one idea related to that topic. The following steps will help you find the main idea in a paragraph, the particular point the author is trying to make about the topic.Look for transition words:Words and phrases such as "thus," "first," "next," "however," and "in addition," often indicate shifts in thought and signal the presence of examples and supporting details.Identify the most general statement: Sometimes the main idea of a paragraph is directly stated in a sentence, called the topic sentence of the paragraph. Although it is often found at the beginning or end, the topic sentence can be found anywhere in the paragraph. It is typically the most general sentence, and the remaining sentences provide specific evidence and discussion to "back up" the main idea expressed in the topic sentence.Look for supporting evidence and discussion:Sometimes the main idea is not directly stated in one sentence but is implied or suggested by all of the sentences in the paragraph. In this case, the reader must provide the main idea by considering all of the support--the examples, details, facts, etc.--and discussion about the topic provided by the writer. The main idea will be a general statement which incorporates the information presented by all of the sentences in the paragraph.DIRECTIONS: READ THE PASSAGE AND IDENTIFY THE CENTRAL THEME FROM THE TEXT. Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text?DIRECTIONS; UNDERLINE THE MAIN IDEAS. Read the article and jot down the main idea of each paragraph in the margin.<br />SUPPORTING DETAIL<br />DEFINITIONTYPES OF SUPPORTING DETAILSSTEPS FOR SUPPORTING DETAILEXAMPLEPRACTICE Supporting details are sentences that support the main idea. These sentences have information that helps explain and prove the author’s point. For example, a paragraph about how animals hide might have supporting details about camouflage. Strong paragraphs have clear and organized details that relate to the main idea. Transitions, descriptive adjectives, and active verbs are other elements of good writing..Supporting details are the materials (examples, facts, ideas, illustrations, cases, anecdotes) used by the writer to explain, expand on, and develop the more general main idea.Explanations: que responden a preguntas, Quién, qué, donde, cuando, y porque acerca de la idea principal.Examples: que ofrecen detalles específicos de la idea principal.Comparison and Contrast para mostrar que la idea principal es similar ó diferente de ella.Estatistics y Hechos que pueden ser probadas ó que sugieren que la idea principal es verdadera.Anotations ó Citas de personas quienes son expertas en el área y quienes son citadas con autoridad sobre la idea principal.Description. Que se pueden visualizar en la mente para crear una imagen mental de la idea principal.Look at:• the sentences that make up paragraphs and sections.• graphics including illustrations, photographs, charts, graphs, and maps.• the captions, or writing that explains the graphics.• sidebars, or boxes on the side of the text that provide additionalinformation about the topic.• vocabulary words, including words that are in bold print, italics, or that are highlighted. These words are often important supporting details that support the main idea.Once you find the supporting details, ask yourself:• how does each supporting detail provide evidence to support themain idea?• how important is each supporting detail to understanding the mainidea? (Some supporting details will be more important than others.)• why did the author choose to include that supporting detail?• how does the supporting detail help you understand the main idea?DIRECTIONS:-Read the text and underline supporting details. Then SUPPORTING DETAILS. List the types of supporting details used in the paragraphs.DIRECTIONS:<br />MAKING CONNECTIONS<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR MAKING CONNECTIONSEXAMPLEPRACTICE -Helping students to make connections between what they know and what they are reading improves their comprehension. Teachers can model making such connections, and prompt students to make links with their own knowledge and experience, when they are introducing and discussing texts for reading and in writing and oral-language activities. When activating students’ prior knowledge for a particular purpose, teachers can help the students to predict, infer, and build their own interpretations as they read.- Students connect their background knowledge (schema) to the text they are reading. They may have a text to text, text to self, or text to world connection.Readers comprehend better when they actively think about and apply their knowledge of the book's topic, their own experiences, and the world around them.  Ask Questions What don’t you get? What do you get? What words don’t you understand? What other questions do you have? What do you wonder about as you read?  Why Ask Questions? Asking questions helps keep you focused on the text. If your mind wanders, you will not understand. Then you will be bored. If you run into problems, things you just don’t understand, then you can check yourself with a question. To help make connections while they are reading, ask him/her the following questions.    *  What does the book remind you of?    *  What do you know about the book's topic?    *  Does this book remind you of another book?Directions:Read the text and Write five sentences about it.Directions:Read the text and Write five sentences about it.<br />MAKING ASSOCIATIONS<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR MAKING ASSOCIATIONSEXAMPLEPRACTICE -Cuando los lectores responden al texto, hacen conexiones. Son estas conexiones con el texto, al mundo, la información de fondo, y las experiencias (esquema) que hacen que los lectores se sientan como los personajes, conectarse a la historia, o recordar experiencias similares. Conexión a las emociones y los sentidos aumenta su capacidad de comprensión, porque el lector puede identificarse con los personajes o situaciones en el texto de una manera muy personal y hacer comparaciones.Los Buenos lectores incrementan su comprensión al hacer asociaciones con la información conocida. Tales lectores transfieren su conocimiento previo para visualizar lugares, eventos, y lugares que se describen en un texto.-Particípele a los estudiantes que ellos pueden entender más y mejor claramente lo que ellos leen si ellos pueden, en sus mentes, dibujar la información que ellos están leyendo-Modele las asociaciones que realices para los estudiantes para expresarles acerca de las figuras que se crean en sus mentes cuando se lea un párrafo descriptivo. Luego léale párrafos adicionales y discuta, compare las asociaciones con las de ellos. -Suministre material de lectura que le permita a los alumnos hacer asociaciones y le recuerden usar la estrategia cuando el docente tenga que leerle a ellos. Cuando sea posible, mientras un grupo discute una selección de lectura, solicite a los estudiantes describir las asociaciones que ellos crearon cuando ellos leyeron.-Es importante recordar a los docentes que las discusiones que se relacionen con las asociaciones son abiertas y que cada respuesta de las personas será única. Numerosos estudiantes necesitaran tiempo extra y suficiente estímulo antes de que ellos participen regularmente y abiertamente en compartir sus asociaciones..DIRECTIONS:Comparing and contrasting related readings: Exploring likenesses and differences between texts to understand them better..-Read the text then Compare and contrast related readingsDirections:Read the text then Compare and contrast related readings.<br />QUESTIONING<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR QUESTIONINGEXAMPLEPRACTICE Through the use of questioning, students understand the text on a deeper level because questions clarify confusion and stimulate further interest in a topic.Through questioning, students are able to wonder about content and concepts before, during, and after reading by:    *  constructing meaning    *  enhancing meaning    *  finding answers    *  solving problems    *  finding specific information    *  acquiring a body of information    *  discovering new information    *  propelling research efforts    *  clarifying confusion    (  Strategies That Work, 2000, p. 22)Model questioning in your own rereading*  Ask I wonder...questions (open-ended*  Ask to come up with questions before reading*  Keep track of questions *  Stop and predict what will happen next*  Discuss what questions you still have after readingDirections:QUESTIONING within content material allows students to demonstrate specific reading and thinking behaviors that: Use prior knowledge Predict relationships within a hierarchy of knowledge Encourage cooperative learning Set purposes for reading Verify predictions and summarize content facts Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant ideas. <br />DETERMINING IMPORTANCE<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR DETERMINING IMPORTANCEEXAMPLEPRACTICE When students are reading non-fiction, they have to decide and remember what is important from the material they read.To teach students to discriminate the "must know" information from the less important details in a text. Initiate discussion before reading by asking what your child knows about the topic and what they would like to learn.* After reading, discuss what important information they have learned.* While reading, help your child look for clues in the text to determine importance.  Pay attention to:    * first and last lines of paragraphs    * titles/headings/captions    * framed text/fonts/illustrations    * italics/bold faced print<br />ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS OF PARAGRAPHS<br />DEFINITIONSTEPS PURPOSEEs importante identificar las perspectivas del autor al descubrir la forma del mensaje que esta siendo enviado. Cada escritor tiene un propósito apara escribir y algún plan de acción para lograr trasmitir un mensaje. Este plan de acción es el orden en el cual el material será presentado en el texto. Este orden, frecuentemente es llamado modelo de organización, debería estar presente en la escritura aceptable desde la más pequeña a la más grande unidad de escritura: el párrafo, grupos de párrafos, sub-capítulos, capítulos, grupos de capítulos, libros enteros, y aún series de libros. Cada uno de ellos, entonces, contiene un cierto modelo de organización. Se necesita constatar el conocimiento del lector sobre la estructura textual; es conveniente trabajar con la estructura organizativa del texto y familiarizar al estudiante con los diversos patrones estructurales que puede tener un texto de orden expositivo(descripción,causa,clasificación,proceso,definición,problema-solución, comparación/contraste). Este tipo de actividades incrementa la comprensión. La importancia de estos patrones es que ellos señalan como los hechos serán presentados. Ellos son proyectos para usar. Las técnicas para reconocer y usar la Organización del Texto son las siguientes:Step 1: Supervise el Texto y anote el propósito general del texto. Step 2: Identifique las Palabras Señal. Coloque en un círculo las palabras de transición en el texto. Algunos estudiantes pueden preferir resaltar en las páginas fotocopiadas del texto ó pegar notas para ayudarles a localizar las palabras de transición. O, ellos pueden generar una lista simplemente. Step 3: Identifique la Estructura del Texto. Individualmente o en grupos pequeños, discutir lo que ellos piensan sobre la estructura principal del texto pueden ser (la causa y efecto, comparación y contraste, descripción, problema y solución, y secuencia y orden cronológico). Step 4: Prediga la Idea Principal del texto. Usando lo qué saben sobre las palabras señal y la estructura del texto, escriba una frase que exprese lo que piensan cual sería la idea principal del texto. Step 5: Lea el Texto. Step 6: Regrese a la Predicción de la Idea Principal. Después de la lectura, retornar a su predicción de la idea principal del texto. Se puede usar un organizador gráfico para desplegar la información, escribir un resumen, o de alguna otra manera organizar lo que ellos han leído. Comprender la estructura de un texto ayuda a que los estudiantes sepan leerlo. Los dos aspectos principales de estructura para buscar son: “El desarrollo de ideas en las frases y párrafos”; “El desarrollo del argumento”. “El reconocimiento de diferentes estructuras textuales” puede ejercitarse empleando organizadores gráficos (esquemas, diagramas de flujo) en microcomputadoras (Sinatra, 1991) o, en su defecto, en la pizarra.PRACTICE:A: Answer the following questions BEFORE you read the text.1. Scan the text. What do you think is the texts purpose? 2. Circle or highlight all the signal words you find in the text. Write them below.3. What is the main structure of the text? (Hint: cause/effect,compare/contrast,Problem/solution or sequence)._____________________________________ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS OF PARAGRAPHSSIGNAL WORDS DescriptionEste modelo de organización es utilizado para mostrar al lector que el escritor observa: objetos, escenas, personajes, ideas, y también emociones y humor. La descripción incentiva muchísimo el uso del lenguaje sensorial (vista, tacto,gusto,olfato y el sonido)Signal words: descriptive adjectives , and specific nouns Narration - Este modelo de organización se utiliza para contar una historia. La narración normalmente implicar contar acerca de una serie de eventos o acontecimientos de la vida real que ocurrieron en un periodo de tiempo. El orden cronológico es utilizado en la narración.Signal words: after, afterward, at last, before, during, immediately, now, presently, shortly, since, until, whileClassification Este modelo de organización es utilizado para agrupar o categorizar información. El escritor intenta analizar eventos, ideas, o hechos que incluyen otros eventos, eventos o hechos. Signal words: category, field, rank, group, various elements, characteristics, types, partsDefinition Este modelo de organización se utiliza para trasmitir el significado completo de una palabra que es central a la idea principal. La idea principal puede ser discutida en términos de su significado denotativo- el significado asociado con la palabra a través de su uso común. El concepto se define inicialmente y después se expande con ejemplos y explicaciones..Signal words often used for definition are:is defined asmeansis described asis calledrefers toterm or conceptIllustration - Este modelo de organización utiliza ejemplos para presentar o apoyar la idea principal. Las ejemplificaciones ayudan al lector a comprender pensamientos abstractos y generales al incluir ejemplos específicos que demuestren la ideaSignal words often used for example (e.g.), to illustrate, that is (i.e.), as demonstrated, for instance Process Analysis –Este modelo de organización explica al lector como se hace algo, cómo algo trabaja, o como algo ocurre. El escritor intenta analizar un proceso al tomar esto aparte o separar el proceso por partes o estadios.Signal words: next, first, second, third, last.Argument and Persuasion - Este modelo de organización intenta convencer al lector de seguir ideas o visiones del autor.  Esto implica una clara explicación de la posición del autor y luego utiliza ideas secundarias para convencer o persuadir al lector de la rectitud de pensamiento del autor.Signal words: clearly, logically, no one can refute, surely, without hesitationSimple ListingLos detalles son enumerados al azar en una serie de hechos o detalles. Estos elementos de apoyo son de igual valor, y el orden en el cual ellos son presentados no es de importancia. Cambiar el orden de los detalles no cambia el significado del párrafo.Signal words often used for simple listing are:in additionanotherfor example.alsoseverala number ofChronological (Time) Order or SequenceLos detalles son enumerados en el orden en el cual ellos ocurrieron o en un orden planeado específicamente el cual ellos deben desarrollar. En este caso, el orden es importante y cambiarlo modificaría el significado.Signal words often used for chronological order or sequence are:first, second, thirdbefore, afterwhenlateruntilat lastnextComparison – ContrastEste modelo de organización discute las similitudes y/o diferencias que existen entre dos o más ideas, eventos, o cosas. El propósito del autor es mostrar similitudes y diferencias.Signal words often used for comparison-contrast are:similar, differenton the other handbuthoweverbigger than, smaller thanin the same wayparallelsCause and Effect Este modelo de organización responde la pregunta básica humana ¿Por qué? Este modelo busca en las consecuencias esperadas una cadena de acontecimientos. Este busca las causas o condiciones y sugiere o examina resultados, consecuencias, o efectos.Un evento (effect) se dice haber ocurrido debido a alguna situación o circunstancia (cause). La causa (the action) estimula el evento, o el efecto (the outcome).Signal words often used for cause and effect are:for this reasonconsequentlyon that acounthencebecausemade<br />Referencia: <br />Text structure, disponible en : http://www.shsu.edu/~txcae/readingless.html estrategias habladas…<br />DEFINITIONPURPOSESTEPS FOR ANNOTATING A TEXTPRACTICE Lo fundamental de esta estrategia es anotar directamente en la página: subrayar palabras claves, frases, o oraciones; escribir comentarios o preguntas al margen, colocar corchetes secciones importantes del texto, construir ideas con líneas o flechas, enumerar puntos relacionados en secuencia; y hacer notas de algo que para el lector es interesante, importante o cuestionable.La mayoría de los lectores anotan en capas, añadiendo más anotaciones sobre segundas y terceras lecturas. El proceso de anotación de texto ayuda a mantener la concentración y que participen en su libro de texto. Usted encontrará que el proceso de tomar notas a medida que lee le ayudará a concentrarse mejor. It will also help you to monitor and improve your comprehension. También le ayudará a controlar y mejorar su comprensión. If you come across something that you don't understand or that you need to ask you instructor about, you'll be able to quickly make note of it, and then go on with your reading. Si te encuentras con algo que no entiende o que necesita seguir instrucciones, usted será capaz de hacer rápidamente nota de ella, y luego continuar con su lectura. Las anotaciones pueden ser leves o cargadas, dependiendo del propósito del autor y la dificultad del material.Underline, star, highlight, box, circle whatever words, phrases, or sentences that catch your attention. Subrayar, estrellas, resalte, caja, círculo todas las palabras, frases u oraciones que captan su atención. Write brief comments in the margins Escribir breves comentarios en los márgenes observations about what is being said or done observaciones sobre lo que se dice o se hace what you are reminded of (people, feelings, places, moods) lo que se recuerda (las personas, sentimientos, lugares, estados de ánimo) questions you have preguntas que usted tenga ideas that occur to you ideas que se le ocurran things that you agree or disagree with cosas que usted está de acuerdo o en desacuerdo con any connections you are making las conexiones que están haciendo summary comments resumen de los comentarios identify themes being developed identificar los temas se están desarrollando any literary devices being used ninguna de recursos literarios utilizados ANNOTATING: Read the text carefully and annotate directly on the page: underlining key words, phrases, or sentences; writing comments or questions in the margins; bracketing important sections of the text; constructing ideas with lines or arrows; numbering related points in sequence; and making note of anything that strikes you as interesting, important, or questionable.PRACTICE:USE MARGINAL NOTES TO HIGHLIGHT KEY WORDS<br />ANNOTATING A TEXT<br />EXAMPLE:<br />HOW DOES MEMORY WORK? Human memory works on two different levels: short term memory and long term memory.    Short term memory This includes what you focus on in the moment, what holds your attention. Most people can only hold about 7 items of information in short term memory at any given moment, although some can hold up to nine. Look at example A below. Then look away from your computer screen and try to hold it in your short term memory. A = 6593028Most likely, you can hold it as long as you choose. Now follow the same procedure with example B. B = 573927450621It's much more difficult, if not impossible, for most people. Short term memory is exactly what the name says: short term. To learn information so you can retain and recall it, you must transfer it from short term to long term memory.    Long term memory This includes all the information that you know and can recall. In many ways, it becomes a part of you. Once information becomes a part of your long term memory, you'll have access to it for a long time. FROM SHORT TERM TO LONG TERM How do you move information into long term memory? Two of the ways are: rote learning and learning through understanding.    Rote learning means learning through repetition, mechanically, with little understanding. For example, as a child you probably memorized the alphabet and the multiplication tables by rote. Learning through understanding involves learning and remembering by understanding the relationships among ideas and information. Rather than using rote memory, you use logical memory when you learn through understanding. For example, you use logical memory when you remember main ideas and supporting details from a lecture not because you repeat the ideas in your mind, but rather, because you understand them. Both types of learning and memory are useful and often are used together. For example, in history, you need to relate facts (like dates) which you memorized by rote to your understanding of historical concepts (like the Civil War). THE KEYS TO REMEMBERING You can learn to remember more effectively if you learn and use the four keys described below. Each one helps you to enter information into your long term memory.   Choose to remember. Be interested. Pay attention. Want to learn and know. What you want is an important part of learning. People learn more effectively and remember more when they are interested and want to learn. How can you choose to remember? One way is to take a few moments to choose to learn before you read or listen to a lecture. Sit calmly, take a few deep breaths, and tell yourself with your inner voice: "I choose to remember what I learn today." Repeat this a few times, and then begin.   Visualize or picture in your mind what you wish to remember. For many people, a mental picture or visualization is clearer and easier to remember than words. For each major concept that you want to remember, create a mental picture and then look at it carefully for a few seconds. Once you've seen it clearly, you'll probably be able to recall it. If you are not a visual learner, you may find that you need to improve the quality of your mental pictures or images by practicing. Look at a picture, object, or photograph, then close your eyes and try to see it in your mind's eye. Practice this for a few moments each day. Relate the ideas and information you wish to remember to each other and to ideas and information you already know. When you relate information to other information, you create a chain of memories which lead to one another. When you label an information chain or group of ideas, you create a kind of "file" that makes it easy to locate and remember the information. You can help yourself to relate information by using mental pictures, visual organizers, or by outlining.   Repeat what you wish to learn until you overlearn it. Say it in your own words. Even though you've already learned something, go over it one more time. Research shows that the time you spend on overlearning and putting ideas into your own words will pay off by making recall easier and more complete.<br />TRANSITIONS:Transition words are essential ingredients of coherent writing. Using transition words is somewhat of a writing science. Teachers can “teach” the nuts and bolts of this science, including the categories of transitions and what each transition means. Teachers can also help students learn how and where to use them with appropriate punctuation.However,  using transition words is also somewhat of a refined art.  Matters of writing style don’t “come naturally” to most writers. Teachers do well to point out the effective use of transitions in exemplary writing models and help students mimic these in their own writing. With targeted practice, students can learn to incorporate transitions as important features of their own writing voices.Before teachers launch into instructional strategies, they need to make the case for their students that transitions are necessary for effective writing.USING TRANSITIONSStudents must understand basic sentence syntax, to know where to place transition words.Transitions can open paragraphs and sentences. Transitions can be placed mid-sentence to connect ideas. Transitions can close paragraphs and sentences. Transitions can be used to place emphasis on a certain sentence or paragraph component.Instructional Strategies: Assign students a variety of writing tasks that will each require the use of different transition categories. Have students practice sentence revisions in which they place existing transition words at a different part of the sentence. Have students change transition words ending paragraphs to the beginning of the next paragraph and vice-versa. Have students compose compound and compound-complex sentences with transition words and then revise the placement of these transitions for different emphasis.<br />
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