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Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
Plant classification
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Plant classification

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  • 1. PLANT KINGDOM
  • 2. The Main Characteristics of Plants1. Contain chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis2. Possess a cellulose cell wall3. Are multicellular
  • 3. Four groups in the plant kingdom 1. BRYOPHYTES (mosses) 2. PTERIDOPHYTES (ferns) 3. CONIFERS (gymnosperms) 4. ANGIOSPERMS (flowering plants)
  • 4. BRYOPHYTES Mosses
  • 5. PTERIDOPHYTES(ferns)
  • 6. CONIFERS (gymnosperms)
  • 7. ANGIOSPERMS(flowering plants)
  • 8. Characteristics of BRYOPHYTES Mosses
  • 9. Size of bryophytes is limited as they do not have vascular issue (phloem and xylem) 40 cm the tallest species is about 40 cm high
  • 10. Bryophytes have: very simple structure (thallus), having no proper roots, leaves or stems hair-like structures (rhizoids) on the lower surface to absorb moisture Thallus Rhizoids
  • 11. Bryophytes are found in damp & shady places Waxy cuticle is absent or if present, is inefficient
  • 12. Bryophytes are mainly found in damp places as male sex cells need water to swim in
  • 13. Bryophytes reproduce asexually by spores found in capsules
  • 14. Characteristics of PTERIDOPHYTESFerns
  • 15. Pteridophytes (ferns) have: Roots because they have vascular Stems tissue Leaves [rhizome]
  • 16. Ferns have leaf-like:fronds
  • 17. Ferns have better anchorage than mossesFern Tiny rhizoids in moss.
  • 18. Ferns can attain considerable sizes (20 m): as they have vascular tissue i.e. ferns have:  support  long-distance transport
  • 19. Ferns can live in drier environments than mosses because: a waxy layer waterproofs the plant’s surfaces to reduce water loss Note shiny surface due to a waxy layer.
  • 20. Ferns can live in drier environments than mosses BUT: grow best in damp, shady places
  • 21. Ferns reproduce asexually by : spores found on frondsA cluster of sporangia full of spores.
  • 22. Ferns reproduce also sexually Ferns need water for reproduction like mosses Male sex cell of a fern. Flagella help it to swim towards the female sex organ.
  • 23. Question: SEP, 2011Give a biological explanation for each of thefollowing statements.Ferns are much better adapted to life on landthan algae. (5)
  • 24. Algae are not adapted to live on land for twomain reasons.Algae have no protection against drying up andlack supporting tissue.Ferns have an efficient waxy cuticle andvascular tissue to help in support and long-distance transport of materials. Algae in aquarium.
  • 25. Question: MAY, 2004Bryophytes and ferns are two major groups ofthe Plant kingdom. Complete the table belowby marking with a  if the characteristic givenapplies for the particular group. Certaincharacteristics may apply to both groups. (9)
  • 26. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places.Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids.Have a proper vascular system.Can reproduce by means of spores.Can grow to considerable sizes.Liverworts are a member of thisgroup.The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  • 27. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids.Have a proper vascular system.Can reproduce by means of spores.Can grow to considerable sizes.Liverworts are a member of this group.The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  • 28. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but have rhizoids.Have a proper vascular system.Can reproduce by means of spores.Can grow to considerable sizes.Liverworts are a member of thisgroup.The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  • 29. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids. Have a proper vascular system. Can reproduce by means of spores.Can grow to considerable sizes.Liverworts are a member of thisgroup.The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  • 30. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids. Have a proper vascular system. Can reproduce by means of spores.  Can grow to considerable sizes.Liverworts are a member of thisgroup.The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  • 31. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids. Have a proper vascular system. Can reproduce by means of spores.  Can grow to considerable sizes. Liverworts are a member of thisgroup.The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  • 32. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids. Have a proper vascular system. Can reproduce by means of spores.  Can grow to considerable sizes. Liverworts are a member of this group. [Not in syllabus]The leaves have a waxy layer to cutdown water loss.
  • 33. Characteristic Bryophytes FernsLive only in damp shady places. Do not have proper roots but haverhizoids. Have a proper vascular system. Can reproduce by means of spores.  Can grow to considerable sizes. Liverworts are a member of this group. [Not in syllabus]The leaves have a waxy layer to cut down water loss.
  • 34. Question: MAY, 20101. Explain why bryophytes tend to be small plants while ferns are larger plants. (2) Bryophytes are small as they lack vascular tissue. This means that they cannot transport materials over long distances. Bryophytes cannot support themselves due to lack of xylem. Better anchorage in ferns by roots rather than rhizoids in bryophytes.
  • 35. Question: MAY, 20102. Ferns colonise drier areas than bryophytes. Explain. (2) As ferns have an efficient waxy cuticle. The waxy cuticle is either absent or inefficient in bryophytes.
  • 36. Characteristics of CONIFERS This group is also called gymnosperms
  • 37. Conifers are large plants with:  needle-like leaves
  • 38. Most conifers are evergreen
  • 39. Seeds of conifers are: produced in cones said to be naked, i.e. are not enclosed by a fruit A naked seed
  • 40. ANGIOSPERMS (flowering plants)
  • 41. Angiosperms produce flowers and then seeds seeds are enclosed in a fruit
  • 42. Angiosperms Range from:herbs massive trees
  • 43. Two groups of flowering plants exist: Monocotyledonous e.g. grass, wheat, oat, palm tree Dicotyledonous e.g. poppy, peach tree, oak
  • 44. Differences between: monocots & dicots
  • 45. monocots dicotsLong & slender leaf Broad leafParallel veins Branching veins
  • 46. monocots dicotsFibrous root Main or Tap system root system
  • 47. monocots dicots Flower parts inFlower parts in 3’s 4’s or 5’s
  • 48. monocots dicotsOne cotyledon in Two cotyledons seed [maize] in seed [pea] Embryo plant
  • 49. Question: SEP, 1997Fill in the table below using a tick () to meanthat the feature is present and a cross () toshow that the feature is absent. (6)
  • 50. Monocot Dicot plant plantFloral parts are arranged in threesor in multiples of three.Floral parts arranged in fours orfives or multiples of these.Leaves are the main photosyntheticorgans.Have a tap root system.Parallel veins found on leaves.Plants lack vascular bundles in theirstems or roots.
  • 51. Monocot Dicot plant plantFloral parts are arranged in threesor in multiples of three.  Floral parts arranged in fours orfives or multiples of these.  Leaves are the main photosyntheticorgans.  Have a tap root system.  Parallel veins found on leaves.  Plants lack vascular bundles in theirstems or roots.  

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