Genetic engineering: is the process by which pieces of DNA are transferred from one organism to another Human Bacterium Bacterium Plant Human Sheep Fish Plant
Tobacco plant Gene takenglows in the dark from a firefly [1986 ]
A vector is needed to transfer a gene into a host cell VECTOR plasmids or viruses are vectors VIRUSchromosome PLASMID A plasmid is a circular piece of DNA in a bacterium.
A quick look at the process 1. DNA carrying a gene of interest is taken from2. The gene is inserted a (e.g., a human) cell.into the DNA of another(host) cell.3. The host cell nowcontains recombinantDNA. 4. The host cell multiplies. Vat 5. The desired protein is produced.
Recombinant DNA enters the host cell Recombinant DNA geneHuman cell Bacterium Genetically modified Plasmid is plasmid opened
An organism which has foreign DNAintegrated into its genetic material is called: Foreign DNA Enzymes cut DNA Foreign DNA is integrated
Question: MAY, 2012Insulin was the first hormone to be synthesisedusing genetic engineering.a. Define the term genetic engineering. (2) The process by which pieces of DNA are transferred from one organism to another.
b. Genetic engineering uses recombinant DNA. What is recombinant DNA? (2) DNA made from two different organisms e.g. human gene and bacterial plasmid.
c. Explain the function of plasmids in genetic engineering. (2) Act as vectors to carry a specific gene into the host cell.
Stages involved:1. Identification of the required gene (e.g. gene for human insulin). gene
Stages involved:2. Cutting of the chromosome using specialenzymes called restriction endonucleases torelease the gene.
Uses of genetic engineering:1. To make insulin for use by diabetic persons Before genetic engineering, where did insulin come from? Pigs Cows
Question: MAY 2002Give a biological explanation for the followingobservation: Ann couldn’t believe her ears hearing the pharmacist telling her that the insulin shots bought for her grandfather were produced from bacteria. (2)Insulin is produced by genetically modifiedbacteria. The human gene able to make insulinis inserted into bacteria.
Uses of genetic engineering:2. To make growth hormone to treat dwarfs
Uses of genetic engineering:3. To prepare vaccines
Uses of genetic engineering:4. To make plants resistant to disease Tomato mosaic virus causes great damage
Uses of genetic engineering:5. To make pigs, cows or fish grow faster
Uses of genetic engineering:6. Higher production of milk by cows
Uses of genetic engineering:7. To make pigs with less fat - leaner meat. Control GMO
Gene therapy when a gene in inserted into a sick person
Other examples of GMO not in your notes
Less-flatulent cowsScientists have identified the bacterium responsible forproducing methane and designed a line of cattle that creates25 % less methane than the average cow.
Golden Rice: is genetically modified (rich in vitamin A) Ordinary riceGenetically modified rice
Goats make Silk Protein in MilkStrong, flexible spider silk is one of the most valuable materials in nature, andit could be used to make manyproducts — from artificial ligaments toparachute cords.This “silk milk” could then be used to manufacture a web-like material calledBiosteel.
Tadpoles which FluoresceTadpoles modified with jellyfish genes show promise as afaster and less expensive way to detect pollution thantraditional methods.
Featherless ChickensGrow better in warm countries. May 22, 2002No need of cooling.
Pest-Resistant CabbageGene that programs poison in scorpion tails was combined with cabbage.These genetically modified cabbages produce scorpion poison that killscaterpillars when they bite leaves — but the toxin is modified so it isn’tharmful to humans.
Strawberry with antifreezeAntifreeze is a chemical found in a fish living in cold water toavoid its blood freezing. Gene able to make this antifreeze wasintroduced into strawberries to avoid them from mushing upwhen frozen. But they become blue.
GM TreesGrow faster, yield better woodAustralian eucalyptus trees have been altered to withstand freezingtemperatures.Loblolly pines have been created with less lignin – better to make paper.
Possible hazards of genetic engineering Risks for human health, e.g. higher chances for cancer Risks for animal health, e.g. higher chances of infection Risk of creating new microbes that are difficult to kill by antibiotics