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The Greenhouse Science
Outline
 Greenhouse effect
 Energy Balance
 Activities
The Atmosphere
Principal Atmospheric Gases
GAS MASS
Nitrogen 75%
Oxygen 23%
Argon 1%
Water Vapor 0.3%
CO2 0.06%
Principal Atmospheric Gases
GAS MASS
Nitrogen 75%
Oxygen 23%
Argon 1%
Water Vapor 0.3%
CO2 0.06%
Greenhouse gases
Earth’s Energy BalanceEarth’s Energy Balance
 Energy entering top of atmosphere
 Energy entering the Earth’s surface
= E...
Solar Radiation (Sunlight)
 Sunlight is primarily made up of the
following:
– Visible Light (44%)Visible Light (44%)
– In...
Energy from the Sun
 Obviously, the Sun provides the Earth with it’s energy. The
question is, how much of the Sun’s energ...
Incoming solar radiationIncoming solar radiation
 Each ‘beam’ of incoming sunlight can be either:
– Reflected back to spa...
Absorption of radiation
 Absorption of shortwave radiation by atmospheric gas
molecules is fairly weak;
– most absorption...
Absorption of
radiation in the
Earth’s
atmosphere
Longwave radiation is
emitted from surface.
Some surface
radiation
escapes to
space
Most
outgoing
longwave is
absorbed in
...
Greenhouse EffectGreenhouse Effect
Sequence of steps:
1.1. Solar radiation absorbed by earth’s surface.Solar radiation abs...
Earth’s Greenhouse Effect
 Without the greenhouse effect, the surface
temperature of Earth would be
– Very Cold (-18°C)
...
Activity
Draw a diagram showing how the
earth is heated by the Sun.
Include arrows and/or lines to
indicate the ‘Energy Ba...
1. What percentage of the sun’s radiation is
a) absorbed by the Earth’s surface?
b) absorbed by the atmosphere
c) reflecte...
Greenhouse Science
Greenhouse Science
Greenhouse Science
Greenhouse Science
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Greenhouse Science

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Greenhouse Science .

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  • Welcome to Lecture 2. Sorry to miss the first class, but I expect you’ll understand that I’m attending a conference on climate change and hope to learning something interesting that I can share with our class.
  • Here are the numbers for both Earth and Venus
  • Here are the numbers for both Earth and Venus
  • So today, after these very broad introductory comments, we will spend a short time looking at the nature of energy in the E-A system, then we will look at some very basic radiation concepts (here I don’t want to get bogged down in complex detail, I just want to give you an overview of basic radiation concepts). However it is important that you have a basic understanding, because radiation is the primary energy source for driving atmospheric and ocean circulation and for all life on earth.
    Finally today, we’ll examine the mean annual global energy budget, concentrating especially on those significant climate leverage points.
  • So today, after these very broad introductory comments, we will spend a short time looking at the nature of energy in the E-A system, then we will look at some very basic radiation concepts (here I don’t want to get bogged down in complex detail, I just want to give you an overview of basic radiation concepts). However it is important that you have a basic understanding, because radiation is the primary energy source for driving atmospheric and ocean circulation and for all life on earth.
    Finally today, we’ll examine the mean annual global energy budget, concentrating especially on those significant climate leverage points.
  • So today, after these very broad introductory comments, we will spend a short time looking at the nature of energy in the E-A system, then we will look at some very basic radiation concepts (here I don’t want to get bogged down in complex detail, I just want to give you an overview of basic radiation concepts). However it is important that you have a basic understanding, because radiation is the primary energy source for driving atmospheric and ocean circulation and for all life on earth.
    Finally today, we’ll examine the mean annual global energy budget, concentrating especially on those significant climate leverage points.
  • So today, after these very broad introductory comments, we will spend a short time looking at the nature of energy in the E-A system, then we will look at some very basic radiation concepts (here I don’t want to get bogged down in complex detail, I just want to give you an overview of basic radiation concepts). However it is important that you have a basic understanding, because radiation is the primary energy source for driving atmospheric and ocean circulation and for all life on earth.
    Finally today, we’ll examine the mean annual global energy budget, concentrating especially on those significant climate leverage points.
  • So today, after these very broad introductory comments, we will spend a short time looking at the nature of energy in the E-A system, then we will look at some very basic radiation concepts (here I don’t want to get bogged down in complex detail, I just want to give you an overview of basic radiation concepts). However it is important that you have a basic understanding, because radiation is the primary energy source for driving atmospheric and ocean circulation and for all life on earth.
    Finally today, we’ll examine the mean annual global energy budget, concentrating especially on those significant climate leverage points.
  • So today, after these very broad introductory comments, we will spend a short time looking at the nature of energy in the E-A system, then we will look at some very basic radiation concepts (here I don’t want to get bogged down in complex detail, I just want to give you an overview of basic radiation concepts). However it is important that you have a basic understanding, because radiation is the primary energy source for driving atmospheric and ocean circulation and for all life on earth.
    Finally today, we’ll examine the mean annual global energy budget, concentrating especially on those significant climate leverage points.
  • Here is a cartoon of how the greenhouse effect works. See if you can follow this…
  • Transcript of "Greenhouse Science"

    1. 1. 1 The Greenhouse Science Outline  Greenhouse effect  Energy Balance  Activities
    2. 2. The Atmosphere
    3. 3. Principal Atmospheric Gases GAS MASS Nitrogen 75% Oxygen 23% Argon 1% Water Vapor 0.3% CO2 0.06%
    4. 4. Principal Atmospheric Gases GAS MASS Nitrogen 75% Oxygen 23% Argon 1% Water Vapor 0.3% CO2 0.06% Greenhouse gases
    5. 5. Earth’s Energy BalanceEarth’s Energy Balance  Energy entering top of atmosphere  Energy entering the Earth’s surface = Energy leaving top of atmosphere= Energy leaving top of atmosphere = Energy leaving Earth’s surface= Energy leaving Earth’s surface
    6. 6. Solar Radiation (Sunlight)  Sunlight is primarily made up of the following: – Visible Light (44%)Visible Light (44%) – Infrared Radiation (48%)Infrared Radiation (48%) – Ultraviolet Radiation (7%)Ultraviolet Radiation (7%) Unit: 1 µm = 0.000001 m
    7. 7. Energy from the Sun  Obviously, the Sun provides the Earth with it’s energy. The question is, how much of the Sun’s energy does the Earth get?  Sun’s energy is either – Scattered (reflected away) or – Absorbed  Scattering happens by bouncing off – Particles in the atmosphere – Earth’s surface  Absorption happens when certain gases absorb the energy – The reality is the only certain gases absorb certain wavelengths.
    8. 8. Incoming solar radiationIncoming solar radiation  Each ‘beam’ of incoming sunlight can be either: – Reflected back to space:  CloudsClouds  AtmosphereAtmosphere  SurfaceSurface – Or absorbed; either by atmosphere (e.g. clouds or ozone) or Earth’s surface. AlbedoAlbedo
    9. 9. Absorption of radiation  Absorption of shortwave radiation by atmospheric gas molecules is fairly weak; – most absorption of shortwave radiation occurs at the Earth’s surface.  Most gases do not interact strongly with longwave radiation, however – Greenhouse gas molecules absorb certainGreenhouse gas molecules absorb certain wavelengths of longwave radiation.wavelengths of longwave radiation.
    10. 10. Absorption of radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere
    11. 11. Longwave radiation is emitted from surface. Some surface radiation escapes to space Most outgoing longwave is absorbed in atmosphere (by greenhouse gases) Greenhouse gases emit longwave upward and downward Some atmospheric radiation escapes to space Some atmospheric radiation is absorbed at the surface
    12. 12. Greenhouse EffectGreenhouse Effect Sequence of steps: 1.1. Solar radiation absorbed by earth’s surface.Solar radiation absorbed by earth’s surface. 2.2. Earth gives off infrared radiation.Earth gives off infrared radiation. 3.3. Greenhouse gases absorb some of the Earth’sGreenhouse gases absorb some of the Earth’s infrared radiation.infrared radiation. 4.4. Greenhouse gases (water and CO2) give offGreenhouse gases (water and CO2) give off infrared radiation in all directions.infrared radiation in all directions. 5.5. Earth absorbs downward directed infrared radiationEarth absorbs downward directed infrared radiation Result: warmer surface temperature
    13. 13. Earth’s Greenhouse Effect  Without the greenhouse effect, the surface temperature of Earth would be – Very Cold (-18°C)  Greenhouse gases play an important role in shaping climate. – More GHGs – warmer climateMore GHGs – warmer climate – Less GHGs – cooler climateLess GHGs – cooler climate
    14. 14. Activity Draw a diagram showing how the earth is heated by the Sun. Include arrows and/or lines to indicate the ‘Energy Balance” of the earth. Energy Balance – Energy coming in and energy going out. In your diagram, include how clouds absorb, reflect and emit energy.
    15. 15. 1. What percentage of the sun’s radiation is a) absorbed by the Earth’s surface? b) absorbed by the atmosphere c) reflected out to space? 2. What percentage of the energy received by the earth’s surface comes directly from greenhouse gas emissions? 3. If the sun’s radiation was to increase by 10%, how would the following energy units change (increase, decrease or stay the same) a) Energy gained by the Earth’s surface. b) Energy lost by the Earth’s surface. c) Energy emitted by greenhouse gases. d) Energy lost to space. Activity 2
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