Change the way you work: Lessons from other industries


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Presented at the SDL Trados Forums 2013, these slides presented by SDL’s Vice President of Translation Productivity, analyses the methodologies and supply chains of large industries and relates it back to the translation and localization industry.

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Change the way you work: Lessons from other industries

  1. 1. SDL Proprietary and ConfidentialSDL Proprietary and ConfidentialChange the way youwork: lessons fromother industriesMassimo Ghislandi
  3. 3. 1. LEANLEAN: 1988. Derived from Japanese manufacturing industryWhat is it?A set of tools that assist in the identification andelimination of wastePOKAYOKEKANBAN5SVALUESTREAMMAPPING
  4. 4. 1. LEAN – Differences between manufacturing and servicesUnderstand customer demandwhat you are going to get a lot ofand train for standardUse specialists for exceptionsPass the information ‘cleanly’ sothe specialist or the next step hasall the right informationSTANDARDIZATIONMight not always useful inService industryCan service industry and translation benefit from some of thelean manufacturing techniques?VALUE DEMANDcompanies are inbusiness to serve thesedemandsFAILURE DEMANDCaused by failure to dosomething orsomething right for thecustomerMANUFACTURINGCompanies are inbusiness tomanufacture a productWASTECaused by failure toachieve the rightquality in a produceitemReduce waste Reduce failure demand
  5. 5. 1. LEAN – What does it entail?• Bad Translation• Poorterminology• Wrongdocument• Manual tasks• Wrongresource used• Change overbetween jobs• Nonstreamlinedprocess• Fluctuations incustomerdemand• Can be caused byMuda and Mura• 100% utilization• Absenteeism1. Muda3. Muri2. MuraSMEDPull MethodCustomervalueContinuousflowWasteeliminationContinuousimprovement
  6. 6. 1. LEAN - SMEDQuick change over influencing: Economic lot sizeSMED: Single-Minute Exchange of DieIf change over can be reduced, economic lot size canalso be reduced• Observer the current methodology (Separateinternal / external activities)• Convert internal activities into external ones• Streamline the remaining internal activities bysimplifying them• Streamline the external activities• Document the new procedure• Do it all again!• Observe the current process (Separate activities thatcan be only done at the end of the project from thosethat can be done during the project in parallel)• Transform internal into external (File preparation fromtranslator to project manager)• Consider specializing (Translation / QA / Review)• Look at project preparation / Processing and simplify• Document the new procedure• Do it all again!Quick processing of different jobsIN TRANSLATIONIf you can reduce the change over / preparation timeYou will be able to take on more smaller jobs
  7. 7. 1. LEAN - Value Stream MappingValue stream mapping is alean manufacturing techniqueused to analyze and design theflow of materials andinformation required to bringa product or service to aconsumer.
  8. 8. 1. LEAN - What does it take to localise?Steps NoTMSWS WorldSerIdentify & package files for localisation  One integrated system = no haHandoff files to localisation vendor/group  Vendor access WorldServer diProcess files to generate scope and cost quote  Filters, translation memory, scReview “blind” quotes, negotiate & signoff on cost  WorldServer computes costProcess files to generate projects for translators  Filters, centralized TM/TD, autSend out translation projects manually via mail or ftp  WorkflowVendor performs scoping & translation   Minimized by ICE and SPICE mManage issues raised by translator & exchange comments  WorkflowVendor processes projects to create review files  Direct generation of XML on saClient performs linguistic and quality reviews  Exchange spread sheets with comments  Issue tracking and segment coManually update changes in translation memory tool  Browser translation workbenchProcess projects to create final files  Architecture: direct generationPerform production and DTP on files  Automated output, multilingualHandoff final files for publishing and archive  One integrated systemUpdate, merge, store, maintain TM manually  Changes never made outside o
  9. 9. 1. LEAN – Mapping a translation processCollateBCUBrugesBCUSingaporeBCUEindhoven• Mainstream• Hi-end• DTV + FTVSign-offCreateCommissionTranslate LocaliseLocalise&translateNSO’sx17TradeConsumerNSO’sx17Sign-offContentDBAKBSMDBMediaWareP3C6 monthsProduct Catalogue Content Process3 months5 monthsWeb Content Process for Catalogue4 months4 months = new AKBS 2 months = update AKBSRegionalMarketingAKBSCollateSpainSwedenx17x17x17x17x17x17Over 9,000communicationsrequired to sourcecontent for catalogueTranslation happenstwice for the samecontentContent takes 4months toreach the webRegional marketingact as a ‘post-box’and are a bottle-neckDifferent peopleare chasing thesame contentOnly 18% ofproduct leafletsget toproductionSource: Philips presentation at SDL GIM conference, UK, November 2006
  10. 10. Content ManagerDetermines whatcontent requirestranslationProcess StartContent ManagerSends translationrequest (email or FTP)Content ManagerManually extractscontent metadata forlocalizationContent ManagerManually extractscontent from contentstoreLoc ManagerReviews translationrequest / manuallygathers content /sends contentVendor Loc MgrSends translationassets to translator(email/FTP)Vendor Loc MgrPerforms word countanalysis and sendsquoteLoc ManagerReviews quoteTranslatorsCollects content totranslate via email orFTPTranslatorsTranslates contentTranslatorsSend translationassets to Loc ProjectManagerQuoteApproved?Vendor Loc MgrAdjusts / /resends toLoc Manager (email/FTP)YESNOPain:Manual extraction oftranslatable contentPain:Lack of automation(integration intocontent stores)Loc ManagerUpdates / maintainsTranslation Memories(if used)TranslatorsSaves translationassets in requiredencodingPain:No ability todynamically review in-context (on-line)Content ManagerReceives/collectstranslated assets(email or FTP)In-country ReviewersReview translatedassetsContent ManagerSends assets/refassets to reviewers(email or FTP)Process EndPain:Manual gathering ofcontent to localizePain:Vendor file analysisresults in excess cost/delaysIn-country ReviewrsRetrieves assets(email or FTP)Pain:Manual gathering ofcontent to reviewTranslationsApprovedLoc ManagerRetrieves translationassets from reviewerswith status/notesIn-country ReviewersEmails Loc Managerwith approvals orsuggested changesNOContent ManagerRetrieves translationassetsContent ManagerManually insertstranslation assets intocontent storePain:Lack of automation(integration intocontent stores)Pain:Manual retrieving oftranslation assetsYESPain:If changes madedirectly to translationassets, TM leverage /reuse lostPain:Increased cost / timedue to additional fileanalysis and re-translationPain:No ability todynamically review in-context (on-line)Pain:Unknown quality /accuracy of TMleverage,Pain:Increased costs due tovendor TMmanagement / lack ofinsight into TM qualityCompany “A” manual steps aided /automated with SDL TMSTranslation Vendor manual stepsreduced / eliminated with SDL TMSOnly manual steps expected intranslation processPain associated with translationprocess stepLegend1. LEAN – Mapping a translation process
  11. 11. 1. LEAN – Mapping a translation processContent is gatheredthrough contentstore workflowCMS, etc) or changedetectedProcess StartLoc ManagerReviews translationrequest through webinterface forauthorizationVendor Loc MgrApproves translationrequest(optional)In-countryReviewersReview translatedassetsProcess EndTranslation projectautomaticallycreated throughdefined businessrulesAssets fortranslationautomatically sentto or retrievedby systemAssets areautomatically filteredand analyzed againstexisting centralizedTMCost analysispreformed againsttranslation vendor(s)agreed upon costmodel(s)Vendor Loc Mgr nolonger has to do fileanalysis– reducedproject managementcostsTranslatorsTranslates contentCentralized TMupdated upon finalapprovalTranslation assetsare generated insame format as thesource assetsEmail sent toContent Managersignifying translationproject completionTranslation assetssent to or retrievedby content store(CMS, etc.)Analysis, technologyand automationhelp reduce processcomplexities
  12. 12. 1. LEAN - Value Stream Mapping• Identify the target product, product family, or service.• Draw a current state value stream map, which shows the current steps, delays, andinformation flows required to deliver the target product or service. This may be a productionflow (raw materials to consumer) or a design flow (concept to launch). Assess the currentstate value stream map in terms of creating flow by eliminating waste.• Draw a future state value stream map.• Work toward the future state condition.Non Value adding stepsare often preparatory ortidying up.Consider using a post-itnotes to create the firstmap so they can beadjusted ”“• Identify recurring projects / customers which orfunctions• Draw a current state value stream map, whichshows the current steps, delays, and informationflows required to deliver the translation service.• Assess the current state value stream map interms of creating flow by eliminating waste.• Look at manual tasks, preparation, quality checks,transfer of data, number of people touching atask, ways to monitor status.”“
  13. 13. 1. LEAN - 5SWorkplaceorganization methodHow to organize a workspace for efficiency andeffectiveness ”“
  14. 14. 5S• SORTSee what papers / folders/ files are necessary, whatshould be eliminatedCreate clean folderstructures• STRAIGHTENPlace all items whetherpaper or digital in thecorrect place so they areeasier to find• SHINEKeep the office clean andtidy, your data storage ingood condition• STANDARDIZEEnsure a process isadopted by everyone.Use same conventions,naming, places to store• SUSTAINMaintain the procedure• SORTSee what TMs arenecessary, which unit /files should be eliminated• STRAIGHTENEnsure all your TMs arecorrectly stored ideally ina central place• SHINEUse methodologies toensure your TMs areclean (CCM)• STANDARDIZEEnsure everyone is usingthe same process tomaintain clean TMs• SUSTAINMaintain the procedurein the long term
  15. 15. 1. LEAN - 5s benefitsProductivity• Less wasted time searching• Better organized way of workingQuality• Encourages better process and reduces mistakesand misplaced items• In a file context improves TMs or TerminologyImproved Image and morale• Customer visiting will get a better professional image• Staff will be more motivated in a more pleasingenvironment
  16. 16. RAPID1. LEAN - KaizenKaizen (改善)Japanese for "improvement", or "change forthe better" refers to philosophy or practicesthat focus upon continuous improvement ofprocesses in manufacturing, engineering,and business management.Kaizen EventThe Kaizen Blitz (or Kaizen Event) is afocused, short-term project to improve aprocess. It includes training followed by aanalysis, design, and, often, re-arrangementof a product line or area. Process and ValueStream Mapping are important tools.The usual Kaizen Event takes 2-10 daysCONTINUOSKey to success• Small continuous improvements areas important as large rapid ones• Company’s leadership must beinvolved• People who perform the processmust be involved• Celebrate and publicize theaccomplishment
  17. 17. Kaizen• Standardize an operationand activities.• Measure the operation(find cycle time andamount of in-processinventory)• Gauge measurementsagainst requirements• Innovate to meetrequirements and increaseproductivity• Standardize the new,improved operations• Continue cycle adinfinitum• Identify a process which isconstantly repeated suchas file distribution orrouting• Measure timing for thevarious process andidentify bottlenecks• Compare your result withthe goal you set• Innovate by simplifying,automating, integrating,improve practices• Standardize the new,improved process• Continue cycle adinfinitum
  18. 18. 1. LEAN – Kanban and Poka-YokeScheduling system for lean and just-in-time (JIT)production. Kanban is a PULL system to control thelogistical chain from a production point of viewThere are examples of Kanban applied to serviceswhich lead to:- More visible backlog- Individuals can pull workload- Overall backlog is better managed- Collaboration is improve- Bottleneck more visibleA poka-yoke is any mechanism in a leanmanufacturing process that helps an equipmentoperator avoid (yokeru) mistakes (poka). Itspurpose is to eliminate product defects bypreventing, correcting, or drawing attention tohuman errors as they occur.In the service industry this could mean improvingforms, adding compulsory steps in the process, usesoftware to enforce checksKANBANPOKA-YOKE
  19. 19. 2. QUALITY• Incorrect work• Work not requested• Work completed too slowlyTask• Failure to acknowledge thecustomer• Failure to listen to the customer• Failure to react appropriatelyTreatment• Failure to clean facilities• Failure to control noise, light,temperature• Failure to proofread a documentTangibleWhat is it?A combination of quantitative and qualitative perspectives for which each person has his or her owndefinition; ie. "Meeting the requirements and expectations in service or product that were committedto" and "Pursuit of optimal solutions contributing to fulfilling accountabilities".
  20. 20. 2. QUALITY - Evolution• Statistics pervaded quality since the 40s• Dramatic changes in the 70s when US lost market share to foreigncompetitors, (lower price higher quality)• Quality became strategic1900Inspection1940sStatisticalsampling1960sOrganizationalquality focus1980s andbeyondCustomerdriven qualityOLD CONCEPT OF QUALITY NEW
  21. 21. QUALITYManufacturing Services TRANSLATIONConformance TangiblefactorsFiles work,punctuation is correct,layout accuratePerformance Consistency Terminology is correctReliability Responsiveness to needsFulfilled all customerrequirementsFeatures Courtesy Personal relationshipDurability Timeliness DeadlinesServiceability Atmosphere Doing work togetherDEMINGOnly 15% of quality problems are due to work error. 85% are caused by process and system.It is up to management to correct system problems and create an environment that promotes quality
  22. 22. Six SigmaSix Sigma is a set of tools and strategiesfor process improvement originallydeveloped by Motorola in 1985. SixSigma became well known after JackWelch made it a central focus of hisbusiness strategy at General Electric in1995, and today it is used in differentsectors of industry.Many lean techniques areapplied in Six Sigma
  23. 23. 2. QUALITY – Six Sigma• A clear focus on achievingmeasurable and quantifiablefinancial returns.• An increased emphasis on strong andpassionate management leadershipand support.• A special infrastructure of"Champions", "Master Black Belts","Black Belts", "Green Belts", etc. tolead and implement the Six Sigmaapproach.• A clear commitment to makingdecisions on the basis of verifiabledata and statistical methods, ratherthan assumptions and guesswork.In translation this would equate to 3.4wrong words out of Million or 3.4rejected projects in a million
  24. 24. 2. QUALITY – Six Sigma• Any translationdepartment cananalyze theirworkflow, identifyarea where qualitycould be impactedand redefineprocesses andpractices to ensurebetter quality.
  25. 25. 2. QUALITY – Six SigmaMeasure Phase:- Senior management involved- Establish leadership commitment- Train- Schedule reviewsAnalyze Phase:- Define business goals- Identify existing process and performance- Define improvement projects- Create performance measures- Establish incentive / recognitionImprove Phase:- Form a team- Provide training to the team member- Implement six sigma projects and use techniques- Monitor statusControl- Audit results- Maintain the improved system- Apply the incentive- Apply continuous improvementMeasure Phase:- Translation Manager / Owners / Tech Doc directors- Establish leadership commitment- Train- Schedule reviewsAnalyze Phase:- Reduce Project Errors / Improve a language quality- Identify existing process and performance- Define improvement projects- Create performance measures- Establish incentive / recognitionImprove Phase:- Form a team- Provide training to the team member- Implement six sigma projects and use techniques- Monitor statusControl- Audit results- Maintain the improved system- Apply the incentive- Apply continuous improvementPHILOSOPHYDon’t spot mistakes at the endand re-do the work, buteliminate issues during theprocess itself.Suppliers always play a bigpart. Ensure they are alignedwith your goals.
  26. 26. 3. PROJECT MANAGEMENTA goal without a plan is just a wishWhat is it?Project management is the discipline ofplanning, organizing, motivating, andcontrolling resources to achieve specificgoals. A project is a temporary endeavourwith a defined beginning and end (usuallytime-constrained, and often constrained byfunding or deliverables)
  27. 27. 3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT - PRINCE 2• Prince 2 was released in 1996 as a generic project management method.• Developed by UK Government.• There are some key PRINCE2 processes. The arrows represent flows of information.Every job intranslation isa project.
  28. 28. PRINCIPLES THEMES PROCESSESBusiness Justification Business case Starting upLearn from experience Organization InitiatingDefined roles andresponsibilitiesQuality DirectingManage by stage Plans Controlling a stageManage by exception Risk Managing stageboundariesFocus on products Change Managing productdeliveryTailored to suit theenvironmentProgress Closing a project3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT - PRINCE 2Different size of projects will require use of different principle and processes.However used in different measures, all stages could be useful.PRINCIPLESShould be accept thisproject?Learn from experienceLead translators /Reviers / ManagersTranslate, review,DTP etc.Intervene only whenthere is a problemEnsure output to bedelivered is clearEvaluate project sizeand manageaccordingly
  30. 30. Quality ReviewThe quality review technique ensures a projectsproducts are of the required standard (i.e. meetdefined quality criteria).• This takes place in a quality review meeting,which identifies errors in the product.• The quality review meeting will not attempt tosolve the problems it identifies.• The meeting brings together people who havean interest in the projects outputs and peopleon the project team able to address issuesidentified.• Quality in translation is harder tomeasure however consider the 2aspects measurable and subjective.• The quality review meeting can helpidentify what went wrong and tries toembed steps in the process to correctthem• Translators, project managers,reviewers, external resources etc.should be involved.
  31. 31. Change ControlFormal process used to ensure thatchanges to a product or system areintroduced in a controlled and coordinatedmanner.• It reduces unnecessary changes• Avoid introducing faults or undoingchanges made by others• Minizes disruption to services• Ensure only the appointed people havethe power to change the controlprocesses. Ie. Only appointedterminology lead can changeterminology or translator lead canfinalize a translation memory update.• Ensure process is not changed withoutcommunication• Think when to apply the changes, toavoid disruption
  32. 32. Product based planningA method of identifying all of the products(project deliverables) that make up or contribute todelivering the objectives of the project, and theassociated work required to deliver themEnsure that all the steps and deliverablesagreed to whoever customers aredocumented and all the associated workand steps is scoped and has resourcesallocated to it.
  33. 33. SummaryLEANTECHNIQUESQUALITYMANAGEMENTPROJECTMANAGEMENTTranslation memory tomaximize productivityTerminology databases tobetter control andstreamline terminologymanagementServer Technology tocentralize and reducemanual tasksAutomated quality checksto ensure measurablequality is controlledQuality checks profiles toensure consistent approachCentralized management ofTM and Terminology assetsAuditing of status throughcentralized projectmanagementBetter communicationacross the team throughuse of standard packages
  34. 34. Copyright © 2008-2012 SDL plc. All rights reserved.. All company names, brand names, trademarks,service marks, images and logos are the property of their respective owners.This presentation and its content are SDL confidential unless otherwise specified, and may not becopied, used or distributed except as authorised by SDL.