Struggle & Slavery
Most every African that made it to America was aboard a slave
ship and either worked as a personal servant or out in the fields
usually on plantations where the crops were used for the
European market. The commonality of the type of slavery one
was in greatly depended on the region at which they were
shipped to. Southern American included more plantation workers
as Northern America was more urbanized so house slaves were
Thomas Peters was very harshly treated on the slave ships over
the Atlantic ocean, not only were the ships beyond overcrowded
with little to no room to actually move, but they brutally tortured
them as well. He spent 32 years of his 45 year life in slavery
struggles but did make a name for himself as sergeant of the
On more of brighter side, Joseph Rachell led a much better life
than usual black people by getting freed at the age of 10, and led
his life as a successful Bridgetown merchant.
Conflict of Conversion
In 1536, Spanish expansion led the first expedition to Florida.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led the second expedition from
Mexico to the Great Plains.
The Soto Exploration introduced violence and disease that took a
major toll on the native population.
There was often conflict between the Spansih and the natives for
many reasons but one of the major reasons was because of religion.
As seen with Diego Vasicuio who was a Peruvian Indian Heathen
man who faced punishment and trials for heresy for not converting
to Catholicism. Throughout all the hardships that he endure he
continued to try and keep his own religion and culture alive.
The Spanish did however convert many native in some instances
trying to force assimilations by not allowing any food, prayer, or
customs associated with their former religion.
Portuguese + Dutch = Independence of Portugal
In the early and middle 17th century the Portuguese
came into conflict with the Dutch because the Dutch had
stolen their primary source of economy which were the
export of sugar from America as well as the
transportation of slaves from West Africa.
In 1637 the Dutch had taken Elmina Castle which was
the main trading post of West Africa.
With doing so the Portuguese lost confidence in their
Spanish king and rebelled against him. In doing so they
received their independence from Spain in 1640.
Establishment in North America
In 1627, after almost 20 years after the colonization of Canada by
France, Quebec still had only 85 French colonists residing there,
and they quickly realized that they need to get more people over
there before the English take over their land.
in 1632 when a peace treaty was signed and the Seigneurial system
of New France was established which was a system of land
distribution used in New France and the Northern American
By 1675, seventy of these seigneuries divided the land between
Quebec and Montreal which then cause the population to increase
in New France from 700 colonists in 1650 to 3,000 in 1663.
They founded Louisiana as a colony in the later part of the 17th
century. Louisiana became the biggest rival for British Carolina
when the Spanish power diminished in Florida.
The Dutch colony around the Hudson River was conjoined with New
Netherlands and adopted a sense of religious tolerance in this area
which cause this land to become a melting pot society actually
making the Dutch a minority in their own region.
Fort Nassau was established in 1614 and produced a year-around
presence of trade on the upper Hudson and served as the colony’s
largest town, major seaport, and main government headquarters.
Because of their growing strength the English and the Dutch
became bitter rivals and To combat Dutch success in naval power,
the English developed the Navigation Acts.
The Dutch then went to war with the English because of these
navigation acts for without them they couldn’t trade with English
colonies and their economy would suffer. Being far in-superior the
Dutch were force to sign a peace treaty with the English because
their war efforts could not compete with those of England’s.
There was a saying that “The sun never set on English colonies,” meaning that
their land was so vast that the sunlight was always hitting one of them at any
During the 17th century the population of England was mainly in two areas along
the Atlantic seaboard: the Chesapeake to the south and New England to the
The crown did not have much money of its own so Instead the crown entrusted
early colonization to private interests licensed by royal charters, which awarded
the proprietors both title to colonial land and the right to govern the colonists.
Their new colonization of America at the sight of Jamestown started with
tragedy as they were subjected to disease, starvation, Indian resistance, and
poisoning resulting in the death of many.
Plymouth, however, resulted in much more success set up by the Puritans who
were escaping religious persecution.
English Quakers were those who colonized West Jersey, while East Jersey
became multiethnic. The new colonies of New Jersey and Pennsylvania were
the compound of region’s ethnic and linguistic diversity created which attracted
more non-English emigrants.
There were over 5 million emigrants who made the trek across the Atlantic as
opposed to the only 1.5 million Dutch. This is because the Dutch economy was
booming compared to England’s so there was much less reason to leave.
First Colonization of the New Land.
The period between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago was an ideal
time for a crossing into North America, because the global
climate was slowly warming and the glaciers were gradually
melting, sufficiently so to permit an easier passage into the
continent but not enough to where the Bering Strait was
The original people who crossed into Alaska from Asia had no
idea that they were crossing over into a new continent and that
the ice they were traveling on was a bridge formed over the
Pacific Ocean. Once that bridge melted they were trapped but
found it easier to travel southward and eastward.
Some Athabascan bands, who later became know at the Navajo
and Apache, gradually worked their way down the Rocky
Mountains, reaching the American southwest about 600 years
This surge of colonization began over 5,000 years ago and
reached Labrador and Greenland by about 2,500 years ago.
Sweet, David & Nash, Gary. Struggle & Survival in
Taylor, Alan. American Colonies: The Settling of