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    Groups Groups Presentation Transcript

    • Understanding Groups and Group Psychology Anyone taken as an individual, is tolerably sensible and reasonable-as a member of a crowd, he at once becomes a blockhead. Friedrich von Schiller
    • What is a Group? A Group: - Consists of 3 or more people who have the ability to influence one another - Exists to 1) accomplish tasks 2) create a sense of belonging - is joined by the members to 1) accomplish goals with a shared sense of purpose 2) assist in identity formation 3) provide safety 4) reduce stress - has “norms” (standards of behavior/expectations) that will be enforced by the group, often through the power structure or communication structure the group has established - has “roles” that the members will fulfill - can be FORMAL or INFORMAL - is easy to form, difficult to change once it is formed
    • STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT 1. Forming : The group comes together and gets to initially know one other and form as a group. 2. Storming : A often chaotic time of competition and conflict. 3. Norming : Eventually agreement is reached on how the group operates. 4. Performing : The group practices its craft and becomes effective in meeting its objectives. 5. Transforming/Adjourning : The process of "unforming" the group, that is, letting go of the group structure and moving on.
    • Group Decision Making
      • Advantages : Potential brainstorming, multiple types of expertise and points of view, facilitation of problem solving and creativity
      • Groups are often better in solving problems
      • Studies show that improvement occurs in several different areas:
        • Quantitative judgment (up to 23 to 32% accuracy increase)
        • Brain teasers and logic problems (better then average)
        • General knowledge questions (better than average member)
        • Creativity and problem solving (groups can pool resources)
      • Disadvantages : Extreme group reactions, conformity, might lead to unreasonable, risky or poor decisions
    • When Good Groups Turn UGLY Group Psychology Fundamentals Cognitive Dissonance -Psychological discomfort felt at holding opposing/conflicting beliefs or demonstrating opposing/conflicting actions Resolved by 1) Changing Action 2) Changing Belief or 3) Justifying your Belief or Action
    • When Good Groups Turn UGLY Group Psychology Fundamentals Social Facilitation -In groups, individuals performance is likely to increase on tasks that are learned or practiced; performance will decrease on tasks that are new or complex
    • When Good Groups Turn UGLY Group Psychology Fundamentals Social Loafing -In unstructured groups, individual contributions will lessen and may cease all together
    • When Good Groups Turn UGLY Group Psychology Fundamentals Deindividuation -In a group, individuals will experience a loss of personal identity and personal responsibility and will take on the group’s identity More likely to occur: 1) the larger the group is 2) If one feels anonymous 3) in a high pressure group
    • When Good Groups Turn UGLY Group Psychology Fundamentals Group Polarization -the longer an individual belongs to a group, group beliefs and attitudes will become more extreme, more likely to act in group solidarity
    • When Good Groups Turn UGLY Group Psychology Fundamentals
      • GroupThink -groups make poor or faulty decisions
      • Likely to occur when a group:
      • 1. Is under pressure
      • Feels protected
      • Has power
      • Is isolated
    • Conflict : a mental and/or physical disagreement in which people’s beliefs, values or needs are in opposition to each other (or perceived opposition) “ No doubt there are other important things in life besides conflict, but there are not many other things so inevitably interesting.” Robert Lynd
    • Conflict : a mental and/or physical disagreement in which people’s beliefs, values or needs are in opposition to each other (or perceived opposition) “ No doubt there are other important things in life besides conflict, but there are not many other things so inevitably interesting.” Robert Lynd
    • Dealing with Conflict: Styles Competing: Pursues one’s own concerns at the expense of others Accommodating: neglect’s one’s own concern to satisfy others Avoiding: does not immediately pursue one’s own or other’s concerns, does not address conflict Compromising: finds a mutually acceptable solution; often involves splitting the difference, “agree to disagree” Collaborating: attempts to work with others, involves an in-depth examination of the issue, both parties are enriched, respect is gained
    • Finding a Resolution: First,……. *Be sure mutual trust is established *Be in the right frame of mind *Be honest *Use “I” statements *Deal with conflict ASAP
    • Finding a Resolution: The Process 1 . Identify positions (“what are they saying”) of each side of the people in conflict. 2. Learn more about the true needs and desires behind each side. 3. Ask clarifying questions for more information 4. Brainstorm possible solutions 5. Discuss how each solution would affect each side and figure out possible compromises 6. Agree upon a solution. 7. Implement solutions 8. Re-evaluate solutions, if necessary.