Survival Through Collective Struggle
• Male: Indian Resistance Leader
• Kinsman of Pocahontas
• Much-vilified architect of the bloody
Indian uprisings of 1622 and 1644
• Referred to as the cruel leader of the
“perfidious and inhumane”
Powhatans, the “unflinching
enemy…of the Saxon race”
• He demonstrated resilience and
political resolve in his brilliant effort
to save the Powhatan way of life
• Male: Shulush Homa of Couechitto
• Tribal man (Iksa clan); common warrior
• His death helped spark the Civil war
• Began and ended his career changing
the world; refused to be a pawn of the
• Challenged the French and English to
recognize the realities of his world
• His vision: that the Choctaw nation
might grasp the European advantages
without succumbing to their rule.
Survival Through Individual Defiance
Juan de Morga
• Male: Rebellious mulatto slave
• Lived in Oaxaca, México in 1627
• Ran away and for 375 pesos, forged a
new identity as a freed man.
• For his blatant disrespect of Arratia, he
was tortured numerously and
• Upon making a pact with Satan, his
• He rescinded his pact with Satan and
upon intervention from the Inquisition
was freed from Arratia.
Gertrudis de Escobar
• Female: Free mulatta of 14 years old
when she cam before the Inquisition
• Lived in Central México
• Sold into slavery by aunt
• Recognized as a freed woman in her
slave status and an appeal to the
Inquisition was made on her behalf.
• Through her horrible employment as
a slave, overcame great odds.
Survival Through Individual Accommodation
Beatriz de Padilla
• Born in Lagos, Spain
• Not a mulatta, but a lighter-skinned
morisca (half white, half mulatta).
• Accused of causing mysterious things
(poisoning) to happen to her two
• As a woman of a white father and
mulatta mother, she was despised for
her light-skin and beauty.
• Her survival gives flare to Mexican
Catarina de Monte Sinay
• Female: Nun and Entrepreneur
• Born in Brazil
• Married in a ceremony that
represented being wed to Jesus Christ.
• Lived in the nunnery for six years.
• Her sister also was given into
nunnery, both girls, by their father.
• In her later years she married
The Last of the Patuxets
• Male: a lone tribal Indian
• Time and Place of birth are
• Rescued the Pilgrims from
the wilderness by
introducing them to
friendly natives and
teaching them how to plant
• Helped with the
colonization of New