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India SCR in semi-arid and rainfed regions of  Maharahtra
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India SCR in semi-arid and rainfed regions of Maharahtra

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  • 1. STRENGTHENING THE CAPACITIES OF RURAL COMMUNITIES TO ADAPT TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN SEMI-ARID AND RAINFED REGIONS OF MAHARASHTRA
  • 2. Who We Are? Are? Watershed Organization Trust (WOTR), an NGO was established in 1993. Our Philosophy: Land degradation and water scarcity are the most intense and commonly felt needs of village communities that can bring diverse and competing groups of people together to begin their development process. Our Vision: Communities, especially the poor within, are empowered to live in dignity and secure their livelihood and well-being in sustainable ecosystems. Our Goal: To reach out to 1,500,000 direct stakeholders and cover 1,000,000 hectares (2,500,000 acres) by the year 2015
  • 3. WOTR’S Area of Operation • No. of People directly impacted: • WSD - +822,000 • SHGs - 92,100 • No. of Partner NGOs - 184 • No. of Watershed Villages - 1026 • No. of Project Villages 2172 • Total Area Covered (ha) - 596,000 ha • No. of People Trained - 225,000
  • 4. WOTR’s Core Areas /Competencies • Integrated Water Resources Management / Watershed Development /Natural Resources Management • Capacity Building & Institutional Development • Women’s Empowerment, Health and Environmental Education in Schools • Knowledge Management and Dissemination • ICT : Application of IT, Communication and Documentation • Policy Advocacy , Networking and Linkage Building • South to South Exchanges • Consultancy Services New Areas of Interventions: - Renewable Energy for Rural Households - Community Based Rural Tourism - School for Sustainable Living and Livelihood - Climate Change Adaptation
  • 5. Policy Impacts Capacity Building as a separate and pre-qualifying phase now adopted in all Government as well as donor funded WSD projects. The National Watershed Development Fund (NWDF) set up by Govt. of India at NABARD based on this approach. Participatory Net Planning (PNP) adopted by various state governments and other projects Has permission to treat Govt. Forest land under IGWDP & WOTR projects Government of Maharashtra adopted the handholding approach of WOTR involving NGOs and facilitating agencies as well as PNP for WSD. The Rajiv Gandhi Watershed mission (MP) adopted the PNP & Village Envisioning methodology. AP too has taken up PNP. Replicability All NGOs trained by WOTR have undertaken government and other watershed development projects. 4 Village Development Committees have taken up watershed development projects neighboring villages WOTR has assisted projects in Tanzania and Kenya and implemented this approach in Boroma district in Somaliland & now in Malawi
  • 6. The Problem: Water Scarcity and Land Degradation Today 1.7 billion people are water stressed around the world, by 2025 the population would be over 3 billion. 70 % of Maharashtra is arid, semi-arid, hot sub-humid; 85% agriculture is rain-dependent 58 % of India is arid, semi-arid, hot sub-humid; 70% agriculture is rain-dependent 30% of the Earth is semi-arid & 20% is hot arid lands
  • 7. The Problems: Water, Fodder and Fuel Scarcity, Unproductive Lands, Distress Migration
  • 8. The Problem: Poverty , Fractured Communities Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) 10
  • 9. The Indian Sub-continent: a Hot spot or many hot spots Arid Zone Pakistan, Afghanistan and Western India Himalaya The Middle Hills of the Himalaya Ganga Basin: Coastal regions The Deccan Plateau
  • 10. According to Professor Goswami (2008) of IITM Instead of Indian monsoon being stronger and wetter, there is a potential for monsoon to go to a mega-drought state with high frequency of severe drought through nonlinear feedback within the climate system.
  • 11. Vulnerability of the poor Geographical exposure Climate effects Poorest areas Increase in droughts, floods, cyclones, mudslides The poor: most exposed to worst impacts, least able to cope Impacts Vulnerability factors • Food and water insecurity Bio-physical & Socio-economic • Increased forced migration • Incidence of diseases • Ecosystem changes Source: adapted from IPPC, 2001, 2007; Tyndall & IIED, 2003
  • 12. The Local Context to be Addressed • Weather variations – disturbance in the regular weather patterns (droughts and drought like situations: delayed monsoons, increased dry spells between rains; sudden cloud bursts and unseasonal rains, floods for the down stream villages) • Natural resource base for livelihoods – Heavy dependency on natural resource base with tiny percentage of people depend on non-land based income sources. Distress migration and migration for work during the summer months. • The Current attitudes: individualistic survival approach resource exploitation with no care for tomorrow; survive on what one gets today – let tomorrow take care for itself • The isolated village approach • Large number of vulnerable people: (1719 out of 4314 HHs with land less than 1 ha)
  • 13. Impact Details Livestock and Milk Production (1996 – 2009) Livestock & Milk Production 250 1,600 1,400 200 1,200 No. of Livestock No. / Milk in lit. 1,000 150 800 100 600 400 50 200 - - 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2005 2007 2008 2009 Av. Milk prod ( daily) - - - 241 653 662 788 550 490 378 360 Cross breed 14 15 19 39 58 85 113 97 88 40 51 Indigenous Cow 170 148 91 117 96 100 101 85 65 60 200 Sheep 1,323 1,017 1,092 1,172 1,301 992 434 610 604 510 1,487 Year
  • 14. Our Response An Action Research Approach Project
  • 15. The Project Area Location Map
  • 16. Wateshed Features and Villages Sangamner Clusters
  • 17. Project Area and Scope • Project area: 25 villages • Direct impact: approximately 4314 HH of 23,345 persons of which: • STs are 1905 HHs (44%) • SCs are 260 HHs ( 6%) • OBCs are 279 HHs (7%) • NTs are 83 HHs (2%) • Others are 1787 HHs (41%) • Total Project Area: 18,503 ha (185 sq.kms) • Area Previously Treated: 8,634 ha (47%) • Treatment not required: 1,976 ha (11%) • Net Area to be Treated: 7,833 ha (42%)
  • 18. Project Area • The project area is widely representative - agro-climatically, demographically, economically and vulnerability wise - of most of rain-fed agrarian India where the bulk of the poor live. • It represents 2 of the 9 agro-ecological zones of the state [Zone 5 (Transition Zone 2) and Zone 6 (the Scarcity Zone)] and covers 40% of the state. High congruence and relevance to Zones 3, 4 and 7. Altogether cover over 75% of the state. • Areas selected are culturally and ethnically different (tribal and non-tribal), represent different levels of backwardness and integration with the wider economy • Area is reasonably well connected, accessible, not far from major markets, close to taluka HQ and close to Mumbai and Pune. • WOTR has long presence, substantial works, close relationship with the people and governance framework – trust, relationships and credibility is crucial to success of this project
  • 19. The Project: Goals and Objectives Overall Vision Food, water, livelihoods and income security and an improving quality of life Vision: to vulnerable and disadvantaged communities on a sustainable and equitable basis is ensured. Overall Goal To build the capacities of vulnerable communities in clusters to adapt to climate Goal: change, contribute to mitigation and undertake measures to reduce poverty and improve well being on a sustainable and equitable basis. Specific Objectives: • Understanding how locally experienced climate related variations/ changes affect agriculture and livestock productivity levels • Development of climate smart tested approaches and best practices that can be quickly adopted by village communities and up-scaled. • Development and promotion of livelihoods that are resilient to climate variations and promotion o f technologies and practices that enhance the productivity of water, agriculture, livestock and livelihoods. • Development of tools and IT enabled systems to validate, assess and adjust initiatives that seek to promote adaptation as well as capture additionalities. • Generation of knowledge from field experiences and its widespread dissemination with a view to policy change. • Support the Government of India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change.
  • 20. Framework for Vulnerability and Climate Change Adaptation Emissions Implementation Non Climatic Mitigative Mitigation Concentrations Drivers Capacity Facilitation Climate Climate Non Climatic Factors Change Variability Implementation Exposure Sensitivity Adaptive Adaptation Capacity Facilitation Impacts Vulnerability
  • 21. Contextual Vulnerability – Starting point Evaluation or Internal Social Vulnerability Climate Change Political and Climate Variability Economic , Social Institutional and Change and Cultural Structures and Structures Changes Contextual Conditions Institutional Contextual Socio Economical Vulnerability Biophysical Technological Project Responses
  • 22. WOTR’s Engine for CC Adaptation…
  • 23. Interventions & Measures… A. Promotion of Climate Change Adaptive Behaviour and Disaster Risk Mitigation • Participatory, Comprehensive and Integrated Ecosystems Management along Watershed lines • Integration of Biodiversity Concerns in Adaptation Measures • Promoting Food Security through Sustainable Agriculture 1. Micro-Farming /LEISA/IPM/INM/IMM/ SRI 2. Agro-Meteorological-Hydrological Monitoring For Advisories 3. Development of integrated crop- micro-irrigation systems linked to agro-meteorological conditions. 4. Sustainable livelihoods 5. Gender and women’s empowerment
  • 24. Regenerating Natural Resources and Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) 26
  • 25. Land Treatments: Catching Rainwater Everywhere! Stone Bunds
  • 26. Drainage Line Treatments: Water Conservation
  • 27. Impacts On Food Security, Livelihoods and Education
  • 28. Interventions & Measures (contd) B. Promotion of Renewable Energy • For household cooking and lighting • Green field/ Emerging Technologies. C. Capacity Building, Knowledge Generation, Dissemination and Policy Dialogue • Training, Experience Sharing and Advisory Services. • Action Research and Communications (Print, Audio-Visual, Electronic, Publications). • Development of Tool Kits, Indicator Sets and Technology enabled Monitoring systems. • The School of Sustainable Living and Livelihoods (SSLL) • Policy Advocacy and Dialogue
  • 29. Bringing the Village Together Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) 31
  • 30. How this is done: Coming together to regenerate the Environment The Village chooses to implement the project (self-selection) Agree to non-negotiable disciplines Village institutions are involved / set up: • The General Village Body (Gram Sabha of all adult members) • The Village Council and the Village Development Committee (representative of all communities including landless poor) • The Women’s Self-Help Groups & their Apex Body • The Forest Protection Committee & others
  • 31. What is done: Community Engagement Village Envisioning for developmental activities Designing and Planning the project, step by step Capacity Building Implementation Maintenance of Accounts, Records and Reporting Participatory Impact Monitoring & Peer Group Assessment
  • 32. What is done: Important Aspects for continued Community Engagement & Sustainability Key Issues consciously addressed: Inclusiveness and equity (community takes responsibility) Gender Sensitivity Transparency Plan for Sustainability: Maintenance Fund Water Budgeting Quality Education & with an eco-systems focus Linkages with government and other service providers Addressing related issues (eg renewable energy; rural tourism) 34
  • 33. Snapshot of Some Planned Innovations
  • 34. Integration of Biodiversity Concerns… • Ecosystems – the natural basis of human beings – should be enabled to naturally adapt to climate change • Need for a toolkit – To facilitate the integration of biodiversity concerns into climate change adaptation projects 36
  • 35. Livelihoods Climate Change Information Adjusted project activities Climatic hazards Livelihood Sustainable Resources CASDAAT coping (5 Capitals) Strategies Project activities Additionalities Existing Coping Strategies Climate Adaptive Sustainable Development Assessment & Adjustment Tool (CASDAAT)37
  • 36. Weatherstation with sensors 1. Weather sensors 2. Weather Data collection Weatherstation Console Agromet 1. Weather data acquisition Console (Laptop ) 2. Local storage 1. Storage and Archiving of weather data 2. Storage of IK 3. Agromet advisory generation
  • 37. 2. Agricultural Meteorology in the context of CCA
  • 38. 3. Water Budgeting and Management a. The Need for Water Budgeting and Management b. Community mobilization for WB c. Training of Jal Sevak (for agri-ment and WB), WB committee at village and cluster level d. Sub-committee for WB at village level e. Promotion of water conservation practices: well recharge, micro-irrigation, check for leakages, water in households e. Activities: (i) Crop planning according to water availability (ii) Judicious use of water through micro-irrigation (iii) records of water budgeting in the village
  • 39. School of Sustainable Living and Livelihoods • Ecological Community Organisers (ECOs) • Rural Chroniclers (RCs) • Water Use Promoters(Jal Sevaks) • Agriculture Promoters (Krushi Sevaks) • Health Promoters (Mahila Arogya Pravartaks) • School Strengthening Program
  • 40. Knowledge Management • On-going Action Research • Thematic and issue based studies • Best Practices and Experiences documented • Dissemination of Knowledge Products and Processes
  • 41. THE IMPACTS Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) 43
  • 42. The Impacts of Watershed Development Rainfall, Green Vegetation and Barren Land (Jan.'96 and Dec.'99) 1500 1200 1197.45 900 858 819.5 773 600 300 115 30 0 Rainfall (mm) Green Veg.(ha.) Barren Land (ha.) January 1996 December 1999
  • 43. IMPACTS on Water Water harvested in a year of 400mm rain fall • On 1000 acres 745 million liters • On 1,490,000 acres , 1,110 billion litres/ annum (1.1 trillion litres)
  • 44. Impacts on Agriculture Productivity and Local Employment Consolidated for 5 villages Consolidated for 10 villages
  • 45. Darewadi-Impacts Income From Agriculture (1996 – 2009) 60 50 40 Rs. In Million 30 20 10 - Cash Crops Cereal Oil seed Pulses Vegetable Milk Fodder Total 1996 - 1.27 0.32 2.41 2.61 - 4.01 10.61 2001 15.10 1.93 0.02 0.75 5.25 1.06 8.54 32.65 2009 32.53 4.13 0.04 0.92 2.63 0.82 14.88 55.93
  • 46. Water Shortages : Fading Memories
  • 47. Thank You for giving us your attention! Do visit us at www.wotr.org