Sri lanka - Why should we be worried


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Sri lanka - Why should we be worried

  1. 1. Climate Change / Global Warming Why should we be concerned about Global Warming?
  2. 2. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. NY Times
  3. 3. Climate and Weather What is the difference? • Climate – Pattern of weather for a month or longer -- Includes changes in average weather patterns due to global conditions such as ocean temperature • Weather – Day-to-day changes in temperature and rain -- Changes tied to weather systems such as cold and warm fronts and hurricanes
  4. 4. “Why should we be concerned about Global Warming?” Many people consider that Global Warming is the greatest environmental threat of the 21st Century. However, during the 80s and early 90s scientists argued about the causes and effects of global warming. In the late 1990s scientists reached a consensus that global warming was a cause for concern. So, why should you be concerned about global warming?
  5. 5. Climate Change… • No longer speculation or theory • Changes already felt, set to get worse • Science trying to assess how much, how fast • Needed: taking action even before full knowledge & understanding • Two types of response: – Mitigation: preventing problem getting worse – Adaptation: Learning to live with inevitable effects
  6. 6. • “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, melting of snow and ice, and rising sea level.” – IPCC 4th Assessment Working Group I, Summary for Policymakers, 2007
  7. 7. What Is Global Warming? Global warming is the warming of the earth through carbon dioxide (CO2)and other GHGs. Then the gases trap heat like the glass in a greenhouse. This is where the term the “greenhouse effect” came from.
  8. 8. What constitutes a green house gas (GHG) June 2, 2009 8
  9. 9. Green House Gases • Carbon dioxide, CO2 • Methane, CH4 • Nitrous Oxide, N2O • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Chlorofuorocarbons (CFCs) (covers 13 chemicals) • Perfluorocarbons, PFCs (covers 7 chemicals) • Sulfur Hexafluoride, SF6 • Water vapor Not all GHGs contain carbon June 2, 2009 9
  10. 10. Solutions to the problem…
  11. 11. Explanation of the causes of global warming
  12. 12. Temperature is increasing!
  13. 13. What’s Happening Scientists say that the barrier insulating the continental ice caps is melting. “The impacts of warming temperatures in Antarctica are likely to occur first in the northern sections of the continent, where summer temperatures approach the melting point of water, 32 degrees F (0 degrees C).” http://www.climatehotmap.o rg/antarctica.html
  14. 14. What’s Happening As the ice melts, big chunks of glaciers will break off and become like ice cubes in a big glass of water. The ice chunks, known as icebergs, create mass in the ocean. The icebergs displace the water causing the ocean level to rise..
  15. 15. Evaluation of the different viewpoints held about global warming by MEDCs and LEDCs
  16. 16. What Will Happen “Rising global temperatures are expected to change precipitation and other local climate conditions. Changing regional climate could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies. It could also affect human health, animals, and many types ming/default.asp of ecosystems. warming.nsf/content/impacts.html
  17. 17. Explanation of the effects of global warming in both MEDCs and LEDCs
  18. 18. Where Has It Been Happening This is where temperatures have risen in the world. mingmap.html
  19. 19. How Long Has It Been Going On “According to NOAA, the global warming rate in the last 25 years has risen to 3.6 degrees F per century, which tends to confirm the predictions of temperature increases made by international panels of climate scientists (IPCC).” /
  20. 20. How Long Has It Been Going On • The earth has had highs and lows, droughts and floods, but nothing has been like the past 150 years. http://www.worldviewofglobalwar
  21. 21. What’s Happening to the Animals • “Penguin population decline. ” Reference: Fraser, W. 1998. Antarctic biology and medicine program, University of Montana, personal communication. http://www.climatehotma
  22. 22. What’s Happening to the Animals “Coral reef bleaching,, results from the loss of symbiotic zooxantheallae and/or a reduction in photosynthetic pigment concentrations in zooxanthellae residing within corals.. http://www.marinebiolog
  23. 23. Regions where major coral reef bleaching events have taken place during the past 15 years low spots indicate major bleaching events.
  24. 24. Carbon neutral • The “world of the year” in the new Oxford Dictionary • adj.: “emitting no net carbon dioxide into the atmosphere” • Carbon Footprint ?
  25. 25. • an environmental regulator establishes a “cap” that limits emissions from a designated group, such as power plants, to a level lower than their current emissions • The emissions allowed under the cap are then divided up into individual permits that represent the right to emit that amount • Companies are free to buy and sell permits in order to continue operating in the most profitable manner available to them
  26. 26. What can you do? • Calculate and understand your “carbon footprint” • Reduce your use of energy • Look for ways to use renewable energy • Support efforts by all who encourage – Energy efficiency – Renewables – Carbon neutrality
  27. 27. Green House Gases (Counted in a Carbon Footprint) • Carbon dioxide, CO2 • Methane, CH4 • Nitrous Oxide, N2O • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Chlorofuorocarbons (CFCs) (covers 13 chemicals) • Perfluorocarbons, PFCs (covers 7 chemicals) • Sulfur Hexafluoride, SF6 Not all GHGs contain carbon ANSI/ISO/NSF 14064-1 Greenhouse Gases- Part 1: Specification with Guidance at the Organizational Level for Quantification and Reporting of GHG Emissions and Removals June 2, 2009 31
  28. 28. Policy Framework • Inter-governmental response: – UN-FCCC (global climate treaty), SL ratified 1993 – Kyoto Protocol, SL acceded 2002 • National focal point: Ministry of Environment & Natural Resources (MENR) • Leading action: Climate Change Secretariat • National Action Plan for Haritha Lanka: – Mission 3: Meeting the challenges of climate change
  29. 29. MENR/CCS Mission "To lead the country to take comprehensive action to contribute towards local, regional and global efforts in combating Climate Change, and to integrate unavoidable climate change scenarios into national sustainable development plans.“ Source:
  30. 30. Impact on Sri Lanka? “A major part of Jaffna and other northern areas of Sri Lanka will be submerged when sea levels rise. So people are fighting and dying over areas that may soon not be there.” Prof Mohan Munasinghe, former vice chair, UN-IPCC, in 2007 media interview
  31. 31. The Nation newspaper, 23 Oct 2007
  32. 32. Montage news magazine cover, April 2007
  33. 33. • More to come here
  34. 34. ENSO
  35. 35. Changes in water temperature in this red-shaded area of the Pacific Ocean on the equator near South America are monitored to track El Niño or La Niña phase
  36. 36. • Strong conditions influence global weather, e.g. ENSO events S 1982-1983 El Niño • Flooding, drought, erosion, fires, tropical storms, harmful effects on marine life Fig. 7.21
  37. 37. El Niño and La Niña: What are they? • Caused by changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial Pacific Ocean • Strongly influence climate around the world • Return every 2 to 7 years but do not always follow each other • Affect production of winter vegetables and other crops in the southeast U.S.
  38. 38. El Niño and La Niña Phases • El Niño Phase – Warmer than normal sea surface temperature in the Pacific Ocean near the equator Example: Strong El Niño phases in 1982-83 and 1997-98 caused excessive rainfall on the West Coast and the Gulf coast • La Niña Phase – Cooler than normal sea surface temperature in the Pacific Ocean near the equator Example: 1998-99 and 1999-2000 La Niña phases caused drier and warmer winters in Florida. Result: increase forest fires; drier and warmer than usual temperatures in other parts of the U.S.
  39. 39. P Normal conditions Fig. 7.18 a
  40. 40. P El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO): Warm phase (El Niño) Fig. 7.18 b
  41. 41. P
  42. 42. P
  43. 43. P ENSO events • El Niño warm phase about every 2 to 10 years • Highly irregular • Phases usually last 12 to 18 months Fig. 7.20
  44. 44. La Niña conditions
  45. 45. We are responsible for the solutions…