Indonesia - small island risks - WWF

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Indonesia - small island risks - WWF

  1. 1. Climate Change Adaptation Mainstreaming in Lombok Island, NTB: Perspectives of small island in facing climate change risks Ari Muhammad and Muhammad Ridha Hakim Climate and Energy Program and Nusa Tenggara Program WWF Indonesia
  2. 2. Background (1) • Most of the area in Lombok island is coastal and sea. • Most of the economic activities in main and strategic sectors are located in the coastal and sea area. • From the potency of the coastal and sea of Lombok Island, there are three main economic sectors, they are: agriculture, fishery, and tourism. • The population of Lombok island from 1994 until 1998 increases significantly, around 1.99% a year.
  3. 3. Background (2) • Island and sea areas in Lombok have 62 coastal villages that administratively included in 16 sub-district areas (from 22 sub-district). • However, most of the population of Lombok island works in agriculture and plantation. • The decline of economic development of NTB province as pictured above is not as bad as the national economic situation since the agricultural sector in NTB province still survives in facing the economic crisis (agriculture contribution in PDRB is 35.95% in 1997 and increasing in 1998 becomes 43.76%).
  4. 4. Climate Change in NTB  Based on the data of observation result, average temperature on Januar 1971 up to December 2006, generally there is an increase on the temperature of 0.5 OC. The highest average temperature is 27.6 oC and the lowest is 24.4 oC  There is an increase of maximum temperature up to 0.7 oC, while minimum temperature increases 1.2 oC  There is a change on rainy season from January-March on 1971 up to 2000 and then change into October-December on 2006;  On 2005 up to 2006 NTB area has changes on the rainy period. On 2006 the beginning of rainy season is in mid December, but in some of the NTB area rainy season has not started until the beginning of January 2007 (BMG Selaparang, 2007)
  5. 5. Climate Change Hazard Identification Rain Level Decrease on January Climate data in the January Rainfall Record 1961-2007 last 20 years: 500 Obs. 1961-1990 Obs. 1991-2007 600 500 400 Composite Rainfall (mm) There is a trend on 400 Rainfall (mm) 300 changes of rain level 300 and average 200 200 temperature 100 compared to the 100 baseline (1961-1990) 0 J A S O N D J F M A M J 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year January Temperature Record 1961-2007 There is a trend of 28.5 Obs. 1961-1990 Obs. 1991-2007 28 28 changed on 27.5 temperature related 27.5 Temperature ( C) Temperature ( C) 27 to the decrease of 26.5 27 rain level ! 26 25.5 26.5 25 24.5 26 J A S O N D J F M A M J 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year
  6. 6. Problem Identification • Very little understanding in the local government on the climate change issue. • No policy, strategies, or programs adaptation in the local level.
  7. 7. STRATEGY AND ANALYSIS • Developing policy, strategy and program for adaptation and (mitigation) that is suitable with the society characteristics and small islands environment in NTB.
  8. 8. OBJECTIVES • Widening and improving the understanding of all sides on climate change issue and its effects on society and other kind of living in the small islands; • Formulate strategy and action program for adaptation and mitigation; • Formulate recommendation for policy input of the local development; • Developing task force to assist strategy and action program on adaptation and mitigation
  9. 9. ABOUT TASK FORCE (1)  Law: Governor Decree of Nusa Tenggara Barat No. 219 Year 2007  This task force has 2 functions, they are: 1. Supporting mainstreaming of aspects and effect of the climate change on the government, private and civil society sectors; 2. Developing strategy of adaptation and mitigation based one the local context
  10. 10. About Task Force(2) The duties are as follow: (1) Increasing understanding and awareness of all stakeholders on the cause and impact of climate change; (2) Developing information system and communication, such as climate changes data and disaster risk mapping; (3) Formulate and suggesting plan on adaptation action and mitigation on climate change; (4) Encouraging integration of all aspects of climate change on the local policy and development; (5) Monitoring and evaluation on the policy and program related to adaptation and mitigation of climate change; and (6) Reporting the result of the implementation to the Governor of NTB.
  11. 11. Visi : The realization of Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) society that is ready and responsive on climate change. Mision : a. Ensuring the local policy that oriented in improving cology support effort, and strengthening local institution capacity. b. Improving society preparedness and economic social security in facing disaster caused by climate change. c. Improving efforts on supply and development of infrastructure, technology, research and information system in adaptation and mitigation on climate change.
  12. 12. Work Program (1) • Concept & Strategy of climate change mainstreaming in NTB:
  13. 13. Vulnerability assessment (V/A) • This assessment is on detail       projection (2030 and 2080) from         climate change effect on economic       sector and identification on       vulnerable sectors and areas.         • This assessment focus on 3 main       sectors, they are: water, coastal and       sea and also agriculture and some   Kajian Risiko dan Adaptasi Terhadap Perubahan Iklim   Pulau Lombok Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat   other area.   Analisis dan Proyeksi Kenaikan Muka Laut • This assessment projected that there Dan Iklim Ekstrim will be an increase of the temperature around 2-3° C on 2070 - 2100.
  14. 14. Work Program (2) • Target & Goal on climate change mainstreaming in NTB:
  15. 15. Short term recommendation activities (2008): Work force has formulated and suggested to the local government through Bapedalda NTB. On the Official Note number 090/821/V/BPDL/2007 on 28 September 2007, Bapedalda has reported recommensation of ativities in 2008 to NTB Governor.
  16. 16. ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION EFFORTS AS A WHOLE STRUCTURAL EFFORT (Physic) STRUCTURAL EFFORT (Physic) NON STRCTURE EFFORT NON STRCTURE EFFORT NATURAL PROTECTION EFFORT NATURAL PROTECTION EFFORT (Non Physic), they are: (Mangrove, coral reef, forest). (Non Physic), they are: (Mangrove, coral reef, forest). • •making food vulnerability map making food vulnerability map • •local policy ARTIFICIAL PROTECTION METHOD ARTIFICIAL PROTECTION METHOD local policy * *Long term program of NTB province 2008 –– Long term program of NTB province 2008 •• breakwater, sea wall, dam, protective breakwater, sea wall, dam, protective 2013 2013 construction, absorption well, reservoir construction, absorption well, reservoir * * relocation relocation * *landscape, land use, zonation landscape, land use, zonation * *Public information and campaign Public information and campaign • •LECI ––SUEZ LECI SUEZ • •Green NTB Green NTB REDUCING THE DAMAGE IMPACT REDUCING THE DAMAGE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE OF CLIMATE CHANGE
  17. 17. Adoption strateg and document institution : 1) Ensuring consistency on RS-RAD Adaptation and Mitigation tyat have been arranged,  this document needs to be part of the local development plan process. 2) RS-RAD Adaptation and Mitigation need to be integrated in the development plan structure to produce long-term, medium term and annual development plan 3) THE STRATEGY is to make RS-RAD document as an input in arranging RPJMD, RKPD, Renstra-SKPD and Renja-SKPD. 4) What needs to be agreed together is the LEGAL FORMAT for RS-RAD, in the form of decree, district regulation or PERDA.
  18. 18. COMPETITIVENESS ABSANO, EDUCATION ADONO RPJP NTB 2005-2025 HEALTH AKINO NTB • HAN FOOD RPJMD RPJMD COMPETIT AGRIBISNIS PIJAR IPM IPM NTB • HAN ENERGY NTB 2009-2013 IVE PIN && COMPETITIVENESS 2009-2013 TOURISM COMPETITIVENESS • CLIMATE VLS-2012 CHANGE GREEN AREA INFRASTRUCTURE (PERHUB, SD AIR, RTRW NTB LISTRIK & TELKOM) 2010-2030 ENVIRONMENT NTB HIJAU- PERMATA STRATEGIC RELATION WITH VISI MAIN MAIN CRITERIA STRATEGIC ISSUE PLANED SECTOR PROGRAM GOAL DOCUMENTS
  19. 19. RECOMMENDATION • Information/data needed on (a more detail) adaptation and mitigation for policy maker. There is a risk analysis, disaster and vulnerability also strengthening communication strategy capacity within sectors and to society. Building capacity on planning and to avoid wrong estimation. • On the policy intervention level, it has to be based on the real need of the area or Lombok island area. Therefore, analysis and response from ecosystem change, social and economy also culture (including trying to find out and using the local knowledge) are priorities that need to be done by NTB province. • The need of policy that is mandated in the climate change adaptation and mitigation in the area in form of Governor decree or local law and also mechanism and coordination instruments in handling the impact and climate change adaptation. • Governor decree is published on the workforce formation that is a serious effort in finishing the climate change problems by pushing adaptation of PI policy to the local development plan. However, stages and implementation strategies in NTB also should be lesson learn for the National government in the effort of mainstreaming climate change adaptation and mitigation. This is a hope that the initiative effort in Lombok will contribute well in the effort of climate change adaptation and mitigation in Indonesia.
  20. 20. Thank You amuhammad@wwf.or.id

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