India - community case study - TISS


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India - community case study - TISS

  1. 1. Community perception and adaptation to changing weather patterns in Pauri, Uttarakhand: a case study of village Tamlag Yeeshu Shukla Tata Institute of Social Sciences Mumbai
  2. 2. Significance Global Warming-Impacts on mountain systems The changes in climate variability have led to a rapid retreat of mountain glacier systems which are considered the lifeline Long term impacts for biodiversity, people and livelihoods as well as regional food security Very little knowledge available on local impacts and coping mechanisms
  3. 3. Objectives To understand and learn about the existing vulnerabilities in times of growing climate threats. To understand and learn about the adaptation Govt. response in terms of existing schemes and their adequacy
  4. 4. Methodology and tools  26 Household interviews  20% women headed households  FGDs with separate group of men and women  FGD with the staff of a local development support agency  Interviews with govt. officials- Forest and Agriculture  Interview with senior scientist at GB Pant Himalayan Development Institute  Participatory mapping, Participant observation, Transect walk, Daily time use analysis
  5. 5. Findings Changes in weather patterns: Extreme climatic events Shift in the cycle of rains and negligible winter rains Rising temperature: some indicators •Change in the varieties of fruit trees in the area. •Gradual replacement by low altitude varieties •Emergence of mosquitoes and termites
  6. 6. Findings Impact of weather changes Agriculture: Major crops being produced- Wheat, Paddy, Manduwa, Barely, Jhangura, different pulses like Gahat, Urad, Soyabean, Matar Adverse impact of less snowfall particularly on wheat Incessant increase in diseases in crops and growth of wild weeds Failure of winter crops
  7. 7. Findings Impact of weather changes Forest and water: 7 water sources (Gadheras/springs) in and around the village and in recent years 4 of them have dried up Increase in un-irrigated land in the village with a significant drop in the production of crops Gharat (water mill) stopped working due to the depletion in the quantity of water Significant decrease of broad leaf varieties (good for water recharge and resistant to forest fires) of trees like Quercus (Baanj), Rhododendron (buransh), Kafal, Utees and Bhamora Varieties of wild vegetables/medicinal herbs like Taidu, Geethi, Chana, Ghanya are becoming extinct in forests  Change in cycle- Rhododendron flower and kafal (local wild fruit)
  8. 8. Findings Impact of weather changes Increasing burden on women and marginalised Depletion of forest- women have to walk around 3-4 kms to collect fodder for their livestock Increase in their work hours by 5-6 hours on the days of fodder collection Dalit families -landless labourers or have non-irrigated marginal landholdings. Located far from the forest and water due to conventional settlement pattern
  9. 9. Findings Adaptation by the people Agriculture Traditionally 5 different varieties of paddy were cultivated Replacement of varieties requiring more water Red wheat (requires less water) instead of White wheat in non irrigated land Increase the area under cash crop Change in the varieties of pulses
  10. 10. Findings Coping mechanisms and adaptation by the people Livestock  Replacing Buffaloes with Cows Stalled feeding requirements Quantity of fodder Irrigation Creation of Khal (small pond) can be termed as an local technique for water harvesting Shelter Change in material Wood being replaced by metal and concrete
  11. 11. Findings Governments programs and Disaster Risk Reduction Dependency level on different source of income  52% on Agriculture 23% on Service GOI- NABARD village development plan Sustainable livelihood opportunities within the village area Forest department 74 hectare (20% of total land) of van panchayat land Annual fuel wood requirement (ton) 548.72 Green fodder is a major problem in winter season and results in low yield of milk in cow/buffalos Forest department encourages plantation through PRIs in the region
  12. 12. Findings Governments programs and Disaster Risk Reduction New initiatives like forming teams under van panchayat Recent increase in forest fires is one indicator of the change Agriculture department Program called ATMA which aims to provide the technical knowhow to the people Activities such as soil testing, developing nursery, procurement of seeds Expertise of Garhwal Agriculture University for training people Benefits from the program are highly uneven
  13. 13. Discussion Most of the adaptation that is taking place in the village is autonomous and not planned adaptation. Need for planned adaptation measures which are termed as conscious policy options or response strategies Adaptation and disaster risk reduction is not understood as development and governance issue Villagers work on a day- to- day priorities rather than for the longer term •Assessing and understanding current livelihood systems, indigenous knowledge, adaptive capacities and vulnerabilities •Identifying and promoting options to adapt to climate variability in collaboration with local agricultural research institutes and governments
  14. 14. Thank You