Sri lanka Case Study on Water Supply System at Sinnakulam village


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  • Country Description Size – 65,610 km • 435 km -maximum length • 240 km –maximum width • Population – About 20 millions – Density • 344 persons/km2 • Economics & industrial development characteristic(2006) – % contribution to the GDP • Agriculture ->12.3 % • Industry ->28.2 % • Services ->59.5 %
  • Climate • Tropical monsoonal – Rainfall • 800 mm to over 5,000 mm – Temperature • on average 27 0C at lowlands • reduction of temperature at 5 –6 0C/ km – mountainous regions »average ->15 0C • 3 climatic zones – Dry zone, Intermediate zone & Wet zone
  • Mr.Sivarasa said that their main livelihood activity is Agricultural activities and were continuously involved in Paddy cultivation Chena cultivation. They get the water from the “ GANGAI” river and in addition they have rains 2 times per month and they never used the Pesticide for the crops because Due to monthly rains all the insects gets washed away by the rain . Mr.Sivarasa said that their main livelihood activity is Agricultural activities and were continuously involved in Paddy cultivation Chena cultivation. They get the water from the “ GANGAI” river and in addition they have rains 2 times per month They never used the Pesticide for the crops because Due to monthly rains all the insects gets washed away by the rain .
  • Increased Risks forecast with Climate changes Due to population increase, the community started to clear more and more jungles for their habitant and agricultural cultivation. Due to lack of rain and heat, increased insects affection on the crops . So they started to use chemical for the crops . Due to heavy flood in 2004 (before the tsunami) drinking water wells have been changed as salinity water. so no. of common wells are abandoned .
  • Population : 105 families / 389HH After the resettlement difficulties faced by the community Because of high security zone area, 40 families were relocated in lower land area Most of the wells were in high security zones. The existing wells had no water during dry seasons.
  • Children are at highest health risk from inadequate water supplies during drought , and also predicted changes in vector-borne diseases
  • Sri lanka Case Study on Water Supply System at Sinnakulam village

    1. 1. Presentation By: OfERR (Ceylon), Sri Lanka Strengthening Climate Resilience Case Study on Water Supply System at Sinnakulam village, Sri Lanka
    2. 2. Trincomalee Muthur
    3. 3. District profile <ul><li>Country: Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Province: Eastern </li></ul><ul><li>District: Trincomalee </li></ul><ul><li>Division: Muthur </li></ul><ul><li>G.N.Division: Pallikudirruppu </li></ul><ul><li>Village: Sinnakulam </li></ul>
    4. 4. Muthur Division
    5. 5. <ul><li>Climatic zones of Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Average temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry zone -> 32 ° C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate zone ->24 -26 ° C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet zone ->22 -24 ° C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Average Rainfall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry zone ->< 1,750 mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate zone ->1,750-2,500 mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet zone ->> 2,500 mm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate changes in Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Slow & continuous rise of ambient temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Increased frequency of extreme weather events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High variability of rainfall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Floods / Droughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strong winds, Lightening, Cyclones etc. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Background Information of Sinnakulam village <ul><li>Prior to 1950 few communities cleared the jungles and built small houses and lived. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to heavy floods in Pallikudirruppu village, the people moved from Pallikudirupu to Sinnakulam. </li></ul><ul><li>The village was named “Sinnakulam because of a small pond along this village </li></ul>Mr.K. Sivarasa is one of the oldest man in Sinnakulam Village
    7. 7. <ul><li>Sinnakulam is surrounded by pond, agricultural land and small rocks </li></ul>Annual Weather Pattern Common Disasters Rain Snow Hot Sun and Wind Oct - Dec Jan- Feb Feb - Oct Flood Drought Cyclones Dec- Jan Mar - Oct Nov - Dec
    8. 8. The causes, consequence and solution for Disaster Risk and Climate changes at Sinnakulam village .
    9. 9. The consequence Increase in atmospheric temperature; Cultivating lands becoming barren, resulting in drought; Steep reduction in agricultural yield due to Soil Warming . - Coastal areas going beneath water; Land and water becoming saline; leads to decreased water level; Civil Wars between residents and migrating environmental refugees
    10. 10. Community Mapping and Assessment- Sinnakulam Village <ul><li>Due to conflict the entire village people displaced and resettled in year 2008 to their original village </li></ul><ul><li>During the resettlement 40 families relocated lower land area earlier paddy fields) due to high security zone. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 105 families with the population of 389HH in the GN division. </li></ul>Participatory Vulnerability Community Assessment (PVCA) We conducted the Participatory Vulnerability Capacity Assessment (PVCA) through Community Based Approach and identified the following <ul><li>The nature and level of risks </li></ul><ul><li>The root causes of that risk </li></ul><ul><li>The existing capacity of the community to reduce risk </li></ul><ul><li>The short, medium and long-term interventions required to reduce risk </li></ul>
    11. 11. Participatory tools/Approaches <ul><li>Transect walk: To get comprehensive idea about the village </li></ul><ul><li>Community Mapping and Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Focus group Discussion: To identify the physical , financial knowledge on disaster prevention or any other resources in the village </li></ul><ul><li>Well being ranking: To categorize the house hold into different socio economic class structure </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Dream Maps and drawings: </li></ul><ul><li>Stake Holder Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Community Profile </li></ul>
    12. 12. Focus Group Discussion : It was interesting to observe that most of the participants without knowing scientific explanation attached to any hazard could to tell about environmental changes they have been observing for the last couple of years in respective areas. <ul><li>Climate change also increase the time taken to collect water in </li></ul><ul><li>rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>A task mainly done by women and girls, due to travelling </li></ul><ul><li>greater distances to find water. </li></ul><ul><li>water collection is an issue as women and girls may spend hours </li></ul><ul><li>In queue. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Identified Main Problems at Sinnakulum Village <ul><li>Identified main problems through </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory Vulnerability Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment (PVCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing flood level during rainy season . </li></ul><ul><li>Water problem for drinking and domestic purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>The land is not suitable to construct more drinking water wells and they have no regular income to find alternative way to get the water. </li></ul>Abandon Common well Abandoned Common well
    14. 14. Vulnerability at Sinnakulam village Floods during rainy season Living in Temporary shelters,- waiting for water bowser Badly damaged Infrastructure
    15. 15. <ul><li>Awareness on Natural and Human-made Disasters, Preparedness and Response. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural and non-structural mitigation activities </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a disaster intervention plan with evacuation routes. </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting guidelines to form a Disaster Management Committee at village level & Division. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing teams for Disaster Intervention </li></ul>DRR Intervention
    16. 16. Community strengthening on DRR <ul><ul><li>Formation of CBDRM Committee and strengthening . </li></ul></ul>Purpose of CBDRM Formation Understand and apply the selected participatory tools and techniques in CBDRM to carry out community based research including identification & analysis of hazards, vulnerabilities, community assets/resources, community capabilities 2.Community Empowerment through Community Mobilization <ul><li>Understanding communities : </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Community Participatory Approaches (CPA): </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating with communities: </li></ul><ul><li>Cross cutting issues in participatory DRM – </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to CPA tools & techniques- </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder analysis & community relations – </li></ul><ul><li>Community Organization for CBDRM – </li></ul>
    17. 17. Integrating Disaster Risk Mitigation & Climate change adaptation. <ul><li>According the assessment we implemented the following activities through the communities . </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed co- houses for 40 vulnerable families . </li></ul><ul><li>The CBDRM members and community constructed the internal road and Drainage in 2008-2009 . </li></ul><ul><li>Now </li></ul><ul><li>The people are protected from </li></ul><ul><li>the December flood. </li></ul><ul><li>The drainage water is ending </li></ul><ul><li>at Sinnakulam tank and it is </li></ul><ul><li>indirectly adopting climate </li></ul><ul><li>change. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Climate change adaptation and Sri Lankan Policy <ul><li>Sri Lankan current Economic Development Policy frame work is incorporated with Millennium Development Goal (MDG). </li></ul><ul><li>The renewable resource are important in reducing air pollution, mitigation of adverse Climate effect and from provision of clear energy </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical potential of renewable energy sources in Sri Lanka. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind Power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Water Supply through Windmill <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>To protect the environment through user environment-friendly technologies for energy adaptation and climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Time saved and 105 village beneficiaries getting water regularly </li></ul><ul><li>A user committee formed by CBDRM to maintain the wind mill water supply system efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness workshop conducted on windmill technology and operation </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel cost to generate the water pumps reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Increased household water supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Water born diseases at village level reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental pollution by fuel smoke reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved small scale home garden. </li></ul><ul><li>Household food security increased </li></ul>
    20. 20. Steps Adopted <ul><li>Organized the community consultation and explained the </li></ul><ul><li>objective and initiative and designed the project through </li></ul><ul><li>Community participation. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Identified the area for project implementation through </li></ul><ul><li>feasible study with the support of local community </li></ul><ul><li>(traditional knowledge). </li></ul><ul><li>3.Identified the ownership of the land and got the </li></ul><ul><li>necessary permission. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Implemented the project </li></ul><ul><li>5. Trained the CBDRM members for operation and maintanance </li></ul><ul><li>6. Conducted the awareness workshop for community </li></ul><ul><li>7.Handed over the project to community CBDRM committee . </li></ul>
    21. 21. Harness the wind to create clean energy Water Tank Well, Power room & wind mill Wind turbine Power generator Wind energy for water supply
    22. 22. The Benefits of a Combined Approach to Climate Change Adaptation, DRR and Social Protection <ul><li>Easy access to water from the </li></ul><ul><li>main pipe line </li></ul><ul><li>bathing from her own house </li></ul><ul><li>established the pipe line from </li></ul><ul><li>main line and collects water </li></ul><ul><li>while attending her baby </li></ul><ul><li>home garden - watering from </li></ul><ul><li>pipeline </li></ul>
    23. 23. Positive Community Impacts after the project Implementation . <ul><li>CBDRM team and disaster mitigation processes were developed and are now starting to be self-sufficient at the grassroots level . </li></ul><ul><li>CBDRM teams have been recognized by Divisional offices as viable partners in disaster response at village level </li></ul><ul><li>Communities demonstrated their ability to respond appropriately during disasters later on. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( Sinnakulam Shelter beneficiaries constructed the drainage ) </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Sustainability <ul><li>b. Community mobilization promoted the following within a community : </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable use of natural resources; </li></ul><ul><li>Access to information for all members of the community; </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for economic advancement; </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy practices and well-being for each community member; and </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened the community coping capacity </li></ul><ul><li>a. Communities having ownership of </li></ul><ul><li>Trust build with local authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Systems for continuous operations with local CBO and other parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Admired by other groups and able to assist them –growth of CBDRM concept </li></ul>
    25. 25. Lessons and Challenges <ul><li>Need to increase the awareness and knowledge on adaptation, as insufficient information is often a constraint to taking action. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to Rehabilitate and protect natural resources from damage from climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Need to Integrate adaptation with development planning to advance both adaptation and development goals </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change may contribute to making targeting more complex due to an increase in seasonal migration or permanent migration, leads to differ locating beneficiaries more difficult . </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change impacts will also affect both the poor and non-poor, and may contribute to pushing the non-poor into poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>Community local knowledge and scientific data/ information should be integrated during the planning and designing </li></ul>
    26. 26. Thank You ! For your Attention……